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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 85, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Koumiss is a naturally fermented mare's milk. Over recent decades, numerous studies have revealed the diversity of lactic acid bacteria in koumiss. However, there is limited information available regarding its secondary major component yeast profile. RESULTS: A total of 119 bacterial and 36 yeast species were identified among the 14 koumiss samples. The dominant bacterial species in koumiss were Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Citrobacter freundii. The main yeast species were Dekkera anomala, Kazachstania unispora, Meyerozyma caribbica, Pichia sp.BZ159, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and uncultured Guehomyces. The bacterial and yeast Shannon diversity of the Xilinhaote-urban group were higher than those of the Xilingol-rural group. The most dominant organic acids were lactic, acetic, tartaric, and malic acids. Lactic acid bacteria species were mostly responsible for the accumulation of those organic acids, although Kazachstania unispora, Dekkera anomala, and Meyerozyma caribbica may also have contributed. Redundancy analysis suggested that both bacteria and yeast respond to koumiss flavor, such as Lactobacillus helveticus and Dekkera anomala are associated with sourness, astringency, bitterness, and aftertaste, whereas Lactococcus lactis and Kazachstania unispora are associated with umami. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that differences were observed in koumiss microbiota of Xilinhaote-urban and Xilingol-rural samples. The biodiversity of the former was higher than the latter group. Positive or negative correlations between bacteria and yeast species and taste also were found.

2.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(10): e1900496, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243079

RESUMO

SCOPE: Shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy, and tropomyosin (TM) is the major allergen within shellfish. Probiotics are safe bacteria that benefit host health and nutrition and is proposed as a novel approach for treating immunological diseases, including food allergies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) isolated from koumiss is investigated for its capacity to modulate food allergy induced by TM in BALB/c mice. Oral administration of LcZ attenuated allergy symptoms and intestinal epithelial damage. Furthermore, flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, and ELISA demonstrated that LcZ administration altered the development and function of dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and B cells, finally resulting in the change of TM-specific antibody isotypes into a tolerogenic pattern. Moreover, an in vitro spleen cell culture model reveals that LcZ directly modulates regulatory tolerogenic DC and T cell development, dependent on the activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: This work indicates the ability of LcZ to alleviate TM-induced food allergy and demonstrates the involvement of the tolerogenic immune cells and NF-κB signaling pathway, indicating LcZ to be a potential immunomodulator and immunotherapy assistor.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129738

RESUMO

A lactic acid bacterial strain, HBUAS57009T, isolated from traditionally fermented food (Zha-Chili) in China, was characterized to clarify its taxonomic status using a polyphasic approach. Strain HBUAS57009T was phylogenetically closely related to Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50T, Lactobacillus fujinensis 218-6T, Lactobacillus mulengensis 112-3T, Lactobacillus cerevisiae TUM BP 140423000-2250T, Lactobacillus tongjiangensis 218-10T and Lactobacillus yonginensis THK-V8T with sequence similarities of 98.6-99.3 %. The genome-to-genome distance and average nucleotide identity values between the genomes of strain HBUAS57009T and type strains of closely related Lactobacillus species were less than 32.0 and 86.0 %, respectively; this is below the threshold for species boundaries. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c and iso-C19 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain HBUAS57009T was 47.8 mol%. Examination of the functional categories of the genome revealed that strain HBUAS57009T could perform both homolactic and heterolactic fermentation processes to produce lactic acid via complete glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. The putative biosynthesis pathway of butane-2,3-diol and acetoin, two important flavour compounds in the food industry, were identified using kegg mapper analysis. Based on its genotypic and phenotypic features, strain HBUAS57009T (=GDMCC 1.1664T=KACC 21424T) is designated as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus enshiensis sp. nov. is proposed.

4.
Gut Microbes ; : 1-20, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200683

RESUMO

As an effective means to improve quality of life and prevent diseases, the demand for probiotics and related products has increased in recent years. However, it is still unclear whether a particular probiotic strain will have similar beneficial effects on healthy adults from different regions. In this study, the probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LCZ) was consumed by healthy adults from six different Asian regions and the changes in gut microbiota were compared using PacBio single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology based on samples collected before, during and after consumption of LCZ. Our results reveal that the effect of LCZ consumption on individuals was closely related to the composition of that individual's basal gut microbiota. A Gut Microbiota Variability Index (GMVI) was proposed to quantitatively compare the effects of LCZ on human gut microecology. Subjects from Xinjiang and Singapore regions had the highest and lowest GMVI, respectively. In general, consumption of LCZ increased the relative abundance of certain beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Roseburia, Coprococcus and Eubacterium rectale, while it inhibited growth of certain harmful bacteria such as Blautia and Ralstonia pickettii. In addition, consumption of LCZ was responsible for the conversion of some participants from Prevotella copri/Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (PF) enterotype to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/Bacteroides dorei (FB) enterotype and consistently increased the abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the gut. It also increased/enhanced phosphate metabolic modules, amino acid transport systems, and isoleucine biosynthesis, but conversely decreased lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. These changes could have health benefits for healthy adults.

5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017844

RESUMO

Fermented concentrated feed has been widely recognized as an ideal feed in the animal industry. In this study, we used a powerful method, coupling propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment with single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology to compare the bacterial and fungal composition of feeds before and after fermentation with four added lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants (one Lactobacillus casei strain and three L. plantarum strains). Five feed samples consisting of corn, soybean meal, and wheat bran were fermented with LAB additives for 3 d. Following anaerobic fermentation, the pH rapidly decreased, and the mean numbers of LAB increased from 106 to 109 colony-forming units (cfu)/g fresh matter. SMRT sequencing results showed that the abundance and diversity of bacteria and fungi in the feed were significantly higher before fermentation than after fermentation. Fifteen bacterial species and eight fungal genera were significantly altered following fermentation, and L. plantarum was the dominant species (relative abundance 88.94%) in the post-fermentation group. PMA treatment revealed that the bacteria Bacillus cereus, B. circulans, Alkaliphilus oremlandii, Cronobacter sakazakii, Paenibacillus barcinonensis, and P. amylolyticus (relative abundance >1%) were viable in the raw feed. After fermentation, their relative abundances decreased sharply to <0.2%; however, viable L. plantarum was still the dominant species post fermentation. We inferred that our LAB additives grew rapidly and inhibited harmful microorganisms and further improved feed quality. In addition, coupling PMA treatment with the Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing technology was a powerful tool for providing accurate live microbiota profiling data in this study.

6.
Gut Microbes ; : 1-14, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079472

RESUMO

The challenging conditions encountered during long sea voyages increase the risk of health-threatening physiological and psychological stress for sailors compared with land-based workers. However, how the intestinal microbiota responds to a long sea voyage and whether there is a feasible approach for protecting gut health during sea voyage are still unexplored. Here, we designed a 30-d longitudinal study including a placebo group (n = 42) and a probiotic group (n = 40) and used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to explore the impacts of sea voyage on the intestinal microbiome of sailors. By comparing the intestinal microbiome of subjects in the placebo group at baseline (d 0) and at the end of the sea voyage (d 30), we observed an alteration in the intestinal microbiome during the long sea voyage based on the microbial structure; the results revealed an increase in the species Streptococcus gordonii and Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as a decrease in some functional features. However, the change in the microbial structure of sailors in the probiotic group between d 0 and d 30 was limited, which indicated a maintenance effect of probiotics on intestinal microbiome homeostasis. At the metagenomic strain level, a generally positive correlation was observed between probiotics and the strains belonging to Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium animalis, whereas a common negative correlation was observed between probiotics and Clostridium leptum; this result revealed the potential mechanism of maintaining intestinal microbiome homeostasis by probiotics. The present study provided a feasible approach for protecting gut health during a long sea voyage.

7.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e919086, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on kidney function in a rat model of uremia and the expression of heat shock proteins. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rat model of uremia was developed by 5/6 nephrectomy of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Hsp70 inhibitor MKT-077, a rhodacyanine dye, was used. The study groups included rats with sham surgery (the sham group), the rat model of uremia (the model group), the solvent-treated control group (the control group), the rat model treated with resveratrol group (the resveratrol group), the rat model treated with MKT-077 (the MKT-077 group), and the resveratrol+MKT-077 group. Kidney tissues were studied histologically. Renal cell apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL method. Expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS Compared with the sham group, the expression levels of heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp90, Hsp27, Hsp25, Hsp40, and Hsp60 in the kidney of the rat model group increased to different degrees. Compared with the model group, the Hsp70 levels in the resveratrol group were significantly increased (p<0.05). Compared with the model group, treatment with MKT-077 reduced the survival rate of rats, which was increased following resveratrol treatment. Compared with the resveratrol group, renal function in the resveratrol+MKT-077 group was significantly reduced (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In a rat model of uremia, resveratrol reduced renal injury and improved both renal function and survival, which were associated with increased expression of Hsp70.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122456, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786033

RESUMO

The addition of exogenous microorganisms is one approach with potential that may also overcome the problem in northern China of slow composting in autumn and winter due to low environmental temperatures. This study investigated the use of supplements of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), strains P-8 and LP-10, on the efficiency of sheep manure composting and the quality of the final product. The composting process lasted eight weeks and, during this time, changes in multiple physical-chemical parameters and the compost microbiome were monitored. Microbiota-encoded functions, community structure and physical-chemical parameters were distinct between the two groups. 'Composting microbiota maturation index' was proposed to quantitatively compare the impact of maturation on composting microecology. The rapid improvement in composting rate (4 weeks) and quality of the final product suggest that this approach could provide both technological and economic benefits. This work reveals the tremendous potential of L. plantarum as a promoter in composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lactobacillus plantarum , Animais , China , Esterco , Ovinos , Solo
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(4): 4197-4205, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828709

RESUMO

The micronano bubble water system (MNBW) generated by a micronano bubble generator (MNBG) has the superior oxidation properties and can improve gas solubility. In the study, a new wet recycling process based on MNBW is proposed to simultaneously remove nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The important experimental parameters such as initial water pH, initial water temperature, NO and SO2 concentrations, and the presence of oxygen (O2) were investigated to explore the feasibility of desulfurization and denitration with MNBW. The experimental results showed that decreasing initial water pH or increasing initial water temperature and NO and SO2 concentrations were not conducive to the removal of NO or SO2. O2 could promote the removal of NO, but it had no effect on SO2 removal. In addition, SO2 removal efficiency always remained high and did not change obviously during the experimental period. However, NO removal efficiency gradually decreased in the first 50 min and then became stable.

10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1238-1249, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864732

RESUMO

Cheese is a fermented dairy product that is popular for its unique flavor and nutritional value. Recent studies have shown that microorganisms in cheese play an important role in the fermentation process and determine the quality of the cheese. We collected 12 cheese samples from different regions and studied the composition of their bacterial communities using PacBio small-molecule real-time sequencing (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA). Our data revealed 144 bacterial genera (including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Staphylococcus) and 217 bacterial species (including Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Staphylococcus equorum, and Streptococcus uberis). We investigated the flavor quality of the cheese samples using an electronic nose system and we found differences in flavor-quality indices among samples from different regions. We found a clustering tendency based on flavor quality using principal component analysis. We found correlations between lactic acid bacteria and the flavor quality of the cheese samples. Biodegradation and metabolism of xenobiotics, and lipid-metabolism-related pathways, were predicted to contribute to differences in cheese flavor using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt). This preliminary study explored the bacterial communities in cheeses collected from different regions and their potential genome functions from the perspective of flavor quality.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Queijo/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Queijo/análise , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Lactococcus lactis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus thermophilus/genética , Streptococcus thermophilus/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4256-4267, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504586

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the effects of adding sodium butyrate (SB), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) to the diet of sows during late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance and intestinal health of suckling piglets. Twenty-four sows (Landrace × Large-White hybrid; third parity; 200 ± 15 kg) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: basal diet (control group), basal diet + 1 g SB/kg (SB group), basal diet + 7.75 g MCFA/kg (MCFA group), or basal diet + 68.2 g n-3 PUFA/kg (n-3 PUFA group). The experiment began on day 85 of gestation and ended day 22 of lactation. Colostrum samples were collected from each sow. After the experiment, blood and tissue samples were collected from 1 randomly selected piglet. The results showed that the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was shorter than that of sows in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea in suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was lower than that of piglets in the control group (P < 0.05). The fat, protein, IgA, IgG, and IgM concentration in colostrum from sows increased following dietary supplementation with SB, MCFA, or n-3 PUFA (P < 0.05). Comparison with the control group, the mRNA expression of claudin-1, zona occludens 1, and interleukin-10 increased in the jejunum mucosa of suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups, while that of TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Chao1 and ACE indexes of microbial flora in the colon contents of piglets in the SB, MCFA, and MCFA groups increased (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Synergistetes decreased at the phylum level (P < 0.05). In conclusion, during late pregnancy and lactation, dietary SB supplementation had a greater effect on intestinal health and caused a greater decrease in preweaning mortality of suckling piglets than did dietary MCFA or n-3 PUFA supplementation; dietary MCFA supplementation shortened the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows to a greater extent than did dietary SB or n-3 PUFA supplementation; and dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation increased the fat and protein content in the colostrum to the greatest extent.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Colostro/química , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame
12.
Microorganisms ; 7(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505744

RESUMO

Pennisetum sinese is a good forage grass with high biomass production and crude proteins. However, little is known about the endophytic fungi diversity of P. sinese, which might play an important role in the plant's growth and biomass production. Here, we used high throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences based on primers ITS5-1737 and ITS2-2043R to investigate the endophytic fungi diversity of P. sinese roots at the maturity stage, as collected from four provinces (Shaanxi province, SX; Fujian province, FJ; the Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous prefecture, XJ and Inner Mongolia, including sand (NS) and saline-alkali land (NY), China). The ITS sequences were processed using QIIME and R software. A total of 374,875 effective tags were obtained, and 708 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were yielded with 97% identity in the five samples. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the two dominant phyla in the five samples, and the genera Khuskia and Heydenia were the most abundant in the FJ and XJ samples, respectively, while the most abundant tags in the other three samples could not be annotated at the genus level. In addition, our study revealed that the FJ sample possessed the highest OTU numbers (242) and the NS sample had the lowest (86). Moreover, only 22 OTUs were present in all samples simultaneously. The beta diversity analysis suggested a division of two endophytic fungi groups: the FJ sample from the south of China and the other four samples from north or northwest China. Correlation analysis between the environmental factors and endophytic fungi at the class level revealed that Sordariomycetes and Pucciniomycetes had extremely significant positive correlations with the total carbon, annual average precipitation, and annual average temperature, while Leotiomycetes showed an extremely significant negative correlation with quick acting potassium. The results revealed significant differences in the root endophytic fungi diversity of P. sinese in different provinces and might be useful for growth promotion and biomass production in the future.

13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9651-9662, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495625

RESUMO

Streptococcus thermophilus is an important bacterium used in the production of fermented dairy products. Yogurt with good flavor is preferred by consumers; thus, variation in flavor-formation characteristics among isolates is attracting attention. Here, acetaldehyde production characteristics of 30 isolates were evaluated in parallel with genotyping and multilocus sequence typing of key functional genes involved in acetaldehyde production. The results showed that isolates could be divided into 3 phenotypically distinct groups: high-acetaldehyde-yielding isolates (>10 mg/L), medium-acetaldehyde-yielding isolates (5-10 mg/L) and low-acetaldehyde-yielding (<5 mg/L) based on evaluation of acetaldehyde production during yogurt storage. These groups, distinguishable by phenotypic characteristics, were clustered in corresponding groups based on functional gene multilocus sequence typing analysis. Combining functional gene sequence analysis of 30 Strep. thermophilus isolates with phenotypic evaluation of their flavor-related characteristics (specifically acetaldehyde production) demonstrated that groups of isolates established using genotype data analysis corresponded with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. Interestingly, the 30 isolates of Strep. thermophilus showed significant phylogenetic clustering in acetaldehyde content by functional gene and acetaldehyde content analysis. A corresponding relationship exists between functional gene phylogenetic clustering and acetaldehyde content variation.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Streptococcus thermophilus/genética , Animais , Aromatizantes , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Streptococcus thermophilus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolismo , Iogurte/microbiologia
14.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 602, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important nosocomial pathogen, Enterococcus faecium has received increasing attention in recent years. However, a large number of studies have focused on the hospital-associated isolates and ignored isolates originated from the natural environments. RESULTS: In this study, comparative genomic analysis was conducted on 161 isolates originated from human, animal, and naturally fermented dairy products. The results showed that the environment played an important role in shaping the genomes of Enterococcus faecium. The isolates from human had the largest average genome size, while the isolates from dairy products had the smallest average genome size and fewest antibiotic resistance genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed based on the genomes of these isolates, which revealed new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among the dairy isolates and those from hospitals, communities, and animals. Furthermore, 202 environment-specific genes were identified, including 136 dairy-specific, 31 human blood-specific, and 35 human gastrointestinal-specific genes. Interestingly, five dairy-specific genes (namely lacF, lacA/B, lacD, lacG, and lacC) that constituted an integrated lactose metabolism pathway existed in almost all dairy isolates. The pathway conservation demonstrated an active role of the environment in shaping the genomes of Enterococcus faecium. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the Enterococcus faecium species has great genomic plasticity and high versatility to occupy broad ecological roles, dwelling as non-harmful dairy and animal gut commensals as well as significant nosocomial pathogens that disseminate antibiotic resistance genes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Genômica , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
15.
Biomaterials ; 211: 48-56, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085358

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most malignant cancers, and Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle to diagnose and treat GBM, hence scientists are making great efforts to develop new drugs which can pass BBB and integrate diagnosis and therapeutics together. Here, we designed plasma membrane of macrophage camouflaged DSPE-PEG loaded near-infrared Ib (NIR-Ib) fluorescence dye IR-792 nanoparticles (MDINPs). MDINPs were able to penetrate BBB and selectively accumulate at tumor site, and then could be used as NIR-Ib fluorescence probes for targeted tumor imaging. At the same time, MDINPs could kill tumor cells by photothermal effect. Our results showed that MDINPs-mediated NIR-Ib fluorescence imaging could clearly observe orthotopic GBM, and the NIR-Ib imaging-guided photothermal therapy significantly suppressed the growth of GBM and prolonged the life of mice. This work not only provided a method to mimic the biological function of macrophage, but also provided an integrative strategy for diagnosis and treatment in GBM.

16.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(7): 674-682, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084590

RESUMO

Intestines are not only major organs for nutrient digestion and absorption, but are also the largest immune organ in pigs. They are essential for maintaining the health and growth of piglets. Fatty acids, including short-chain fatty acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important nutrients; they are a major energy source, important components of the cell membrane, metabolic substrates in many biochemical pathways, cell-signaling molecules, and play role as immune modulators. Research has shown that fatty acids exert beneficial effects on intestinal health in animal models and clinical trials. The objective of this review is to give a clear understanding of the regulatory effects of fatty acids of different chain lengths on intestinal health in pigs and their signaling pathways, providing scientific reference for developing a feeding technique to apply fatty acids to piglet diets.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Suínos
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human colon inflammation is associated with changes in the diverse and abundant microorganisms in the gut. As important beneficial microbes, Lactobacillus contributes to the immune responses and intestinal integrity that may alleviate experimental colitis. However, the mechanisms underlying probiotic benefits have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Dextran sodium sulfate or rapamycin-challenged mice were used as model for colon inflammation evaluation. Histological scores of the colon, levels of colonic myeloperoxidase, serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were assessed as inflammatory markers and the gut microbiota profiles of each mouse were studied. RESULTS: We found that Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LCZ) can prevent experimental colitis and rapamycin-induced inflammation in intestinal mucosa by improving histological scores, decreasing host inflammatory cytokines, modulating gut-dominated bacteria, enhancing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression and downregulating the expression of p-STAT3 (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) or Akt/NF-κB (AKT serine/threonine kinase and nuclear factor kappa B). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that LCZ may provide effective prevention against colitis.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001271

RESUMO

Probiotics have been used successfully to promote human and animal health, but only limited studies have focused on using probiotics to improve the health of hosts of different age. Canine microbiome studies may be predictive of results in humans because of the high structural and functional similarity between dog and human microbiomes. A total of 90 dogs were divided into three groups based on dog age (elderly group, n = 30; young group, n = 24; and training group, n = 36). Each group was subdivided into two subgroups, with and without receiving daily probiotic feed additive. The probiotic feed additive contained three different bacterial strains, namely Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P-8, and Bifdobacterium animalis subsp. lactis V9. Serum and fecal samples were collected and analyzed at four different time points, i.e., days 0, 30, and 60 of probiotic treatment, and 15 days after ceasing probiotic treatment. The results demonstrated that probiotics significantly promoted the average daily feed intake of the elderly dogs (P < 0.01) and the average daily weight gain of all dogs (P < 0.05), enhanced the level of serum IgG (P < 0.001), IFN-α (P < 0.05), and fecal SIgA (P < 0.001), while reduced the TNF-α (P < 0.05). Additionally, probiotics could change the gut microbial structure of elderly dogs and significantly increased beneficial bacteria (including some Lactobacillus species and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and decreased potentially harmful bacteria (including Escherichia coli and Sutterella stercoricanisin), and the elderly dogs showed the strongest response to the probiotics; the relative abundance of some of these species correlated with certain immune factors and physiological parameters, suggesting that the probiotic treatment improved the host health and enhanced the host immunity by stimulating antibody and cytokine secretion through regulating canine gut microbiota. Furthermore, the gut microbiota of the elderly dogs shifted toward a younger-like composition at day 60 of probiotic treatment. Our findings suggested that the probiotic treatment effects on canine health and immunity were age-related and have provided interesting insights into future development of probiotic-based strategies to improve animal and human health.

19.
mSystems ; 4(2)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020040

RESUMO

Although a few studies have investigated the intestinal microbiota of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the functional and metabolic mechanisms of the microbes associated with PCOS, as well as potential microbial biomarkers, have not yet been identified. To address this gap, we designed a two-phase experiment in which we performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing and monitored the metabolic parameters, gut-brain mediators, and sex hormones of PCOS patients. In the first stage, we identified an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota of the PCOS patients, observing that Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia were significantly more abundant in the control group, whereas Parabacteroides and Clostridium were enriched in the PCOS group. In the second stage, we monitored the impact of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis V9 on the intestinal microbiome, gut-brain mediators, and sex hormones of 14 PCOS patients. Notably, we observed that the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) decreased significantly in 9 volunteers, whereas the levels of sex hormones and intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) increased markedly. In contrast, the changes in the indices mentioned above were indistinct in the remaining 5 volunteers. The results of an analysis of the number of viable Bifidobacterium lactis V9 cells in the two groups were highly consistent with the clinical and SCFA results. Therefore, effective host gut colonization of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis V9 was crucial for its ability to function as a probiotic. Finally, we propose a potential mechanism describing how probiotics regulate the levels of sex hormones by manipulating the intestinal microbiome in PCOS patients. IMPORTANCE Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder among women of reproductive age worldwide. Through a two-phase clinical experiment, we first revealed an imbalance in the intestinal microbiome of PCOS patients. By binning and annotating shotgun metagenomic sequences into metagenomic species (MGS), 61 MGSs were identified as potential PCOS-related microbial biomarkers. In the second stage, we monitored the impact of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis V9 on the intestinal microbiota, metabolic parameters, gut-brain mediators, and sex hormones of PCOS patients. Notably, we observed that the PCOS-related clinical indices and the intestinal microbiotas of the participating patients exhibited an inconsistent response to the intake of the B. lactis V9 probiotic. Therefore, effective host gut colonization of the probiotic was crucial for its ability to function as a probiotic. Finally, we propose a potential mechanism by which B. lactis V9 regulates the levels of sex hormones by manipulating the intestinal microbiome in PCOS patients.

20.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2618-2629, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021333

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics on the composition and function of the gut microbiota in dogs with diarrhoea. Forty dogs with diarrhoea were randomly allocated to the treatment group or control group. Probiotics, containing Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P-8, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis V9, were only fed to 20 treated dogs for 60 days. The faecal samples of all dogs at day 0 and day 60 were analyzed using a metagenomic approach. The results showed a significantly higher microbial diversity and an obvious change in the structure of the gut microbiota in the treatment group. There was also an increase in the abundance of some beneficial bacteria in differently aged dogs, such as Lactobacillus johnsonii (P < 0.05), Lactobacillus reuteri (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus acidophilus (P < 0.05) and Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (P < 0.05), and a reduction in the abundance of many opportunistic pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens (P < 0.05) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (P < 0.05) with the supplementation of probiotics. Intriguingly, the correlated networks among some pathogenic bacteria decreased following the administration of probiotics. Additionally, metagenomic analysis revealed the upregulation of pathways involved in the metabolism of amino acids and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, accompanied by the downregulation of pathways associated with virulence of pathogenic bacteria and cell signaling, suggesting that probiotics could improve the health of dogs with diarrhoea through regulation of the gut microbiota. Our research provides new information relevant to the treatment of diarrhoea in animals and humans.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Filogenia
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