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1.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017718

RESUMO

Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CMV-CTLs) from original transplant donors or third-party donors was effective for the treatment of CMV infection after allogenic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), but the antiviral activity of CMV-CTL types has not been compared. To determine whether third-party CMV-CTLs provide comparable long-term antiviral efficacy to transplant donor CMV-CTLs, we first compared the antiviral abilities of transplant donors and third-party CMV-CTLs for treatment of CMV infection in two mouse models, compared the in vivo recovery of CMV-specific immunity, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms driving sustained antiviral immunity. The results showed that both donor and third-party CMV-CTLs effectively combated systemic CMV infection by reducing CMV pathology and tumor burden 28 days postinfusion. The in vivo recovery of CMV-specific immunity after CMV-CTL infusion was comparable in both groups. A detailed analysis of the source of recovered CMV-CTLs showed the proliferation and expansion of graft-derived endogenous CMV-CTLs in both groups. Our clinical study, which enrolled 31 patients who received third-party CMV-CTLs and 62 matched pairs of individuals who received transplant donor CMV-CTLs for refractory CMV infection, further showed that adoptive therapy with donor or third-party CMV-CTLs had comparable clinical responses without significant therapy-related toxicity. We observed strong expansion of CD8+ tetramer+ T cells and proliferation of recipient endogenous CMV-CTLs after CMV-CTL infusion, which were associated with a reduced or cleared viral load. Our data confirmed that adoptive therapy with third-party or transplant donor CMV-CTLs triggered comparable antiviral responses to CMV infection that might be mediated by restoration of endogenous CMV-specific immunity.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 11, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene is located on chromosome 11q23. The MLL gene can be rearranged to generate partial tandem duplications (MLL-PTD), which occurs in about 5-10% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a normal karyotype and in 5-6% of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is currently one of the curative therapies available for AML and MDS with excess blasts (MDS-EB). However, how the prognosis of patients with high levels of MLL-PTD after allo-HSCT, and whether MLL-PTD could be used as a reliable indicator for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in transplant patients remains unknown. Our study purposed to analyze the dynamic changes of MLL-PTD peri-transplantation and the best threshold for predicting relapse after transplantation. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the clinical data of 48 patients with MLL-PTD AML or MDS-EB who underwent allo-HSCT in Peking University People's Hospital. The MLL-PTD was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) at the diagnosis, before transplantation and the fixed time points after transplantation. Detectable MLL-PTD/ABL > 0.08% was defined as MLL-PTD positive in this study. RESULTS: The 48 patients included 33 AML patients and 15 MDS-EB patients. The median follow-up time was 26(0.7-56) months after HSCT. In AML patients, 7 patients (21.2%) died of treatment-related mortality (TRM), 6 patients (18.2%) underwent hematological relapse and died ultimately. Of the 15 patients with MDS-EB, 2 patients (13.3%) died of infection. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and TRM were 13.7 ± 5.2, 67.8 ± 6.9, 68.1 ± 6.8 and 20.3% ± 6.1%, respectively. ROC curve showed that post-transplant MLL-PTD ≥ 1.0% was the optimal cut-off value for predicting hematological relapse after allo-HSCT. There was statistical difference between post-transplant MLL-PTD ≥ 1.0% and MLL-PTD < 1.0% groups (3-year CIR: 75% ± 15.3% vs. 0%, P < 0.001; 3-year OS: 25.0 ± 15.3% vs. 80.7% ± 6.6%, P < 0.001; 3-year DFS: 25.0 ± 15.3% vs. 80.7 ± 6.6%, P < 0.001; 3-year TRM: 0 vs. 19.3 ± 6.6%, P = 0.277). However, whether MLL-PTD ≥ 1% or MLL-PTD < 1% before transplantation has no significant difference on the prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that MLL-PTD had a certain stability and could effectively reflect the change of tumor burden. The expression level of MLL-PTD after transplantation can serve as an effective indicator for predicting relapse.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741461

RESUMO

Haploidentical allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is a significant alternative treatment for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA). To improve this process by modifying the risk stratification system, we conducted a retrospective study using our database. 432 SAA patients who received haplo-HSCT between 2006 and 2020 were enrolled. These patients were divided into a training (n = 288) and a validation (n = 144) subset randomly. In the training cohort, longer time from diagnosis to transplantation, poorer Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status and higher haematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) score were independent risk factors for worse treatment-related mortality (TRM) in the final multivariable model. The haplo-HSCT scoring system was developed by these three parameters. Three-year TRM after haplo-HSCT were 6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-21%], 21% (95% CI, 7-40%), and 47% (95% CI, 20-70%) for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk group, respectively (P < 0·0001). In the validation cohort, the haplo-HSCT scoring system also separated patients into three risk groups with increasing risk of TRM: intermediate-risk [hazard ratio (HR) 2·45, 95% CI, 0·92-6·53] and high-risk (HR 11·74, 95% CI, 3·07-44·89) compared with the low-risk group (P = 0·001). In conclusion, the haplo-HSCT scoring system could effectively predict TRM after transplantation.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539656

RESUMO

Gut acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and is associated with high mortality. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a group of innate-like T cells enriched in the intestine that can be activated by riboflavin metabolites from various microorganisms. However, little is known about the function or mechanism of action of MAIT cells in the occurrence of gut aGVHD in humans. In our study, multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) was used to evaluate the number of MAIT cells and functional cytokines. 16S V34 region amplicon sequencing analysis was used to analyze the intestinal flora of transplant patients. In vitro stimulation and coculture assays were used to study the activation and function of MAIT cells. The number and distribution of MAIT cells in intestinal tissues were analyzed by immunofluorescence technology. Our study showed that the number and frequency of MAIT cells in infused grafts in gut aGVHD patients were lower than those in no-gut aGVHD patients. Recipients with a high number of MAITs in infused grafts had a higher abundance of intestinal flora in the early posttransplantation period (+14 days). At the onset of gut aGVHD, the number of MAIT cells decreased in peripheral blood, and the activation marker CD69, chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4, and transcription factors Rorγt and T-bet tended to increase. Furthermore, when gut aGVHD occurred, the proportion of MAIT17 was higher than that of MAIT1. The abundance of intestinal flora with non-riboflavin metabolic pathways tended to increase in gut aGVHD patients. MAIT cells secreted more granzyme B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ under the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-18 stimulation [non-T-cell receptor (TCR) signal] and secreted most of the IL-17 under the cluster of differentiation (CD)3/CD28 stimulation (TCR signal). MAIT cells inhibited the proliferation of CD4+ T cells in vitro. In conclusion, the lower number of MAIT cells in infused grafts was related to the higher incidence of gut aGVHD, and the number of MAIT cells in grafts may affect the composition of the intestinal flora of recipients early after transplantation. The flora of the riboflavin metabolism pathway activated MAIT cells and promoted the expression of intestinal protective factors to affect the occurrence of gut aGVHD in humans.

6.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(10): 870.e1-870.e7, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229053

RESUMO

Late-onset severe pneumonia (LOSP) is defined as severe pneumonia developing during the late phase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Because of the high mortality in patients with LOSP, it is important to identify prognostic factors. In this study, we aimed to develop a risk score system with broad applicability that can help predict the risk of LOSP-associated mortality. We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with LOSP after allo-HSCT between June 2009 and July 2017. The assessment variables included immune, nutritional, and metabolic parameters at the onset of LOSP. Of these 100 patients, 45 (45%) eventually died, and 55 (55%) were positive for organisms, most commonly viruses. In the multivariate analysis, higher monocyte count (≥0.20 × 109/L versus <0.20 × 109/L; P = .001), higher albumin level (≥30.5 g/L versus <30.5 g/L; P = .044), lower lactic dehydrogenase level (<250 U/L versus ≥250 U/L; P = .008) and lower blood urea nitrogen concentration (<7.2 mmol/L versus ≥7.2 mmol/L; P = .026) at the onset of LOSP were significantly associated with better 60-day survival. A risk score system based on the foregoing results showed that the probability of 60-day survival decreased with increasing risk factors, from 96.3% in the low-risk group to 49.1% in the intermediate-risk group and 12.5% in the high-risk group. Our results indicate that this scoring system using 4 variables can stratify patients with different probabilities of survival after LOSP, which suggests that patients' immune, nutritional, and metabolic status are crucial factors in determining outcome.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Pneumonia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo
7.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(3): 443-453, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185250

RESUMO

We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate dynamic peri-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) on outcomes in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A total of 271 patients were enrolled and classified into three groups: unchanged negative MRD pre- and post-HSCT group (group A), post-MRD non-increase group (group B), and post-MRD increase group (group C). The patients in group B and group C experienced a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) (42% vs. 71% vs. 16%, P<0.001) and lower leukemia-free survival (LFS) (46% vs. 21% vs. 70%, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (50% vs. 28% vs. 72%, P<0.001) than in group A, but there was no significant difference in non-relapse mortality (NRM) among three groups (14% vs. 12% vs. 8%, P=0.752). Multivariate analysis showed that dynamic peri-HSCT MRD was associated with CIR (HR=2.392, 95% CI, 1.816-3.151, P<0.001), LFS (HR=1.964, 95% CI, 1.546-2.496, P<0.001) and OS (HR=1.731, 95% CI, 1.348-2.222, P<0.001). We also established a risk scoring system based on dynamic peri-HSCT MRD combined with remission status pre-HSCT and onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This risk scoring system could better distinguish CIR (c=0.730) than that for pre-HSCT MRD (c=0.562), post-HSCT MRD (c=0.616) and pre- and post-MRD dynamics (c=0.648). Our results confirm the outcome predictive value of dynamic peri-HSCT MRD either alone or in combination with other variables for patients with T-ALL.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 604085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150785

RESUMO

Graft failure (GF) is a fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, especially after haploidentical transplantation. The mortality of GF is nearly 100% without an effective salvage method. A second transplantation is usually necessary to save the patient's life. However, there is no standardized regimen, and the outcome is usually disappointing. We report on a prospective single-center study using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen with different haploidentical donors (HIDs). Patients with GF after the first transplantation were enrolled in a prospective single-arm clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.Gov ID: NCT03717545) at the Peking University Institute of Hematology. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine (30 mg/m2) (days-6 to-2) and cyclophosphamide (1,000 mg/m2/day) (days-5 to-4). Patients underwent a second transplant from a different HID using a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor primed bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells. The primary outcome was neutrophil engraftment at day 28. The secondary outcomes included platelet engraftment at day 100, transplant-related mortality (TRM) at day 30, TRM at day 100, and overall survival (OS) at 1 year. From March 2018 to June 2020, 13 patients were enrolled in this clinical trial. Of the 13 patients, five had acute myeloid leukemia, five had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, two had myelodysplastic syndromes, and one had a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The median age at first transplantation was 38 years (range, 8-55 years). As for the first transplantation, 11 patients underwent haploidentical transplantations and two underwent unrelated donor transplantations. At the time of GF, three patients had complete donor chimerism, five had mixed chimerism, and five had complete recipient chimerism. The median time from the first transplantation to the second transplantation was 49 (range 35-120) days. The medians of infused cell doses were as follows: mononuclear cells 7.93 (5.95-12.51) × 108/kg and CD34 + cells 2.28 (0.75-5.57) × 106/kg. All 13 patients achieved neutrophil engraftment after the second transplantation, with a median engraftment time of 11 (range 10-20) days after transplantation. The platelet engraftment rate on day 100 after transplantation was 76.9%. The TRMs at day 30, day 100, and 1-year were 0, 0, and 23.1%, respectively. The OS and disease-free survival at 1-year were 56.6 and 48.4%, respectively. For patients with GF after first transplantation, a second transplantation using a fludarabine/cyclophosphamide regimen from a different HID was a promising salvage option. Further investigation is needed to confirm the suitability of this method.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(10): 1199-1208, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), many variables have been demonstrated to be associated with leukemia relapse. In this study, we attempted to establish a risk score system to predict transplant outcomes more precisely in patients with B-ALL after allo-SCT. METHODS: A total of 477 patients with B-ALL who underwent allo-SCT at Peking University People's Hospital from December 2010 to December 2015 were enrolled in this retrospective study. We aimed to evaluate the factors associated with transplant outcomes after allo-SCT, and establish a risk score to identify patients with different probabilities of relapse. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent variables. RESULTS: All patients achieved neutrophil engraftment, and 95.4% of patients achieved platelet engraftment. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and non-relapse mortality were 20.7%, 70.4%, 65.6%, and 13.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with positive post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD), transplanted beyond the first complete remission (≥CR2), and without chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) had higher CIR (P  < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P  < 0.001, respectively) and worse LFS (P  < 0.001, P = 0.017, and P  < 0.001, respectively), and OS (P  < 0.001, P = 0.009, and P  < 0.001, respectively) than patients without MRD after transplantation, transplanted in CR1, and with cGVHD. A risk score for predicting relapse was formulated with the three above variables. The 5-year relapse rates were 6.3%, 16.6%, 55.9%, and 81.8% for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 (P  < 0.001), respectively, while the 5-year LFS and OS values decreased with increasing risk score. CONCLUSION: This new risk score system might stratify patients with different risks of relapse, which could guide treatment.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Linfócitos B , Humanos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transplante de Células-Tronco
10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 639502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718234

RESUMO

Objective: Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) has demonstrated encouraging results in younger patients. There is also an increasing need for haplo-SCT in older patients. However, the high risk of treatment-related mortality (TRM) in older patients is still a major concern. We aimed to investigate a novel conditioning regimen (Bu/Flu/Cy/ATG) followed by haplo-SCT in older patients. Method: This prospective, single-arm clinical trial was performed at Peking University Institute of Hematology, China. Patients were enrolled if they were (1) diagnosed with acute leukemia or MDS; (2) without MSD and MUD, and with HID available; and (3) age ≥55 years. The Bu/Flu/Cy/ATG regimen consisted of the following agents: Ara-C (2 g/m2/day, injected i.v.) on days-10 and-9; BU (9.6 mg/kg, injected i.v. in 12 doses) on days-8,-7, and-6; Flu (30 mg/m2/day, injected i.v.) from day-6 to day-2; Cy (1 g/m2/day, injected i.v.) on days-5 and-4; semustine (250 mg/m2, orally) on day-3 and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) [2.5 mg/kg/day, rabbit, SangStat (Lyon, France)] on days-5,-4,-3, and-2. The primary endpoint was 1-year TRM. Results: From April 1, 2018 to April 10, 2020, a total of 50 patients were enrolled. All patients achieved neutrophil engraftment with complete donor chimerism. The cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD at day-100 was 22.0%. The cumulative incidences of CMV viremia and EBV viremia on day 100 were 68.0 and 20.0%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of TRM at 1-year was 23.3%. and the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) at 1 year after transplantation was 16.5%. The overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 1 year were 63.5 and 60.2%, respectively. The outcomes were also comparable with patients who received Bu/Cy/ATG regimen using a propensity score matching method. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study suggested that a novel conditioning regimen followed by haploidentical HSCT might be a promising option for older patients. The study was registered as a clinical trial. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03412409.

11.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 41(4): 333-344, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cytoreduction with either induction chemotherapy (IC) or hypomethylating agents (HMAs) in treating advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains debatable. We aimed to evaluate pre-HSCT strategies by comparing the endpoints related to disease control between advanced MDS patients with pre-HSCT cytoreduction and those with best supportive care. METHODS: We described 228 consecutive advanced MDS patients who received HSCT from a haploidentical donor (HID, n = 162) or matched related donor (MSD, n = 66) with uniform myeloablative conditioning regimens between January 2015 and December 2018. Of these 228 patients, 131 (57.5%) were treated exclusively with pre-HSCT best supportive care (BSC), 49 (22.5%) were given HMA, and 48 (21.1%) received both IC and HMA. Propensity score-matching analysis, multivariate analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed to elucidate the impact of pre-HSCT strategies on transplant outcomes. RESULTS: The 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were 78.2% and 70.0% for the BSC and cytoreduction cohorts (P = 0.189) and were 78.2%, 66.7%, and 73.2% for the BSC, HMA, and HMA+IC groups, respectively (P = 0.269). A propensity score-matching analysis confirmed that the 3-year RFS rates were 81.9%, 87.5%, and 66.9% for BSC, cytoreduction complete remission (CR), and cytoreduction non-CR groups, respectively (P = 0.051). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that pre-HSCT cytoreduction, older patient age, monosomal karyotype, and interval between diagnosis and HSCT were poor prognostic factors for RFS. In the subgroup analyses, BSC was associated with longer RFS compared to cytoreduction among the younger patients, those with international prognostic scoring system intermediate-2/high risk at diagnosis, and those with intermediate/poor cytogenetics. CONCLUSIONS: Different pre-HSCT therapies did not yield discrepant post-HSCT outcomes. No benefit in terms of post-HSCT outcomes were correlated with pre-HSCT cytoreduction in advanced MDS even for cytoreduction CR patients. Early referral to HSCT is essential for advanced MDS patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(5): 1172-1185, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408344

RESUMO

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) achieves superior or at least comparable clinical outcomes to HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) in treating hematological malignancies. To define the underlying regulatory dynamics, we analyzed time courses of leukemia burden and immune abundance of haplo-SCT or MSDT from multiple dimension. First, we employed two nonirradiated leukemia mouse models which carried human AML-ETO or MLL-AF9 fusion gene to establish haplo-identical and major histocompatibility (MHC)-matched transplantation models and investigated the immune cell dynamic response during leukemia development in vivo. We found that haplo-matching the MHCs of leukemia cells with recipient mouse T cells prolonged leukemic mice survival and reduced leukemia burden. The stronger graft-versus-leukemia activity in haplo-SCT group mainly induced by decreased apoptosis and increased cytotoxic cytokine secretion including tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, pore-forming proteins and CD107a secreted by T cells or natural killer cells. Furthermore, we conducted a prospective clinical trial which enrolled 135 patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia that displayed minimal residual disease before transplantation and underwent either haplo-SCT or MSDT. The results showed that the haplo-SCT slowed the kinetics of the leukemia burden in vivo and reduced the cumulative incidence of relapse compared with MSDT. Ex vivo experiments showed that, 1 year after transplantation, cytotoxic T lymphocytes from the haplo-SCT group had higher cytotoxicity than those from the MSDT group during the same period. Our results unraveled the role of immune cells in superior antileukemia effects of haplo-SCT compared with MSDT.

13.
Ann Hematol ; 100(3): 799-808, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416901

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been regarded as a potential strategy for myeloid sarcoma (MS). The previous reports focused mainly on matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation. There are no reports on haploidentical HSCT (haplo-HSCT) in MS. We retrospectively reviewed 14 MS patients who underwent haplo-HSCT. All patients achieved complete donor engraftment. The median time for neutrophil engraftment and platelet engraftment were 10 (12-21) days and 18 (8-31) days. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and 3-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD were 37.7% (95%CI, 23.2-52.1%) and 35.7% (95%CI, 22.2-49.2%). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation was documented in 86% patients, and only one patient developed CMV pneumonia. Treatment-related mortality occurred in one (7%) patient. The 1- and 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 21.4% (95%CI, 11.8-31.1%) and 35.7% (95%CI, 22.4-49.0%). The probability of overall survival at 1 and 3 years was 71.4% (95%CI, 51.3-99.5%) and 64.3% (95%CI, 43.5-95.0%), respectively. The probability of disease-free survival at 1 and 3 years was 71.4% (95%CI, 51.3-99.5%) and 57.1% (95%CI, 36.3-89.9%), respectively. In conclusion, haplo-HSCT is a feasible method for patients with MS who have no MSD or MUD.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Sarcoma Mieloide/terapia , Transplante Haploidêntico , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimioprevenção , Criança , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma Mieloide/diagnóstico , Sarcoma Mieloide/epidemiologia , Sarcoma Mieloide/mortalidade , Irmãos , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/efeitos adversos , Transplante Haploidêntico/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Transplant ; 35(2): e14160, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to determine possible predictors and clinical course of mixed chimerism (MC) in aplastic anemia after transplantation. METHODS: A total of 207 transplants were obtained from haploidentical donors (HID) using busulfan (Bu), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) regimens, and 69 transplants from matched related donors (MRD) and 29 transplants from unrelated donors (URD) using Cy/ATG regimens were obtained. RESULTS: Incidences of MC were 1.93 ± 0.01%, 20.29 ± 0.01%, and 35.71 ± 0.01% in HID, MRD, and URD transplantation (p < .001). In multivariate analysis, incidence of MC was significantly higher in patients without adding Bu in conditioning (p < .001) and receiving a lower number of CD3 + cells in graft (p = .042). MC was associated with significantly lower II-IV aGvHD (3.70% vs. 27.7%, p = .007), but higher secondary graft rejection rates (14.8% vs. 0.4%, p < .001) and poorer overall survival (72.7 ± 8.9% vs. 89.6 ± 2.0%, p = .011) than those of donor chimerism cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Mixed chimerism was an unsettling status even in non-malignancy. Haploidentical transplantation with more intense regimen by adding Bu to Cy and ATG was associated with reduced MC following HSCT for SAA. An intensified regimen should be explored in matched related or unrelated donors.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Quimerismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(3): e13544, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation is relatively common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the incidence of HHV-6 reactivation and the clinical outcomes following unmanipulated haploidentical HSCT (haplo-HSCT) remain unknown. METHOD: We prospectively monitored blood HHV-6 DNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction weekly until day 100 post unmanipulated haplo-HSCT in patients with hematological malignancies. RESULTS: From November 2016 to March 2017, 102 patients (58 male and 44 female, median age 25(2-58) years old) were enrolled. Within 100 days post-transplantation, 27 patients (27/136, 19.9%) developed HHV-6 viremia with a median onset time of 14 (7-98) days. The cumulative incidence of HHV-6 reactivation on day 100 post-HSCT was 25.5 ± 4.3% in haplo-HSCT. The median HHV-6 copy number was 1.45 × 103 (5.48 × 102 -2.00 × 104 ) copies/ml. The HHV-6 viremia duration time was 7 days in 23 patients, 14 days in one patient and 21 days in one patient. In multivariate analysis, prior HHV-6 reactivation was an independent risk factor for grade 2-4 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). But it did not influence the overall survival (OS)(HR 1.624, 95%CI 0.768-3.432, P = .204), disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.640, 95%CI 0.799-3.367, P = .177) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR 1.644, 95%CI 0.670-4.038, P = .278). CONCLUSION: The reactivation of HHV-6 after unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation predicts the occurrence of grade 2-4 a-GVHD, but it may not influence the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM).


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Infecções por Roseolovirus , Ativação Viral , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cytotherapy ; 22(12): 755-761, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: The efficacy of CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells for treatment of relapsed B-cell malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the long-term outcomes of these patients remain inconclusive. METHODS: The authors focused on the survival of 35 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapsed after allo-HSCT and received CAR T cells. RESULTS: Of the 34 eligible patients, 30 achieved minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (CR), with a total CR rate of 85.7% (79.8-91.6%). There were 14 patients who received various forms of additional therapy after achieving CR. After a median follow-up of 20.7 months, it was noted that 17 patients had relapsed at a median of 4.5 months (2-34 months). The cumulative recurrence rate (RR) at 18 months was 68.3% (57.6-79.0%). Additional treatment did not reduce the RR but seemed to delay the time to relapse (mean: 5.9 months vs 13.1 months; P = 0.046). Patients with a lower tumor burden (≤10%) had a lower RR (25.0% vs 78.6% at 12 months; P = 0.006). The overall survival (OS) rate for the CR patients was 30.0% (20.3-29.7%) at 18 months, with a median OS of 12.7 months. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' study indicated that for patients who relapsed after HSCT, although a high CR rate was achieved after CAR T therapy, the long-term efficacy was unsatisfactory. It is necessary to optimize additional treatment, including a second HSCT, to further improve long-term efficacy after CAR T infusion.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Linfócitos T/imunologia
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(29): 3367-3376, 2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650683

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in preventing acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) is still controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT) across 23 transplantation centers in China. Patients ages 40-60 years with standard-risk hematologic malignancies with an HLA-matched sibling donor were randomly assigned to an ATG group (4.5 mg/kg thymoglobulin plus cyclosporine [CsA], methotrexate [MTX], and mycophenolate mofetil [MMF]) and a control group (CsA, MTX, and MMF). The primary end point of this study was grade 2-4 aGVHD on day 100. RESULTS: From November 2013 to April 2018, 263 patients were enrolled. The cumulative incidence rate of grade 2-4 aGVHD was significantly reduced in the ATG group (13.7%; 95% CI, 13.5% to 13.9%) compared with the control group (27.0%; 95% CI, 26.7% to 27.3%; P = .007). The ATG group had significantly lower incidences of 2-year overall chronic GVHD (27.9% [95% CI, 27.6% to 28.2%] v 52.5% [95% CI, 52.1% to 52.9%]; P < .001) and 2-year extensive chronic GVHD (8.5% [95% CI, 8.4% to 8.6%] v 23.2% [95% CI, 22.9% to 23.5%]; P = .029) than the control group. There were no differences between the ATG and control groups with regard to cytomegalovirus reactivation, Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), 3-year overall survival, or 3-year leukemia-free survival. Three-year GVHD relapse-free survival was significantly improved in the ATG group (38.7%; 95% CI, 29.9% to 47.5%) compared with the control group (24.5%; 95% CI, 16.9% to 32.1%; P = .003). CONCLUSION: Our study is the first prospective RCT in our knowledge to demonstrate that ATG can effectively decrease the incidence of aGVHD after MSDT in the CsA era without affecting the CIR or NRM.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Irmãos , Doadores de Tecidos
18.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 553, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) (q22;q22) is classified as a low-risk group. However, relapse is still the main factor affecting survival. We aimed to investigate the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on reducing recurrence and improving the survival of high-risk pediatric t(8;21) AML based on minimal residual disease (MRD)-guided treatment, and to further explore the prognostic factors to guide risk stratification treatment and identify who will benefit from allo-HSCT. METHODS: Overall, 129 newly diagnosed pediatric t(8;21) AML patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk group according to RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels after 2 cycles of consolidation chemotherapy. High-risk patients were divided into HSCT group and chemotherapy group according to their treatment choices. The characteristics and outcomes of 125 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: For high-risk patients, allo-HSCT could improve 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate compared to chemotherapy (87.4% vs. 61.9%; P = 0.026). Five-year overall survival (OS) rate in high-risk HSCT group had a trend for better than that in high-risk chemotherapy group (82.8% vs. 71.4%; P = 0.260). The 5-year RFS rate of patients with a c-KIT mutation in high-risk HSCT group had a trend for better than that of patients with a c-KIT mutation in high-risk chemotherapy group (82.9% vs. 75%; P = 0.400). Extramedullary infiltration (EI) at diagnosis was associated with a high cumulative incidence of relapse for high-risk patients (50% vs. 18.4%; P = 0.004); allo-HSCT can improve the RFS (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: allo-HSCT can improve the prognosis of high-risk pediatric t(8;21) AML based on MRD-guided treatment. Patients with a c-KIT mutation may benefit from allo-HSCT. EI is an independent prognostic factor for high-risk patients and allo-HSCT can improve the prognosis.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/genética , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Criança , Quimioterapia de Consolidação/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Residual , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Transplante Homólogo/métodos
19.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 20(6): 453-464, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains a curable strategy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially for adult cases. However, leukemia relapse after allograft restricts the improvement of transplant outcomes. Measurable residual disease (MRD) has been the strongest predictor for relapse after allo-HSCT, allowing MRD-directed preemptive therapy. AREAS COVERED: This manuscript summarizes the detection of MRD in patients with ALL who undergo allo-HSCT, focusing the effects of positive pre-HSCT MRD and post-HSCT MRD on outcomes as well as MRD-directed interventions. EXPERT OPINION: Except for MFC and RQ-PCR, other strategies, such as next-generation sequencing and RNAseq, have been developed for MRD determination. Negative effects of positive MRD peri-transplantation on outcomes of ALL patients were observed both in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor transplantation and in alternative donor transplantation. Advances have been made in determining the need for transplant according to MRD evaluation after induction or consolidation therapy. A number of approaches, including CAR-T-cell therapy, antibodies (blinatumomab, etc), targeted therapy (imatinib, etc), transplant donor selection, as well as donor lymphocyte infusion and interferon-α, have been successfully used or are promising for peri-transplantation MRD interventions. This progress could lead to the significant improvement of transplant outcomes for ALL patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Seleção do Doador , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Recidiva , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(7): 1326-1336, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385341

RESUMO

To define the efficacy of a single dose of 375 mg/m2 rituximab for DSA-positive patients with 2000 ≤ MFI < 10,000, we enrolled a prospective clinical cohort including patients with positive DSA treated with rituximab (n = 55, cohort A), a matched-pair cohort including cases with negative DSA (n = 110, cohort B) and a historical cohort including subjects with 2000 ≤ MFI < 10,000 without receiving any treatment for DSA (n = 22, cohort C). The incidences of primary poor graft function (PGF) in cohort A and cohort B were 5% and 1% (P = 0.076), respectively, both of which were lower than that in cohort C (27%, P < 0.001, for all). Rituximab was associated with a reduced incidence of primary PGF (HR 0.200, P = 0.023). The 3-year nonrelapse mortality of patients in cohort A and cohort B were 23% and 24%, respectively, both of which were lower than that in the cohort C (37%), although no statistical significance was observed. These results led to a low 3-year overall survival in patients in the cohort C (58%) compared with those in the cohort A (71%) and the cohort B (73%). We suggest that a single dose of rituximab could be effectively used to prevent the onset of primary PGF. The prospective cohort of this study is registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn/ChiCTR-OPC-15006672.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA , Transplante de Rim , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Isoanticorpos , Estudos Prospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco
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