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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-7, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008587

RESUMO

We seek to identify factors that facilitate or inhibit transmission of drug abuse (DA) from high-risk parents to their children. In 44,250 offspring of these parents, ascertained from a Swedish national sample for having a mother and/or father with DA, we explored, using Cox models, how the prevalence of DA was predicted by potentially malleable risk factors in these high-risk parents, their spouses and the rearing environment they provided. Analyses of offspring of discordant high-risk siblings and offspring of discordant sibling-in-laws and step-parents aided causal inference. Risk for DA in the children was associated with high-risk and married-in parental externalizing psychopathology, a range of other features of these parents (e.g., low education and receipt of welfare), and aspects of the rearing environment (e.g., neighborhood deprivation and number of nearby drug dealers). Offspring of discordant high-risk siblings, siblings-in-laws and step-parents suggested that nearly all these associations were partly causal. A multivariate analysis utilizing offspring of discordant high-risk siblings identified the six most significant potentially malleable risk factors for offspring DA: (1) criminal behavior (CB) in married-in parent, (2) community peer deviance, (3) broken family, (4) DA in high-risk parent, (5) CB in high-risk parent and (6) number of family moves. Children in the lowest decile of risk had a 50% reduction in their DA prevalence, similar to that seen in the general population. We conclude that transmission of DA from high-risk parents to children partly results from a range of potentially malleable risk factors that could serve as foci for intervention.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014132, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009521

RESUMO

Background It remains unclear whether heritable factors can contribute to risk stratification for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined whether having a sibling with ischemic stroke was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke and mortality in patients with AF. Methods and Results In this nationwide study of the Swedish population, patients with AF and their siblings were identified from the Swedish patient registers and the Swedish MGR (Multi-Generation Register). Ischemic stroke events were retrieved from the Swedish patient registers and CDR (Cause of Death Register). Risk of ischemic stroke was compared between patients with AF with and without a sibling affected by ischemic stroke, AF, or both ischemic stroke and AF. The total study population comprised 113 988 subjects (mean age, 60±12 years) diagnosed with AF between 1989 and 2012. In total, 11 709 of them were diagnosed with a first ischemic stroke and 20 097 died during a mean follow-up time of 5.5 years for ischemic stroke and 5.9 years for mortality. After adjustment for covariates having a sibling with ischemic stroke, or both ischemic stroke and AF, was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.23-1.40 or hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.24-1.49, respectively). Furthermore, ischemic stroke in a sibling was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.14). In contrast, the risk of stroke was only marginally increased for patients with AF with a spouse affected by ischemic stroke. Conclusions Having a sibling affected by ischemic stroke confers an increased risk of ischemic stroke and death independently of traditional risk factors in patients with AF.

3.
Seizure ; 76: 116-122, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062322

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to study the association between country of birth and incident epilepsy in several immigrant groups using Swedish-born individuals as referents. METHOD: The study population included all adults aged 18 years and older in Sweden, living and deceased, 6,690,598 in the first-generation and 6,683,125 in the second-generation sub-study. Epilepsy was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis of epilepsy in the National Patient Register. The incidence of epilepsy in different immigrant groups, using Swedish-born as referents, was assessed by Cox regression, expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The models were stratified by sex and adjusted for age, geographical residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In the first-generation sub-study, totally 76,541 individuals had at least one registered diagnosis of epilepsy (1.14 % in total; men 1.22 % and women 1.07 %), and in the second-generation study 72,545 (1.09 %; men 1.18 % and women 0.99 %). After adjusting for confounders, in first-generation immigrants compared to their Swedish-born counterparts the incidence was somewhat lower among both men (HR 0.92, 0.90-0.96) and women (HR 0.93, 0.90-0.96), and in the second-generation immigrants among women (HR 0.95, 0.92-0.99) but not men (HR 0.99; 0.96-1.02). Among immigrant groups, a higher incidence of epilepsy was observed among first-generation women from Africa and Iraq, and second-generation men and women from Bosnia, and women from Finland. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of epilepsy was lower in immigrants in general compared to the Swedish-born population; but with higher incidence in some specific groups.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012479

RESUMO

The increased survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) is probably due to early diagnosis combined with improved treatment most recently. National health campaigns and screening programs for melanoma detection were started in Sweden several decades ago. We want to assess the influence of tumor characteristics, based on the TNM classification, and of second primary cancers on overall survival in melanoma. We used the Swedish Cancer Registry to assess all-cause survival in melanoma from 2003 to 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. A total of 19,773 melanoma patients were diagnosed with TNM data. Survival showed a strong improving trend over time (P-trend<0.001). T1a was the most common classification (48.0% of all) while higher T class associated systematically with worse survival (P-trend<0.001). For distant metastases the HR was 3.17, accounting for 0.9% of the patients. Any types of second primary cancers, other than melanoma, were associated with an HR of 2.00, accounted for 6.7% of all cases. Even if melanoma survival in Sweden ranks among the best national rates, the large percentage of patients advanced tumors (T3b, T4a and T4b, 17%) and 21% of deaths with T1a call for improved preventive and follow-up strategies.

6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Association between socio-demographic factors and dementia risk is studied in general but not for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. METHODS: We studied AF patients ≥ 45 years in Sweden 1998-2012 (n = 537,513) using the Total Population Register for socio-demographic factors, the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the National Patient Register (NPR) for incident dementia. Cox regression with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used for the association between exposure and outcome, adjusting for age and comorbidities. RESULTS: Totally 30,332 patients (5.6%) were diagnosed with dementia during the follow-up (mean 5.4 years). Of these, 14,097 were men (4.9%) and 16,235 were women (6.5%). Lower educational levels (reference: highest level) were associated with increased dementia, HRs (95% CI) for basic school for men 1.23 (1.18-1.29) and women 1.36 (1.30-1.42), and middle-level school for men 1.17 (1.11-1.22) and women 1.28 (1.22-1.34). Divorced men and women (reference: married) showed increased risk of dementia, HR 1.07 (1.01-1.13) and 1.12 (1.06-1.18), respectively, while widowed men showed lower risk, HR 0.84 (0.80-0.88). High deprivation neighborhood socio-economic status (NSES; reference: medium level) was associated with increased dementia in men, HR 1.11 (1.05-1.17), and low deprivation neighborhood socio-economic status (NSES) with increased dementia in men and women, HR 1.12 (1.06-1.18) and 1.18 (1.12-1.24), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Some results were expected, i.e. association between lower educational level and dementia. The higher risk of dementia in low deprivation NSES-areas could be due to a higher awareness about dementia, and subsequent earlier diagnosis and treatment of dementia.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to quantify and investigate the causal nature of the association between resilience at age 18 and future drug abuse (DA). METHOD: In a national sample of Swedish men (n = 1 392 800), followed for a mean of 30.3 years, resilience was assessed during military conscription and DA defined from medical, criminal and pharmacy registers. For causal inference, we utilized three methods: (i) instrumental variable analyses with the month of birth as the instrument; (ii) co-relative analyses using the general population, cousins, siblings and monozygotic twins; and (iii) propensity scoring on a subsample (n = 48 548) with strong resilience predictors. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to examine survival time till DA diagnosis. RESULTS: Low resilience was most robustly predicted from internalizing symptoms. Lower levels of standardized resilience strongly predicted the risk for DA (HR = 2.31, 95% CIs 2.28-2.33). In instrumental, co-relative, and propensity score analyses, the association between resilience and DA was estimated at HR = 3.06 (2.44-3.85), 1.34 (1.28-1.39), and 1.40 (1.28-1.53), respectively. Sensitivity analyses suggested that our instrument was weak and, despite our large sample, likely under-estimated confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Low resilience strongly predicts DA risk. Three different causal analysis methods, with divergent assumptions, concurred in estimating that an appreciable proportion of this association was causal, probably around 40%, with the remainder arising from confounding variables many of which are likely familial. Consistent with prior interventions focused on substance use prevention, our results suggest that prevention programs that increase resilience in adolescence should meaningfully reduce the long-term risk for DA.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 124: 207-213, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although reproductive history is recognised to affect the risk of breast cancer, current breast cancer screening guidelines do not consider risk differences by this important factor. As there is a need for an earlier screening in women at increased risk of breast cancer, we provided evidence-based risk-adapted starting age of screening based on different reproductive profiles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study including 5,099,172 Swedish women born after 1931. Records of study participants in Swedish Cancer Registry, Multi-generation Register, Cause of Death Register, and national censuses (follow-up, 1958-2015) have been linked. We used 10-year cumulative risk of breast cancer curves to determine the age at which women with different reproductive factors attained the risk level at which breast screening is usually recommended. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative risk of breast cancer at age 40, 45 and 50 years in the general population, at which current screening guidelines recommend screening was calculated. We found that women with various reproductive factors (defined by parity and age at first birth) obtained this level of risk at different ages. The difference was between nine years later and three years earlier. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the age at which women with particular reproductive profile could start risk-adapted breast cancer screening. This supplies novel information for clinicians and women about when to start breast cancer screening and is an important step towards a personalised screening.

9.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(2): 132-142, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466471

RESUMO

AIMS: Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition due to the risk of aneurysm growth and rupture. There are no approved diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm. We aimed to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm and to investigate their relationship with abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter and growth. METHODS: In this case-control study, patients were included from an abdominal aortic aneurysm screening study on men aged ≥65 years. Of 24,589 examined men, 415 had abdominal aortic aneurysm, out of whom 134 consented to participate in the present study. One hundred and thirty-six screened men with aortic diameter <30 mm, matched for comorbidities and time of sampling were included as non-abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. Ninety-one cardiovascular specific proteins in plasma samples were measured by the Proseek Multiplex CVD III96x96 panel. RESULTS: After Bonferroni correction, plasma levels of 21 proteins associated with proteolysis, oxidative-stress, lipid metabolism, and inflammation were significantly increased, whereas levels of paraoxonase 3, associated with high-density lipoprotein metabolism, were decreased in abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. Combination of growth/differentiation factor 15 and cystatin B had the best ability to discriminate abdominal aortic aneurysm from non-abdominal aortic aneurysm (area under the curve, 0.76; sensitivity, 80% and specificity, 52%). Myeloperoxidase showed the best prognostic value (area under the curve, 0.71; sensitivity, 80% and specificity, 59%) and higher baseline levels of myeloperoxidase were significantly associated with faster abdominal aortic aneurysm growth compared with lower levels, independent of baseline diameter. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified multiple proteins associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter and growth with a potential to become novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 970-976, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054153

RESUMO

Second primary cancers (SPCs) account for an increasing proportion of all cancer diagnoses and family history of cancer may be a risk factor for SPCs. Using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we assessed the influence of family history on risk of SPCs and of SPCs on survival. NHL patients were identified from the years 1958 to 2015 and generalized Poisson models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) for SPCs and familial SPCs. Among 14,393 NHL patients, a total of 1,866 (13.0%) were diagnosed with SPC. Familial risk of nine particular cancers was associated with risks of these cancers as SPCs, with twofold to fivefold increase in RRs. At the end of a 25-year follow-up period, the survival probability for persons with SPC was only 20% of that for patients without SPC; the hazard ratio for SPC was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.46-1.72). Survival could be predicted by the prognostic groups based on first cancers and HRs increase systematically with worse prognosis yielding a trend of p = 4.6 × 10-5 . SPCs had deleterious consequences for survival in NHL patients. Family history was associated with increasing numbers of SPCs. Prevention of SPCs and their early detection is an important target in the overall strategy to improve survival in NHL patients. Counseling for avoidance of risk factors and targeted screening based on family history are feasible steps in risk reduction.

11.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(1): 48-55.e1, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288011

RESUMO

Second primary cancers (SPCs) are becoming a common cancer entity, which may interfere with survival in relatively benign first primary cancers. We examined the hypothesis that immune dysfunction may contribute to SPCs by assessing SPCs associated with known immune responsive skin cancers, invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. Cancers were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry from the year 1958 to 2015. Standardized relative risks were calculated bidirectionally for any SPC after skin cancer and for skin cancer as SPC. Over 80,000 first primary cancers were identified for each invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Bidirectional increased risks were observed for 26 cancers associated with invasive skin cancer; the Spearman rank correlation was 0.72 (P = 4.6 × 10-5). The highest bidirectional relative risks were for invasive and in situ skin cancer as SPCs (14.59 and 16.71, respectively). Remarkably high risks for second in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin were found after Kaposi sarcoma (685.68) and Merkel cell carcinoma (117.23). The high systematic bidirectional risks between immune responsive skin cancers and most other cancers suggest that immune suppression is a key mechanism contributing to an increased risk of SPCs.

12.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802143

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks) has been associated with insulin resistance early in life. However, no large population-based studies have examined risks of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and potential sex-specific differences from childhood into adulthood. Clinicians will increasingly encounter adults who were born prematurely and will need to understand their long-term risks. We hypothesised that preterm birth is associated with increased risks of type 1 and type 2 diabetes into adulthood. METHODS: A national cohort study was conducted of all 4,193,069 singletons born in Sweden during 1973-2014, who were followed up for type 1 and type 2 diabetes identified from nationwide diagnoses and pharmacy data to the end of 2015 (maximum age 43 years; median age at the end of follow-up 22.5 years). Cox regression was used to adjust for potential confounders, and co-sibling analyses assessed the influence of shared familial (genetic and/or environmental) factors. RESULTS: In 92.3 million person-years of follow-up, 27,512 (0.7%) and 5525 (0.1%) people were identified with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes risk. Adjusted HRs for type 1 and type 2 diabetes at age <18 years associated with preterm birth were 1.21 (95% CI, 1.14, 1.28) and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01, 1.58), respectively, and at age 18-43 years were 1.24 (95% CI, 1.13, 1.37) and 1.49 (95% CI, 1.31, 1.68), respectively, compared with full-term birth. The associations between preterm birth and type 2 (but not type 1) diabetes were stronger among females (e.g. at age 18-43 years, females: adjusted HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.47, 2.09; males: 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.53; p < 0.01 for additive and multiplicative interaction). These associations were only partially explained by shared genetic or environmental factors in families. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In this large national cohort, preterm birth was associated with increased risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes from childhood into early to mid-adulthood. Preterm-born children and adults may need early preventive evaluation and long-term monitoring for diabetes.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872206

RESUMO

AIMS: Preterm birth has been associated with elevated blood pressure early in life; however, hypertension risks from childhood into adulthood remain unclear. We conducted a large population-based study to examine gestational age at birth in relation to hypertension risks from childhood into adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: A national cohort study was conducted of all 4 193 069 singleton live births in Sweden during 1973-2014, who were followed up for hypertension identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient (specialty and primary care) diagnoses from any health care encounters through 2015 (maximum age 43 years; median 22.5). Cox regression was used to examine gestational age at birth in relation to hypertension risk while adjusting for other perinatal and maternal factors, and co-sibling analyses assessed the potential influence of unmeasured shared familial (genetic and/or environmental) factors. In 86.8 million person-years of follow-up, 62 424 (1.5%) persons were identified with hypertension (median age 29.8 years at diagnosis). Adjusted hazard ratios for new-onset hypertension at ages 18-29 years associated with preterm (<37 weeks) and extremely preterm (22-27 weeks) birth were 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-1.36] and 2.45 (1.82-3.31), respectively, and at ages 30-43 years were 1.25 (1.18-1.31) and 1.68 (1.12-2.53), respectively, compared with full-term birth (39-41 weeks). These associations affected males and females similarly and appeared substantially related to shared genetic or environmental factors in families. CONCLUSIONS: In this large national cohort, preterm birth was associated with increased risk of hypertension into early adulthood. Persons born prematurely may need early preventive evaluation and long-term monitoring for the development of hypertension.

14.
J Neurooncol ; 145(3): 541-549, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A growing number of young patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumour survived for more than five years. However, these long-term survivors might be at risk of multiple late effects thus leading to a higher risk of late mortality. We aimed to explore the risk of late mortality and the pattern of mortality among long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent CNS tumour. METHODS: We identified 5-year survivors with childhood or adolescent CNS tumour before age 20 years through the Swedish Cancer Registry. Five controls were randomly matched for each patient to generate the reference group. We retrieved information about death via Cause of Death Register. We calculated the absolute excess risk (AER) of death and the hazard ratio (HR) of death using Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Long-term survivors with CNS tumour suffered a significant higher risk of overall mortality (HR 6.56, 95% CI 5.71-7.53; AER 5.89, 95% CI 5.03-6.87). The mortality rate declined with the increasing survival time, but it was still higher even after 30 years of follow-up. Malignant neoplasms contributed mostly to late mortality with an AER of 3.75 (95% CI 2.95-4.75). Female survivors, survivors diagnosed at a younger age and survivors with medulloblastoma were particularly strongly associated with a higher risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survivors of childhood and adolescent CNS tumours are at a higher risk of late mortality, and the risk of death is affected by gender, age at diagnosis and types of CNS tumour.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality in individuals with a family history of heart failure (HF) has not been determined. This nationwide sib-pair study aimed to determine mortality in individuals with a sibling affected with HF. METHODS: Sib-pairs were linked using the Swedish Multi-Generation Register, the Hospital Discharge Register and the Cause of Death Register for the period 1987-2012. Families with cardiomyopathy or congenital heart disease were excluded. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for siblings of individuals who had been diagnosed with HF compared with siblings of individuals unaffected by HF as the reference group. Similar analyses were made for spouses. HRs were determined for overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and death of unknown cause. RESULTS: Among siblings, the adjusted HR for overall mortality was 1.21 (95% CI 1.18-1.25). This risk remained (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.15-1.23) also among subjects without HF themselves. The adjusted HRs for cardiovascular mortality and death of unknown cause were 1.39 (95% CI 1.32-1.45) and 1.58 (95% CI 1.29-1.95), respectively. The mortality risk associations with spousal HF were all minimal, with an overall mortality HR of 1.02 (1.01-1.02). Early sibling age of onset of HF < 50 years was associated with higher HRs for overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and death of unknown cause, 1.33 (1.27-1.41), 1.54 (1.40-1.68) and 1.84 (1.27-2.67), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Sibling HF, especially early-onset HF, is associated with increased mortality. The low risk in spouses suggests genetic factors might be of importance. Screening for HF, and cardiovascular disease in general, in these individuals may be warranted.

16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107666, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sweden is a major host nation for asylum-seeking immigrants, and residential placement of these immigrants is an important policy concern. This quasi-experimental study estimated of the impact of being placed into an "immigrant enclave" on risk of officially-recognized drug involvement (ORDI) among asylum-seeking immigrants over a 15-year period. METHODS: All data come from Swedish registries. The sample consisted of (a) asylum-seeking immigrants aged 5-35 years old at arrival (N = 51,017) that were subject to a nationwide policy (enforced 1987-1991) that dispersed asylum-seeking immigrants across municipalities, and (b) native-born Swedes aged 15 and older during this same period (N = 1,040,311). Neighborhood immigrant composition was quantified using the Reardon Index; residents of "immigrant enclave" neighborhoods (n = 960) were compared to residents of all other neighborhoods (n = 2,471). Cox proportional hazards models assessed the relationship between living in an enclave and risk of ORDI, identified by national registries, through 2015. RESULTS: Overall, 29.7% of immigrants were assigned to, and 25.5% of Swedes lived in, an enclave. Cumulative incidence of ORDI in enclaves was 6.34% as compared to 6.89% in other neighborhoods. Immigrants living in an enclave had lower risk of ORDI (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.86, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.77 - 0.96). This protective association was marginally stronger in lower poverty areas. Native-born Swedes living in an enclave had higher risk of ORDI (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.08), a relationship that was exacerbated by neighborhood poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood immigrant composition is associated with risk of ORDI, with differential associations for immigrants and native-born populations.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725845

RESUMO

Importance: Breast cancer screening guidelines acknowledge the need for earlier screening for women at increased risk but provide limited guidance for women with a family history of breast cancer. A risk-adapted starting age of screening for relatives of patients with breast cancer may help supplement current screening guidelines. Objective: To identify the risk-adapted starting age of breast cancer screening on the basis of a woman's detailed family history. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study analyzed data recorded in the Swedish family-cancer data sets. All women born from 1932 onward and with at least 1 known first-degree relative (FDR) were included (N = 5 099 172). Data from January 1, 1958, to December 31, 2015, were collected. Data were analyzed from October 1, 2017, to March 31, 2019. Exposures: Family history of breast cancer in FDRs and second-degree relatives (SDRs). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary invasive breast cancer diagnosis and the age at which women with different constellations of family history attained the risk level at which breast screening is usually recommended. Results: Of the 5 099 172 women included in the study, 118 953 (2.3%) received a diagnosis of primary invasive breast cancer. A total of 102 751 women (86.4%; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 55.9 [11.1] years) did not have family history of breast cancer in FDRs and SDRs at the time of their diagnosis. Risk-adapted starting age of breast cancer screening varied by number of FDRs and SDRs with breast cancer diagnosis and the age at diagnosis of the FDRs. For example, for screening recommendation at age 50 years for the general population (2.2% 10-year cumulative risk), women with multiple affected FDRs, with the youngest affected relative receiving a diagnosis before age 50 years, reached the benchmark risk level at age 27 years. When the youngest relative received a diagnosis after age 50 years, however, this risk level was attained at age 36 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identifies possible risk-based starting ages for breast cancer screening based on population-based registers. These results may serve as high-quality evidence to supplement current screening guidelines for relatives of patients with breast cancer.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745859

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common types of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and is associated with increased mortality-risk. Poor-self rated health (SHR) has been associated with elevated inflammatory markers and CVDs. However, little is known about as a predictor of incident VTE. To examine the association between self-rated health, lifestyle and incident VTE among middle-aged women. 6917 women aged 50-64 years, followed for 20 years in the Women's Health In the Lund Area (WHILA) study. After exclusion of those who medicated with anticoagulants, were living in nursing homes or suffered from cancer, stroke, VTE or CHD before baseline, a cohort of 5626 women remained. Cox regression was used to analyse the relationship between self-rated health and time to VTE, censored for any of the previous mentioned diseases during follow-up. Data were collected by questionnaires, physical examinations and Swedish registers. In total, 220 women were affected by VTE corresponding to an incidence rate of 3.9 per 1000 person-years. Adjustment for self-rated health did not significantly predict incident VTE, and neither did any of the lifestyle-related habits (e.g. physical activity and dietary habits including alcohol consumption), besides smoking. This study supports previous results with varicose veins and waist circumference as strong predictors of VTE. Poor self-rated health does not seem to be a valid predictor of VTE. Among lifestyle-related parameters, smoking was significantly associated with risk of VTE. We could also confirm the effect of the other already known risk factors.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16151, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695117

RESUMO

Literature on familial risk of carcinomas in situ (CISs) is limited because many cancer registries do not collect information on CIS. In Sweden CISs are collected, and we used these data to analyze familial relative risks (RRs) for concordant (CIS-CIS) types of anogenital (cervical, other female and male genital and anal) and skin squamous cell CIS; additionally RRs were assessed between CIS types and between CIS and invasive forms. RRs were calculated for the offspring generations when family members were diagnosed CIS. Case numbers for CIS ranged from 330 in anal to 177,285 in cervical CIS. Significant concordant CIS-CIS RRs were 2.74 for female genital, 1.77 for cervical and 2.29 for SCC skin CISs. The CIS forms associated also with each other, except for cervical and skin CIS types. RRs for concordant CIS-invasive cancer associations were lower than CIS-CIS associations. Cervical CIS associated with non-Hodgkin CIS which may suggest immune dysfunction as a contributing factors. The results for anogenital CIS types suggest that life style related human papilloma virus infections contributed to the observed familial associations. Lower risks for CIS-invasive cancer than CIS-CIS suggest that CIS and invasive cancers share only partially risk factors that underlie familial clustering.

20.
JAMA ; 322(16): 1580-1588, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638681

RESUMO

Importance: Preterm birth has been associated with cardiometabolic, respiratory, and neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, the prevalence of survival without any major comorbidities is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of survival without major comorbidities in adulthood among persons born preterm vs full-term. Design, Setting, and Participants: National cohort study of all 2 566 699 persons born in Sweden from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 1997, who had gestational age data and who were followed up for survival and comorbidities through December 31, 2015 (ages 18-43 years). Exposures: Gestational age at birth. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival without major comorbidities among persons born extremely preterm (22-27 weeks), very preterm (28-33 weeks), late preterm (34-36 weeks), or early term (37-38 weeks), compared with full-term (39-41 weeks). Comorbidities were defined using the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) Comorbidity Index, which includes conditions that commonly manifest in adolescence or young adulthood, including neuropsychiatric disorders; and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), which includes major chronic disorders predictive of mortality in adulthood. Poisson regression was used to determine prevalence ratios and differences, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: In this study population, 48.6% were female, 5.8% were born preterm, and the median age at end of follow-up was 29.8 years (interquartile range, 12.6 years). Of all persons born preterm, 54.6% were alive with no AYA HOPE comorbidities at the end of follow-up. Further stratified, this prevalence was 22.3% for those born extremely preterm, 48.5% for very preterm, 58.0% for late preterm, 61.2% for early term, and 63.0% for full-term. These prevalences were significantly lower for earlier gestational ages vs full-term (eg, adjusted prevalence ratios: extremely preterm, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.33 to 0.36; P < .001]; all preterm, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.86; P < .001]; adjusted prevalence differences: extremely preterm, -0.41 [95% CI, -0.42 to -0.40; P < .001]; all preterm, -0.09 [95% CI, -0.09 to -0.09; P < .001]). Using the CCI, the corresponding prevalences were 73.1% (all preterm), 32.5% (extremely preterm), 66.4% (very preterm), 77.1% (late preterm), 80.4% (early term), and 81.8% (full-term) (adjusted prevalence ratios: extremely preterm, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.38 to 0.41; P < .001]; all preterm, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.89; P < .001]; adjusted prevalence differences: extremely preterm, -0.50 [95% CI, -0.51 to -0.49; P < .001]; all preterm, -0.09 [95% CI, -0.09 to -0.09; P < .001]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among persons born preterm in Sweden between 1973 and 1997, the majority survived to early to mid-adulthood without major comorbidities. However, outcomes were worse for those born extremely preterm.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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