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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMO

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Amido
2.
Food Chem X ; 12: 100158, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825168

RESUMO

Plantago (Plantaginaceae) is an herbal plant, which is used in folk medicine, functional food, and dietary supplement products. Recent pharmacological and phytochemical studies have shown that polysaccharides isolated from Plantago have multiple medicinal and nutritional benefits, including improve intestinal health, hypoglycemic effect, immunomodulatory effect, etc. These health and pharmacological benefits are of great interest to the public, academia, and biotechnology industries. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in the physicochemical, structural features, and biological effects of Plantago polysaccharides and highlights the similarities and differences of the polysaccharides from different species and in different parts, including leaves, seeds, and husks. The scientific support for its use as a prebiotic is also addressed. The purpose of this review is to provide background as well as useful and up-to-date information for future research and applications of these polysaccharides.

3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 156: 112522, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary fibers have beneficial effects on human health through the interaction with gut microbiota. Larch wood arabinogalactan (LA-AG) is one kind of complex soluble dietary fibers that may be utilized by human gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the LA-AG degradation by gut microbiota were characterized by investigating the change of LA-AG, microbiota composition, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), lactic acid, succinic acid, as well as volatile organic metabolites. During the fermentation, pH decreased continuously, along with the organic acids (especially acetic acid and lactic acid) accumulating. LA-AG was degraded by gut microbiota then some beneficial metabolites were produced. In addition, LA-AG inhibited the proliferation of some gut microbiota (Unclassified_Enterobacteriaceae and Citrobacter) and the accumulation of some metabolites (Sulfide and indole) released by gut microbiota. CONCLUSION: LA-AG was partly fermentable fibers with prebiotic potential for human gut health.


Assuntos
Galactanos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Prebióticos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Galactanos/química , Humanos , Larix/química
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(25): 7000-7015, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139119

RESUMO

High intake of dietary fibers was found to be inversely associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D), whereas the difference among different dietary fibers on T2D remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of different dietary fibers on T2D. Nine types of dietary fibers were used to investigate and evaluate their effects on type-2 diabetic rats via physiology, genomics, and metabolomics. We found that supplementation with ß-glucan, arabinogalactan, guar gum, apple pectin, glucomannan, and arabinoxylan significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose, whereas carrageenan, xylan, and xanthan gum did not affect glycemic control in diabetic rats. Also, bioactive dietary fibers (ß-glucan, arabinogalactan, guar gum, and apple pectin) associated with the increased butyric acid level and abundance of beneficial bacteria (Lachnobacterium, Parabacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Akkermansia, and some butyric acid-producing bacteria), as well as improved host metabolism by decreasing 12α-hydroxylated bile acids, acylcarnitines, and amino acids (leucine, phenylalanine, citrulline, etc.), thereby exert beneficial effects on T2D. It was also found that ß-glucan might attenuate insulin resistance via downregulation of Prevotella copri-mediated biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in T2D. Together, our study uncovered the effects of different dietary fibers on T2D, along with their potential mechanism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta , Hipoglicemiantes , Prevotella , Ratos
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