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1.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants. METHODS: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1565, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In gestational trophoblastic disease, the prognosis is related to the genetic constitution. In some cases, taking a biopsy is contraindicated. METHODS: In a pregnant woman, ultrasound scanning suggested hydatidiform mole. To explore if the genetic constitution can be established without taking a biopsy (or terminating the pregnancy), cell-free DNA and circulating gestational trophoblasts were isolated from maternal blood before evacuation of the uterus. The evacuated tissue showed the morphology of a complete hydatidiform mole. Without prior whole-genome amplification, short tandem repeat analysis of 24 DNA markers was performed on the samples, and on DNA isolated from evacuated tissue, and from the blood of the patient and her partner. RESULTS: Identical genetic results were obtained in each of three circulating gestational trophoblasts and the evacuated tissue, showing that this conceptus had a diploid androgenetic nuclear genome. In contrast, analysis of cell-free DNA was less informative and less specific due to the inherent presence of cell-free DNA from the patient. CONCLUSION: Our results show that it is possible to isolate and analyze circulating gestational trophoblasts originating in a pregnancy without maternal nuclear genome. For diagnosing gestational trophoblastic diseases, genotyping circulating gestational trophoblasts appears to be superior to analysis of cell-free DNA.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17041, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046739

RESUMO

Incidences of hydatidiform mole (HM) registered in European countries varies from 0.98/1000 to 2.17/1000 deliveries, while higher incidences have been reported in other parts of the world. We calculated the incidence by selecting data on HMs classified as "first", "second" and "third" from 01.01.1999 to 31.12.2014 registered in the Danish Pathology Registry, which we previously showed to be the most complete data source on the number of HMs in Denmark. In the study period, 1976 first HMs were registered; 1080 (55%) were classified as PHMs (partial HMs) and 896 (45%) as NPHMs (HMs not registered as PHMs). The average incidence of HM was 1.98/1000 deliveries. The incidence of PHM was 1.08/1000 deliveries and the incidence of NPHM was 0.90/1000 deliveries. Forty HMs were registered as second HMs; 85% (34/40) were of the same histopathological type as the first HM. The registered incidence of HM decreased from 2.55/1000 deliveries in 1999 to 1.61/1000 deliveries in 2014 (p < 0.005). The decrease in the incidence of HM was identical with a decrease in the incidence of PHM. New medical practices such as medical abortion and only forwarding selected pregnancy products for histopathologic examination may cause a declining number of HMs registered.

7.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(6): 1355-1365, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate presence and role of the gene encoding the maternally contributed nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors with a pyrin domain (PYD)-containing protein 9 (NLRP9) in human and mouse ovaries, respectively, and in preimplantation mouse embryo development by knocking down Nlrp9b. METHODS: Expression levels of NLRP9 mRNA in human follicles were extracted from RNA sequencing data from previous studies. In this study, we performed a qPCR analysis of Nlpr9b mRNA in mouse oocytes and found it present. Intracellular ovarian distribution of NLRP9B protein was accomplished using immunohistochemistry. The distribution of NLRP9B was explored using a reporter gene approach, fusing NLRP9B to green fluorescent protein and microinjection of in vitro-generated mRNA. Nlrp9b mRNA function was knocked down by microinjection of short interference (si) RNA targeting Nlrp9b, into mouse pronuclear zygotes. Knockdown of the Nlrp9b mRNA transcript was confirmed by qPCR. RESULT: We found that the human NLRP9 gene and its corresponding protein are highly expressed in human primordial and primary follicles. The NLRP9B protein is localized to the cytoplasm in the blastomeres of a 2-cell embryo in mice. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of Nlrp9b caused rapid elimination of endogenous Nlrp9b mRNA and premature embryo arrest at the 2- to 4-cell stages compared with that of the siRNA-scrambled control group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that mouse Nlrp9b, as a maternal effect gene, could contribute to mouse preimplantation embryo development. It remains to investigate whether NLRP9 have a crucial role in human preimplantation embryo and infertility.

8.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 28(9): 694-701, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567274

RESUMO

The protein p57 is encoded by CDKN1C. This gene is known to be paternally imprinted and maternally expressed in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells. We present a method for evaluating p57 antibodies (Abs) in hydatidiform mole (HM) and demonstrate the results for 4 p57 Abs in various cell types. Five cases of complete HM, diploid with 2 paternal genome sets (CHM;PP), 5 cases of partial HM, triploid with 2 paternal and 1 maternal genome sets (PHM;PPM), and 5 cases of non-HM, with diploid biparental genomes (non-HM;PM) were stained with p57 Abs: 57P06, EP183, KP10, and KP39. Assessment of the fraction of nuclei stained, and the intensity of staining of the nuclei and cytoplasm was performed. For evaluation of the Abs, the observations in cytotrophoblasts, villous stromal cells, maternal decidual cells, and intermediate trophoblasts were scored. The fraction of stained nuclei in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells and the staining of cytoplasm showed to be important parameters in the evaluation of the Abs. 57P06 was evaluated as optimal. KP10 showed moderate cytoplasmatic staining in maternal decidual cells and intermediate trophoblasts, and was evaluated as good. EP183 was evaluated as poor, primarily due to nuclear staining in ≥10% of the villous stromal cells in CHM;PP. KP39 was evaluated as poor, primarily due to strong cytoplasmatic staining in some cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells. A structured testing of p57 for diagnosing HM is recommended. No nuclear staining was observed in syncytiotrophoblasts of CHM;PP, indicating that in syncytiotrophoblasts also, CDKN1C is paternally imprinted.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/economia , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(45)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791451

RESUMO

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with highly varying disease manifestations, many of which cause extensive morbidity. There are international consensus criteria for the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of TSC, and approved medical treatment for some of the most serious disease manifestations. However, organisation of a rational and coordinated care of TSC patients involves many different medical specialities and is only sparsely described. This review describes the interdisciplinary care of TSC patients at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.


Assuntos
Esclerose Tuberosa , Consenso , Dinamarca , Humanos , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico , Esclerose Tuberosa/terapia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636762

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that in pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variant carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was not reduced when colonoscopy was undertaken more frequently than once every 3 years, and that CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated. Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) that records outcomes of surveillance was examined to determine survival after colon cancer in relation to the time since previous colonoscopy and pathological stage. Only path_MMR variants scored by the InSiGHT variant database as class 4 or 5 (clinically actionable) were included in the analysis. Results: Ninety-nine path_MMR carriers had no cancer prior to or at first colonoscopy, but subsequently developed colon cancer. Among these, 96 were 65 years of age or younger at diagnosis, and included 77 path_MLH1, 17 path_MSH2, and 2 path_MSH6 carriers. The number of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years after previous colonoscopy were 9, 43, 31 and 13, respectively. Of these, 2, 8, 4 and 3 were stage III, respectively, and only one stage IV (interval 2.5-3.5 years) disease. Ten-year crude survival after colon cancer were 93, 94 and 82% for stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten-year crude survival when the last colonoscopy had been < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 or > 3.5 years before diagnosis, was 89, 90, 90 and 92%, respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions: In path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers, more advanced colon cancer stage was associated with poorer survival, whereas time since previous colonoscopy was not. Although the numbers are limited, together with our previously reported findings, these results may be in conflict with the view that follow-up of path_MMR variant carriers with colonoscopy intervals of less than 3 years provides significant benefit.

12.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(33)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495354

RESUMO

This review summarises the knowledge of recurrent diploid biparental hydatidiform mole, which is a rare genetic condition. Pathogenic variants in both alleles of NLRP7 or KHDC3L are associated with maternal imprinting defects and can cause the condition. Women with biallelic inactivation of NLRP7 can achieve a normal pregnancy by oocyte donation, and it is highly likely, that this applies to women with biallelic inactivation of KHDCL3 as well. Identifying the cause of the recurrent moles can prevent that couples waist time and possibly reduce medical expenses related to fertility treatment.


Assuntos
Mola Hidatiforme , Neoplasias Uterinas , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Diploide , Feminino , Humanos , Mola Hidatiforme/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Gravidez , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética
13.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 381-388, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435815

RESUMO

The Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) calculates the probability that a woman carries a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 based on her pedigree and the population frequencies of pathogenic alleles of BRCA1 (0.0006394) and BRCA2 (0.00102) in the United Kingdom (UK). BOADICEA allows the clinician to define the population frequencies of pathogenic alleles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 for other populations but only includes preset values for the Ashkenazy Jewish and Icelandic populations. Among 173 early-onset breast cancer pedigrees in Denmark, BOADICEA discriminated well between carriers and non-carriers of pathogenic variants (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve: 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.86) but underestimated the frequency of carriers of pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 as measured by the observed-to-expected ratio (O/E 1.83; 95% CI 1.18-2.84). This reflects findings from older studies of BOADICEA in UK, German, Italian, and Chinese populations, all accounting for the different calibration for different carrier probabilities. To improve the performance of BOADICEA for non-UK populations, we developed a method to derive population frequencies of pathogenic alleles of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Compared to the UK population frequencies, we estimated the Danish population frequencies of pathogenic alleles to be higher for BRCA1 (0.0015; 95% CI 0.00064-0.0034) and lower for BRCA2 (0.00052; 95% CI 0.00018-0.0017) after adjusting for the different calibration of BOADICEA for different carrier probabilities. Incorporating additional population frequencies into BOADICEA could improve its performance for non-UK populations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Frequência do Gene , Modelos Genéticos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Algoritmos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Calibragem , Dinamarca , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Linhagem , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
15.
Biol Reprod ; 101(2): 284-296, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201414

RESUMO

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors with a pyrin domain (PYD), NLRPs, are pattern recognition receptors, well recognized for their important roles in innate immunity and apoptosis. However, several NLRPs have received attention for their new, specialized roles as maternally contributed genes important in reproduction and embryo development. Several NLRPs have been shown to be specifically expressed in oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Interestingly, and in line with divergent functions, NLRP genes reveal a complex evolutionary divergence. The most pronounced difference is the human-specific NLRP7 gene, not identified in rodents. However, mouse models have been extensively used to study maternally contributed NLRPs. The NLRP2 and NLRP5 proteins are components of the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC), which was recently identified as essential for mouse preimplantation development. The SCMC integrates multiple proteins, including KHDC3L, NLRP5, TLE6, OOEP, NLRP2, and PADI6. The NLRP5 (also known as MATER) has been extensively studied. In humans, inactivating variants in specific NLRP genes in the mother are associated with distinct phenotypes in the offspring, such as biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHMs) and preterm birth. Maternal-effect recessive mutations in KHDC3L and NLRP5 (and NLRP7) are associated with reduced reproductive outcomes, BiHM, and broad multilocus imprinting perturbations. The precise mechanisms of NLRPs are unknown, but research strongly indicates their pivotal roles in the establishment of genomic imprints and post-zygotic methylation maintenance, among other processes. Challenges for the future include translations of findings from the mouse model into human contexts and implementation in therapies and clinical fertility management.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos
16.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 1223-1231, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271218

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the validity of registration of hydatidiform mole (HM) in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), the Danish Cancer Registry (DCR), and the Danish Pathology Registry (DPR). Patients and methods: We selected women registered with a first-time HM code in NPR, DCR, and DPR from 1999 to 2009. We found most women registered in DPR. For a random sample of women registered in DPR, the coding was validated by comparing with the pathology report. Completeness and positive predictive value (PPV) of registration with an HM code in NPR and DCR were calculated using DPR as the reference. Details of women registered in NPR or DCR, but not in DPR, were scrutinized. Results: In NPR and DPR, 1,520 women were identified in total; 1,057 (70%) were found in both registries, 65 (4%) only in NPR, and 398 (26%) only in DPR. In DCR and DPR, 1,498 women were identified in total; 1,174 (78%) in both registries, 47 (3%) only in DCR, and 277 (19%) only in DPR. For 149/150 randomly selected women registered with an HM code in DPR (99%), the pathology report was consistent with the diagnosis of HM. Completeness of NPR was 73% (95% CI: 70%-75%) and PPV was 94% (95% CI: 93%-95%). Completeness of DCR was 72% (95% CI: 69%-75%) in 1999-2003 and 90% (95% CI: 87%-92%) in 2004-2009. PPV of DCR was 96% (95% CI: 95%-97%) throughout the period. Conclusion: Validation of registry data is important before using these. For research on the number of HMs in Denmark, DPR is the most valid data source. NPR and DCR appear to be equally valid before 2004. However, for research after 2004, DCR should be preferred rather than NPR.

17.
Prenat Diagn ; 38(13): 1103-1110, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome when trisomy 16 confined to the placenta is diagnosed and to identify possible prognostic markers for adverse outcomes in these pregnancies. METHOD: Registered cases (n = 49) of trisomy 16 diagnosed prenatally in Denmark from 1990 to 2013 were included. RESULTS: Twenty-five of the pregnancies intended to be continued had confined placental trisomy 16 mosaicism (CPM16). Adverse pregnancy outcome was seen in 17 CPM16 pregnancies (68%), ranging from mild small for gestational age (SGA) to fetal malformations and intrauterine demise. For cases ascertained by combined first trimester screening, the median concentration of pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) was 0.17 MoM (IQR: 0.11 MoM). Adverse pregnancy outcome showed a trend toward an association with a high frequency of trisomic cells. Eight children (32%) were born at term with a normal birth weight and no malformations. CONCLUSION: The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in case of CPM16 is correlated to ascertainment by combined first trimester screening and tends to be associated with a high frequency of trisomic cells in the placenta. We recommend that variables including ascertainment, the frequency of trisomic cells, and the maternal serum concentration of PAPP-A are taken into consideration when evaluating the prognosis in CPM16 while acknowledging that these factors are strongly correlated.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Morte Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Mosaicismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Sistema de Registros , Trissomia/genética , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Gravidez , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1416-1422, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663640

RESUMO

Choroid plexus hyperplasia leading to communicating hydrocephalus is a rare disorder with only 24 patients reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, genetic information is only available for six of these cases: In one patient the condition was associated with trisomy 9p, in one patient with trisomy 9 mosaicism and in three patients with tetrasomy 9p. Here, we describe four additional patients with choroid plexus hyperplasia leading to various levels of hydrocephalus, and gain of the entire chromosome 9p region: Three with trisomy 9p and one with tetrasomy 9p. The three patients with trisomy 9p were siblings. Normal karyotypes were identified in the lymphocytes of the parents. Likely one of the parents is a mosaic for a cell line with trisomy 9p in the gonads. We demonstrate the importance of correctly diagnosing choroid plexus hyperplasia as the cause of hydrocephalus in patients with chromosome 9p gain since ventriculoperitoneal shunting is likely to fail due to intolerable formation of ascites.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Hiperplasia/genética , Trissomia , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Pré-Escolar , Plexo Corióideo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Doenças em Gêmeos , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Hiperplasia/etiologia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mosaicismo
19.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. RESULTS: Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending studies that will inform new recommendations on the best surveillance interval.

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