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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587163

RESUMO

This study aimed to improve the pore size, porosity, and hydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for desalination by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). New membranes were prepared via etching PVDF/calcium carbonate (CaCO3) composite membranes using hydrochloric acid (HCl), depending on the chemical reaction of CaCO3 and HCl. Etched membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle (CA), atomic force microscope (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CaCO3 of composite membranes was completely reacted by 1.5 mol/L HCl after composite membranes had been etched 90 min. The crystallinity of etched membranes was the same as that of PVDF/CaCO3 composite membranes, and no new functional groups appeared in etched membranes, which indicated that etched membranes had good chemical stability. The surface roughness increased and led to the increase of contact angle, which means the hydrophobicity of etched membranes was enhanced. As a result, the increment of permeation flux had been improved in a VMD process. It was found that the maximum flux of etched membrane was enhanced and up to 1.65 times of composite membrane when the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was 5.0 wt%, and the maximum flux reached up to 30.9 kg m-2 h-1.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14536, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601868

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of Sihogayonggolmoryeo-tang (SGYMT), a classical herbal medicine consisting of 11 herbs, for treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD). Thirteen databases were comprehensively searched from their inception dates until July 2019. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using SGYMT as a monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for PSD patients were included. Where appropriate data were available, meta-analysis was performed and presented as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the quality of RCTs using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Jadad scale. The quality of evidence for each main outcome was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Twenty-one RCTs with 1,644 participants were included. In the comparison between the SGYMT and antidepressants groups, the SGYMT group scored significantly lower on both the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) (8 studies; MD -2.08, 95% CI -2.62 to -1.53, I2 = 34%) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (2 studies; MD -0.84, 95% CI -1.40 to -0.29, I2 = 19%), and significantly higher on the Barthel index (3 studies; MD 4.30, 95% CI 2.04 to 6.57, I2 = 66%). Moreover, the SGYMT group was associated with significantly fewer adverse events (6 studies; RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.37, I2 = 0%) than the antidepressants group. In the subgroup analysis, SGYMT treatment consistently reduced HAMD scores within the first 8 weeks of treatment, but thereafter this difference between groups disappeared. Comparisons between SGYMT combined with antidepressants, and antidepressants alone, showed significantly lower scores in the combination group for both HAMD (7 studies; MD = -6.72, 95% CI = -11.42 to -2.01, I2 = 98%) and NIHSS scores (4 studies; MD -3.03, 95% CI -3.60 to -2.45, I2 = 87%). In the subgroup analysis, the reductions of HAMD scores in the SGYMT combined with antidepressants group were consistent within 4 weeks of treatment, but disappeared thereafter. The quality of RCTs was generally low and the quality of evidence evaluated by the GRADE approach was rated mostly "Very low" to "Moderate." The main causes of low quality ratings were the high risk of bias and imprecision of results. Current evidence suggests that SGYMT, used either as a monotherapy or an adjuvant therapy to antidepressants, might have potential benefits for the treatment of PSD, including short-term reduction of depressive symptoms, improvement of neurological symptoms, and few adverse events. However, since the methodological quality of the included studies was generally low and there were no large placebo trials to ensure reliability, it remains difficult to draw definitive conclusions on this topic. Further well-designed RCTs addressing these shortcomings are needed to confirm our results.

3.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(8): 316, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602546

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases. However, their application encounters limitations in terms of tissue distribution and bioavailability in vivo. To address these key issues, we designed and developed a nanopreparation by using egg yolk lecithin/sodium glycocholate (EYL/SGC) and utilize such mixed micelles (MMs) to encapsulate dexamethasone palmitate (DMP) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The prepared DMP-MMs had an average particle size of 49.18 ± 0.43 nm and were compared with an emulsion-based dexamethasone palmitate. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo fluorescence imaging showed that mixed micelles had higher bioavailability and targeting efficiency in inflammatory sites. An arthritis rat model was established via induction by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), followed by the efficacy studies by the observations of paw volume, histology, spleen index, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and CT images. It was confirmed that intravenous injection of DMP-MMs exhibited advantages in alleviating joint inflammation compared with the emulsion system. Composed of pharmaceutical adjuvants only, the nanoscale mixed micelles seem a promising carrier system for the RA treatment with lipophilic drugs.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595748

RESUMO

Increased processing of pulses has generated large volumes of hulls, which are known as an excellent source of phenolic antioxidants. However, the bioavailability and in vivo activity of these phenolics are rarely reported. This research was therefore carried out to study the absorption, metabolism and in vivo antioxidant activities of green pea hull (GPH) phenolics using UHPLC-LTQ-OrbiTrap-MS and oxidative stress rat model. A total of 31 phenolics, including 4 phenolic acids, 24 flavonoids and 3 other phenolics, were tentatively identified. Ten of these phenolics and 49 metabolites were found in the plasma and urine of rats, which helped to explain the favorable changes by GPH phenolics in antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, GSH) and MDA in the blood, liver, heart and kidney of oxidative stress rats. This is the first comprehensive report on dry pea hull phenolics and their bioavailability, metabolic profiles and mechanisms of the in vivo antioxidant activities.

5.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lactation inevitably leads to a state of rapid bone loss; however, maternal bone undergoes rapid remineralization after weaning. Sclerostin, encoded by the gene SOST, is exclusively secreted from osteocytes and plays important roles in bone remodeling. However, there are few studies about the effect of sclerostin during lactation and weaning on bone microstructures. Therefore, we conducted the study to demonstrate any possible association of sclerostin with bone metabolism and skeletal changes during lactation and after weaning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the spine and femur, bone microstructure by micro-computed tomography (µCT) at the distal and mid-shaft of the femur and biochemical markers such as sclerostin and bone turnover markers at 1 week and 3 weeks of lactation and 2 weeks post-weaning in osteocyte-specific sclerostin-overexpressed transgenic mice, and compared them with wild type. RESULTS: Lactation significantly resulted in decreased spine and femur BMD at day 7 and day 21 of breastfeeding; specifically, cortical microstructure (cross-sectional thickness and cross-sectional area) at the mid-shaft of the femur had significantly deteriorated. At day 14 after weaning, femur BMD and cortical microstructure at the mid-shaft of the femur in both the wild and DMP-SOST mice had incompletely recovered; however, spine BMD and trabecular microstructures at the distal femur recovered in wild type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Sclerostin, secreted by osteocytes, played a role in bone loss during lactation and also in the recovery of trabecular bone compartment by activating bone formation after weaning.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540538

RESUMO

Aiming at the problem of multiple-source direction of arrival (DOA) tracking in impulse noise, this paper models the impulse noise by using the symmetric α stable (SαS) distribution, and proposes a DOA tracking algorithm based on the Unscented Transform Multi-target Multi-Bernoulli (UT-MeMBer) filter framework. In order to overcome the problem of particle decay in particle filtering, UT is adopted to select a group of sigma points with different weights to make them close to the posterior probability density of the state. Since the α stable distribution does not have finite covariance, the Fractional Lower Order Moment (FLOM) matrix of the received array data is employed to replace the covariance matrix to formulate a MUSIC spatial spectra in the MeMBer filter. Further exponential weighting is used to enhance the weight of particles at high likelihood area and obtain a better resampling. Compared with the PASTD algorithm and the MeMBer DOA filter algorithm, the simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can more effectively solve the issue that the DOA and number of target are time-varying. In addition, we present the Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) implementation of the UT-MeMBer algorithm.

7.
Europace ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545350

RESUMO

AIMS: Rotating sheaths and laser sheaths are commonly used for transvenous lead extraction. This study aims to compare observed mortality between both approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database was searched from 2011 to 2016 to determine number of deaths associated with each sheath. An independent analytics firm provided estimates for number of cases done, allowing calculation of market share. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine relative risk (RR) of mortality at the calculated market share (36% rotating/64% laser) and two others. Additional sensitivity analyses assumed underreporting of deaths associated with rotating sheaths. An estimated 50 545 extractions were performed. Thirteen deaths were associated with rotating sheaths compared to 167 with laser sheaths. Of these, 92% (rotating) and 95% (laser) were due to cardiovascular injury. At the calculated market share, the RR of death was 7.2 times greater with laser sheaths [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-12.7, P < 0.0001]. At market share estimates of 25% rotating/75% laser and 45% rotating/55% laser, the RR of death with laser sheaths was 4.3 (95% CI 2.4-7.5, P < 0.0001) and 10.5 times greater (95% CI 6.0-18.5, P < 0.0001), respectively. The RR of death remained significant when assuming deaths with rotating sheaths were underreported and when deaths using both sheaths were attributed to the rotating sheath. CONCLUSIONS: Lead extraction with laser sheaths appears to be associated with a higher risk of mortality compared to rotating sheaths. Further studies are warranted to confirm this finding.

8.
J Arthroplasty ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have compared fixed-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (FB-UKA) with mobile-bearing UKA (MB-UKA), suggesting that both procedures have good clinical outcomes. However, which treatment is more beneficial for patients is controversial. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the postoperative outcomes, including the revision rate, complications, functional results, range of motion, and femoral-tibial angle, between the 2 procedures. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases starting from August 2017 to May 2018. The publication date of articles was not restricted. Before we submit our contribution, we have re-searched it again. Articles that directly compared the postoperative outcomes of the 2 prosthesis type were included. RESULTS: A total of 15 comparative studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled data indicated no differences between the 2 operation modes in terms of revision rates, complications, and knee function, but earlier failure occurred more frequently with the MB design. CONCLUSION: Both the arthroplasty types provided satisfactory clinical results for patients with classic indications. However, MB-UKA tended to fail in early postoperative years whereas fixed-bearing UKA in later postoperative years. Therefore treatment options should be carefully considered for each patient, and surgeons should still use their personal experience when deciding between these options.

9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 412, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor HOXD9 is one of the members of the HOX family, which plays an important role in neoplastic processes. However, the role of HOXD9 in the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer (GC) remains to be elucidated. METHODS: In vitro functional role of HOXD9 and RURY3 in GC cells was determined using the TMA-based immunohistochemistry, western blot, EdU incorporation, gelatin zymography, luciferase, chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and cell invasion assays. In vivo tumor growth and metastasis were conducted in nude mice. RESULTS: HOXD9 is overexpressed in GC cells and tissues. The high expression of HOXD9 was correlated with poor survival in GC patients. Functionally, HOXD9 expression significantly promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of GC cells. Mechanically, HOXD9 directly associated with the RUFY3 promoter to increase the transcriptional activity of RUFY3. Inhibition of RUFY3 attenuated the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of HOXD9-overexpressing GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, both HOXD9 and RUFY3 were highly expressed in cancer cells but not in normal gastric tissues, with their expressions being positively correlated. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence presented here suggests that the HOXD9-RUFY3 axis promotes the development and progression of human GC.

10.
Explore (NY) ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558370

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hwabyung is a psychosomatic disease resulting from the suppression of anger over an extended period. The Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) are meridian-based psychotherapy known to cure many psychosomatic diseases, and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) is a therapeutic method that relieves physical and psychological tension by repeated tensing and relaxation of the muscles. OBJECT: In this study, we compared the effects of EFT and PMR in patients with Hwabyung. DESIGN: 40 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive 4 weeks of group sessions with either EFT (n = 20) or PMR (n = 20). Evaluations were conducted pre- and post-treatment and at 4-week and 24-week follow-ups after session end. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Hwabyung Scale, Visual Analogue Scale of Hwabyung Symptoms (VAS-HS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) were administered as self-report tools. The analysis excluded 8 patients who never attended treatment and 1 patient meeting the exclusion criteria. RESULT: EFT (n = 15) and PMR (n = 16) improved Hwabyung symptoms (-13.95% and -11.46%, respectively), state anxiety (-12.57% and -12.64%, respectively), and depression (-32.11% and -18.68%, respectively) (p < 0.05 for all). Trait anger improved in EFT group (-13.4%, p = 0.004). There were no significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05) except for trait anger at post-treatment (p = 0.022 for between group). No adverse events were reported during the study.

11.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498962

RESUMO

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is rich in a variety of growth factors and plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It has been reported that the preparation of freeze-dried platelets (lyophilized platelets [LyPRP]) from platelets could be an effective strategy to preserve the bioactivity of platelets for a long time. In this study, the osteogenic induction effects of PRP and LyPRP on MSCs were evaluated. The rabbit arterial blood was drawing to preparation of PRP by secondary centrifugation. Whole blood was prepared by lyophilization buffer to prepare LyPRP, which were activated by chloride and their surface morphology was observed. It was observed using a scanning electron microscope that platelets were evenly distributed on the surface of PRP and LyPRP. Growth factors were slowly released from PRP and LyPRP during the first 7 days and detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Cell proliferation assays and fluoresceindiacetate/propidium iodide (FDA/PI) staining demonstrated that PRP and LyPRP could promote cell proliferation. PRP and LyPRP were also shown to promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro by osteogenesis characteristic staining and qPCR quantitative detection of osteogenic related gene expression. Both PRP and LyPRP could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs effectively. Moreover, PRP exhibited a better osteogenic induction effect on MSC than LyPRP.

12.
Appl Opt ; 58(18): 5090-5097, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503830

RESUMO

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an efficient method for detecting the content of carbon and nitrogen in many materials, which solves the problems of the time-consuming and high-cost traditional chemical analysis method. To quickly detect the carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) for the anaerobic fermentation (AF) feedstock using NIRS, a genetic simulated annealing algorithm (GSA) is presented based on a genetic algorithm combined with a simulated annealing algorithm. By combining GSA with backward interval partial least squares (BiPLS), we construct a BiPLS-GSA algorithm to optimize the characteristic wavelength variables of NIRS; this algorithm significantly reduced the number of wavelength variables involved in modeling and effectively improved the detection accuracy and efficiency of the model. The determination coefficients, root mean squared error, mean relative error (MRE) and residual predictive deviation for the validation set in the BiPLS-GSA regression model were 0.9067, 7.6676, 5.5274%, and 3.5626, respectively. Meanwhile, compared to the entire spectrum model, the MRE was decreased by 16.54% in the BiPLS-GSA-based model. The research in this paper improves the adaptability of the prediction model based on optimizing sensitive wavelength variables for C/N, which provides a new way for rapid and accurate measurement of the C/N of AF feedstock.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109446, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Usnea diff ;racta Vain. (U. diffracta) belonging to the Usnea genus, is widely used as a folk medicine for the treatment of ulcer, abdominal pain, diarrhea, malaria and so on. However, the antiatherogenic effect of U. diffracta has not yet been reported. This study aims to investigate the antiatherogenic effects of the ethanol extract of U. diffracta and its mechanism. METHOD: A high fat diet and VD3 were used to establish the atherosclerotic rat model, with 0.004 g/kg/d of simvastatin as a positive control, fed with 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 g/kg/d of Usnea ethanol extract for 21 days. The blood, liver, and aorta samples from each rat were collected after the last administration. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated. The inflammation related factors, the gene expressions of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the model group, simvastatin and ethanol extract of U. diffracta can significantly reduce the serum levels of triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Ca2+, AST, ALT, the liver contents of total cholesterol (TC), TG, AI and liver index, as well as significantly increase the contents of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) both in serum and liver (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The serum level of ox-LDL can be significantly reduced by simvastatin, low and medium U. diffracta ethanol extract doses (p < 0.01). In addition, simvastatin and low dosage of U. diffracta ethanol extract can significantly reduce the liver content of LDL-C (p < 0.01). U. diffracta ethanol extract shows a positive antiatherogenic effect. Furthermore, the mechanism may be related to promoting the expression of serum IL-10 and inhibition of TLR5/NF-κB signaling pathway.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 141: 207-217, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479673

RESUMO

The pectin (CEP) was used as matrix material to prepare Ag@AgCl/ZnO nanocomposites with a green method for photocatalytic antibacterial activity in visible-light. Briefly, Ag@AgCl plasmonic hybrids were prepared in the CEP macromolecule matrix with size control, which was attributed to the stability of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the CEP. Subsequently, an effective and green two-steps approach was explored for the fabrication of CEP-Ag@AgCl/ZnO nanocomposites with resource saving and environment friendly. Interestingly, more Ag+ was converted into metallic Ag in the CEP-Ag@AgCl/ZnO than that in the CEP-Ag@AgCl. This phenomenon was attributed that the reducibility of free hemiacetal hydroxyl groups on CEP was realized with the help of NaOH in the preparation of CEP-ZnO. In addition, the CEP chains were not obviously destroyed except for the change in the crystallinity after the preparation of the CEP-Ag@AgCl/ZnO nanocomposites, indicating that the method was non-destructive. Moreover, the pH triggered release of Zn2+ and low release of Ag+ in CEP-Ag@AgCl/ZnO nanocomposites with excellent photocatalytic antibacterial activity were confirmed in this work. The proposed green process provides a new idea for the large-scale production of antibacterial pectin-based nanocomposites in industry with a low-cost.

15.
Opt Express ; 27(17): 24835-24846, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510365

RESUMO

Edge states in photonic heterostructures composed of metal layers and all-dielectric one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) will shift toward short wavelengths (blueshift) with the increase in the incident angle for both transverses magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. However, we achieve redshift edge states for TM polarization and blueshift edge states for TE polarization in heterostructures composed of metal layers and 1DPCs containing layered hyperbolic metamaterials. Owing to the opposite wavelength shift of the edge states for two orthogonal polarizations, the ellipsometric phase will change dramatically around the edge state wavelength in a broad angle range. Based on this wide-angle phase singularity property, we propose a biosensor which can work with high refractive index resolution in a broad angle range.

16.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(18): 1935-1953, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501232

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a vital role in cancers. Accumulated evidences showed that the physiological condition of cells can be reflected by the circRNAs in the exosomes they secrete, and these exosomal circRNAs can be captured by the receptor cells, thereby inducing a series of cellular responses. We performed qRT-PCR to detect the expression level of circ-0000284 in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, tissues and plasma exosomes. Then the direct interaction between circ-0000284 and miR-637 was investigated through dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. Subsequently, EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), migration, invasion assay, flow cytometry and nude mouse tumorigenicity assay were adopted to evaluate the effect of circ-0000284 on migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Additionally, TEM was conducted to investigate the shape and size of exosomes from cholangiocarcioma and 293T cell lines. Circ-0000284 was evidently elevated in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, tumor tissues and plasma exosomes. Meanwhile, the high expression of circ-0000284 enhanced the migration, invasion and proliferation abilities of cholangiocarcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro Besides, the levels of circ-0000284 were increased in cholangiocarcinoma cells and exosomes from them. Moreover, exosomes from cholangiocarcinoma cells enhanced circ-0000284 expression and stimulated migration and proliferation of the surrounding normal cells. Our findings suggest that on the one hand circ-0000284 functions as a competitive endogenous RNA to promote cholangiocarcinoma progression, and on the other hand, circ-0000284 can be directly transferred from cholangiocarcinoma cells to surrounding normal cells via exosomes and in this way regulate the biological functions of surrounding normal cells.

17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(9): 930-935, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of interferon-α (INF-α) on the apoptosis of the mouse podocyte cell line MPC5 induced by hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein. METHODS: MPC5 cells were transfected with the pEX plasmid carrying the HBx gene. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of HBx at different time points. MPC5 cells were divided into 4 groups: control group (MPC5 cells cultured under normal conditions), INF-α group (MPC5 cells cultured with INF-α), HBx group (MPC5 cells induced by HBx), and HBx+INF-α group (MPC5 cells induced by HBx and cultured with INF-α). After 48 hours of intervention under different experimental conditions, flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptosis of MPC5 cells, and quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of slit diaphragm-related proteins (nephrin, CD2AP, and synaptopodin) and the cytoskeleton-related protein transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6). RESULTS: MPC5 cells transfected by pEX-HBx had the highest expression of HBx mRNA at 48 hours after transfection (P<0.05). Compared with the control, INF-α and HBx+INF-α groups, the HBx group had a significant increase in the apoptosis rate of MPC5 cells (P<0.05). Compared with the control and INF-α groups, the HBx group had significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression of nephrin, synaptopodin, and CD2AP and significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC6 (P<0.05). Compared with the HBx group, the HBx+INF-α group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of nephrin, synaptopodin, and CD2AP and significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC6 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: INF-α can inhibit the apoptosis of podocytes induced by HBx, possibly through improving the abnormal expression of slit diaphragm-related proteins (CD2AP, nephrin, and synaptopodin) and cytoskeleton-related protein (TRPC6) induced by HBx.


Assuntos
Podócitos , Animais , Apoptose , Vírus da Hepatite B , Interferon-alfa , Camundongos , Transativadores
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133740, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400694

RESUMO

The Arctic Ocean is undergoing drastic changes due to the effects of climate change. Arctic fjords are preferred systems to study these changes as they respond quickly to variations in ocean, land and atmosphere conditions. In this study, we investigated for the first time the seasonal variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties and its origin in an Arctic fjord, which allows for an assessment of the future potential effects of climate change in this environment. We conducted an integrated analysis of the concentrations, optical properties (absorption and fluorescence), and molecular size distributions of DOM in two seasons (October 2017 and April 2018) and in eight to ten stations in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) along with the related environmental parameters such as chlorophyll-a, inorganic nutrients, particulate organic carbon (POC), temperature, and salinity. Our results showed that, in both seasons, the DOM in the fjord was predominately of autochthonous origin with a seasonally variable terrestrial input. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were consistently higher in October than in April at each station. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a marked seasonal variability depending on the DOM fluorophore types and size fractions. In October, humic-like and tryptophan-like substances were dominant whereas in April, tyrosine-like compounds represented, on average, 58% of the DOM fluorescence. This study points out the key role of spring sea ice melting in determining the DOM properties of the fjord in spring.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465050

RESUMO

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the northern Arctic Ocean has been considered to be minimal because of high sea ice concentration and extremely low productivity. However, we found DMS concentration (1-33 nM) in melt ponds on sea ice at a very high latitude (78°N) in the central Arctic Ocean to be up to ten times that in the adjacent open ocean (<3 nM). We divided melt ponds into three categories: freshwater melt ponds, brackish melt ponds, and open saline melt ponds. Melt ponds from each category had different formation mechanisms and associated DMS contents. Closed brackish ponds (salinity of >20) had particularly high DMS concentration. Water in brackish ponds was mixed with open ocean water in the past via a hole at the bottom of the floe that kept the pond open to the ocean; therefore, unlike freshwater melt ponds, brackish ponds became sites of DMS accumulation. Our results suggest that continuous increase in melt pond coverage on Arctic sea ice could considerably impact future Arctic climate as well as enhancing DMS concentration in the Arctic atmosphere.

20.
J Mater Chem B ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389470

RESUMO

The residual tumor cells after chemotherapy, even in very small numbers, are generally drug-resistant and invasive, which might result in the progress of tumor metastasis and recurrence. In this research, a new combination chemotherapy strategy of salinomycin (SL) that could selectively inhibit multidrug-resistant tumor cells and a traditional broad-spectrum antitumor drug, doxorubicin (DOX), based on redox-degradable nano-micelles was developed to overcome drug resistance in vitro. The results in vitro indicated that DOX + SL co-loaded nano-micelles could not only escape from the drug efflux of adriamycin-resistant MCF-7 cells (A/MCF-7) but also penetrated and infiltrated into 3D-cultured MCF-7 and 4T1 tumor spheres in vitro more effectively, resulting in a strong antiproliferative effect. In the allogeneic metastatic 4T1 tumor model, the combination chemotherapy of DOX + SL encapsulated in nano-micelles effectively suppressed tumor growth with no splenomegaly and no other major tissue damage, and reversed the EMT progress, and inhibited tumor recurrence and metastasis more effectively after drug withdrawal.

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