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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 3, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current evidence regarding the association of serum zonulin-related proteins (ZRP) levels with prevalent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is contradictory. Moreover, the association with the subsequent risk of incident IBD is still unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the association of serum ZRP levels with both prevalent and incident IBD. METHOD: The study included a total of 130 women (51-61 years) from the Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) study, which included 18 prevalent IBD (diagnosed before baseline) and 47 incident IBD diagnosed during the 17 years (median) follow-up and age- and sampling time-matched controls. Serum ZRP was tested in all participants by ELISA. RESULTS: The serum ZRP levels were significantly higher in prevalent IBD compared to their matched controls (63.2 ng/ml vs 57.0 ng/ml, p = 0.02), however, no evidence of a difference in ZRP levels was found between the women who developed IBD during the follow-up period and their matched controls (61.2 ng/ml vs 59.7 ng/ml, p = 0.34). Using linear mixed models, we found that the association between serum ZRP levels and prevalent IBD (ß = 6.2, p = 0.01), remained after adjusting for potential confounders. Conditional logistic regression models showed no evidence of an association between ZRP level and incident IBD (OR 1.03, p = 0.34). CONCLUSION: Higher serum ZRP levels were associated with prevalent IBD, but not with incident IBD in our study samples.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Feminino , Haptoglobinas , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Precursores de Proteínas
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been identified as a strong risk factor for suicide attempt. However, few studies have considered protective factors that may moderate this association, such as resilience. METHODS: We used longitudinal nationwide Swedish data of 903,333 males born 1960-1980 and 48,285 males born 1949-1951. We performed Cox proportional hazards models to test the role of AUD, resilience, and their interaction on risk for suicide attempt. We used co-relative models to account for familial factors. RESULTS: Alcohol use disorder was strongly associated with increased risk of suicide attempt [hazard ratio (HR) = 12.22], while resilience was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.73). Multiplicative interaction (HR = 1.21) showed that, in the context of AUD, the protective role of resilience on risk of suicide attempt was somewhat attenuated. Co-relative analyses supported both familial liability and a possible causal pathway between AUD, resilience, and suicide attempt. In the cohort born 1949-1951, resilience subcomponents-social maturity, interests, psychological energy, home conditions, and emotional control-were all associated with reduced suicide attempt risk (HRs between 0.63 and 0.74). CONCLUSION: While resilience is associated with reduced risk of suicide attempt, this effect is less pronounced in the context of AUD. These associations are potentially causal.

3.
Addiction ; 117(1): 96-105, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with increased risk of non-fatal suicide attempt. We aimed to measure the strength and mechanistic nature of the association between AUD and increased suicide attempt and determine any causal pathways and/or shared risk factors. DESIGN: We used Cox proportional hazards models in population-level and co-relative analyses to evaluate the risk of first non-fatal suicide attempt as a function of previous AUD. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used continuously updated longitudinal nationwide Swedish registry data on native Swedes born from 1950 to 1970 (n = 2 229 619) and followed from age 15 until 2012. MEASUREMENTS: AUD and suicide attempt were identified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10 codes. AUD was also identified using pharmacy and criminal records. Genetic and family environmental risks were derived based on relatedness via the Multi-Generation Register and shared residency via the Population and Housing Census and the Total Population Register. FINDINGS: AUD was robustly associated with suicide attempt in crude models (hazard ratio [HR] = 15.24 [95% CI: 14.92, 15.56]). In models adjusted for sociodemographic factors and psychiatric comorbidity, the association was attenuated: for women, HRs declined gradually across time, ranging from 5.55 (3.72, 8.29) during the observation period that ranged from age 15 to 19 years to 1.77 (1.65, 1.90) at age 40 or older. For men, the corresponding figures were 6.12 (4.07, 9.19) and 1.83 (1.72, 1.94); in contrast to women, risk of suicide attempt among men increased from age 15 to 29 before declining. In co-relative models, a residual association remained, consistent with a causal path from AUD to suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In Sweden, alcohol use disorder appears to be an important predictor of suicide attempt even in the context of other psychiatric disorders. The observed association is likely the result of features that jointly impact risk of alcohol use disorder and suicide attempts (genetic liability, psychiatric illness, and childhood stressors) and a potentially causal pathway, acting independently or in conjunction with one another.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) is a surrogate biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction and is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, despite being associated with both CVD and T2D, it is not known what role mtDNA-CN has in the association between T2D and CVD. Our aims were to investigate whether, (1) baseline mtDNA-CN is associated with CVD incidence and (2) mtDNA-CN has a role as a mediator between T2D and CVD. METHOD: We quantified absolute mtDNA-CN by droplet digital PCR method in a population-based follow-up study of middle aged (52-65 years) women (n = 3062). The median follow-up period was 17 years. RESULTS: Our results show that low baseline levels of mtDNA-CN (<111 copies/µL) were associated with an increased risk of CVD (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.08; 1.63) as well as with specific CVDs: coronary heart disease (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.99; 1.66), stroke (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.87; 1.84) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (HR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.03; 6.62). The associations decreased but persisted even after adjustment for potential confounders. Furthermore, our results show that the total effect of T2D on future risk of CVD was reduced after controlling for mtDNA-CN and the proportion mediated by mtDNA-CN was estimated to be 4.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Lower baseline mtDNA-CN is associated with incident CVD and may have a mediating effect on the association between T2D and CVD; however, this novel observation needs to be confirmed in future studies.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849711

RESUMO

AIMS: Women who deliver pre-term have higher future risks of hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, but long-term risks of heart failure (HF) are unknown. We examined these risks in a large national cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: All 2 201 284 women with a singleton delivery in Sweden during 1973-2015 were followed up for inpatient or outpatient HF diagnoses through 2015. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for HF associated with pregnancy duration, adjusting for other maternal factors. Co-sibling analyses assessed for confounding by shared familial (genetic and/or environmental) factors. In 48.2 million person-years of follow-up, 19 922 women were diagnosed with HF (median age: 60.7 years). Within 10 years after delivery, the adjusted HR was 2.96 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.48-3.53] for HF associated with pre-term (gestational age: <37 weeks) compared with full-term (39-41 weeks) delivery. Stratified HRs were 4.27 (2.54-7.17) for extremely pre-term (22-27 weeks), 3.39 (2.57-4.48) for moderately pre-term (28-33 weeks), 2.70 (2.19-3.32) for late pre-term (34-36 weeks), and 1.70 (1.45-1.98) for early term (37-38 weeks). These HRs declined but remained elevated at 10-19 years (pre-term vs. full term: HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.94-2.46), 20-29 years (1.80; 1.67-1.95), and 30-43 years (1.56; 1.47-1.66) after delivery, and were not explained by shared familial factors. CONCLUSION: Pre-term and early term delivery were associated with markedly increased future hazards for HF, which persisted after adjusting for other maternal and familial factors and remained elevated 40 years later. Pre-term and early-term delivery should be recognized as risk factors for HF across the life course. KEY QUESTION: What are the long-term hazards for heart failure (HF) across the life course in women who deliver preterm? KEY FINDING: Preterm and early term delivery were associated with ∼3- and 1.7-fold adjusted hazards for HF in the next 10 years vs. full-term delivery. These hazards declined but remained elevated 40 years later, and were not explained by shared familial factors. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Preterm and early term delivery were associated with increased future hazards for HF, which persisted for 40 years after adjusting for other maternal and familial factors. Preterm and early term delivery should be recognized as lifelong risk factors for HF.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 616, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and is a great disease burden. However, its underlying pathophysiology and aetiology remain poorly understood. Available evidence suggests that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with MDD, but it is still unknown whether miRNAs can predict subsequent incident MDD. METHODS: In this nested case-control study, a total of 104 individuals, who were free of MDD at baseline, from the Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) cohort were included. Among them, 52 individuals developed MDD (cases) during the 5 years follow-up and 52 individuals did not develop MDD (controls). Plasma expression levels of miR-17-5p, miR-134-5p, miR-144-5p, let-7b-5p and let-7c-5p at baseline were assessed using qRT-PCR. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of developing MDD among individuals with different levels of miRNA expression. RESULTS: Plasma expression levels of let-7b-5p were significantly lower (p = 0.02) at baseline in cases compared to controls. After adjustment for age and BMI, let-7b-5p was negatively associated with odds for developing MDD (OR = 0.33, p = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.12-0.91). Moreover, let-7b-5p expression levels showed a trend over time with larger differences between cases and controls for the earlier cases (MDD diagnosis <2 years from baseline) than MDD cases developed later (MDD diagnosis 2-5 years from baseline). CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that lower plasma levels of let-7b-5p are associated with a higher future risk of MDD. Results need to be validated in a large cohort to examine its potential as a peripheral biomarker for MDD.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e020323, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913365

RESUMO

Background This is the first nationwide segregation analysis that aimed to determine whether familial venous thromboembolism (VTE) is attributable to inheritance and/or shared environment, and the possible mode of inheritance. Methods and Results The Swedish Multi-Generation Register was linked to the Swedish patient register for the period 1964 to 2015. Three generational families of Swedish-born individuals were identified. Heritability was examined using Falconer regression. Complex segregation analysis was conducted using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software (version 6.4, 64-bit Linux). Among the 4 301 174 relatives from 450 558 pedigrees, 177 865 (52% women) individuals were affected with VTE. VTE occurred in 2 or more affected relatives in 61 217 (13.6%) of the pedigrees. Heritability showed age and sex dependence with higher heritability for men and young individuals. In 18 933 pedigrees, VTE occurred only in the first generation and was not inherited. Segregation analysis was performed in the remaining 42 284 pedigrees with inherited VTE and included 939 192 individuals. Prevalence constraints were imposed in the models to allow for the selection of the pedigrees analyzed. The sporadic nongenetic model could be discarded. The major-type-only model, with a correlation structure compatible with some polygenic effects, was the preferred model. Among the Mendelian models, the mixed codominant (plus polygenic) model was preferred. Conclusions This nationwide segregation analysis of VTE supports a genetic cause of the familial aggregation of VTE. Heritability was higher for men and younger individuals, suggesting a Carter effect, in agreement with a multifactorial threshold inheritance.

8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(12): 2528-2535, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical conditions related to alcohol use disorders (AUD) represent a substantial public health concern. However, only a subset of individuals with AUD develop these conditions and the extent to which genetic and environmental factors that are shared with AUD, versus those distinct from it, contribute to this progression has not yet been determined. METHODS: Using data from Swedish national registries for a cohort born from 1932 to 1970 (N = 1,319,214, 48.9% women), we conducted twin-sibling biometric model fitting to examine the genetic and environmental sources of variance that contribute to the liability to alcohol-related medical conditions (AMC). Progression to AMC, determined using medical registry data, was contingent on an AUD registration, which was determined using medical and criminal registry data. RESULTS: We identified AUD registrations in 3.2% of women and 9.2% of men. Among individuals with an AUD registration, 14.4% of women and 15.4% of men had an AMC registration. In the final models, we constrained the beta pathway from AUD to AMC and the genetic and unique environmental paths to be equal across sexes. The beta path was estimated at 0.59. AMC was modestly heritable in women (A = 0.32) and men (A = 0.30). The proportion of total heritability unique to AMC was 39.6% among women and 41.3% among men. A higher proportion of total environmental variance was unique to AMC: 76.7% for women and 77.2% for men. In a sensitivity analysis limited to liver-related AMC, we observed similar results, with a slightly lower beta path from AUD to AMC (0.46) and higher proportions of AMC-specific genetic (70.0% in women; 71.7% in men) and environmental (84.5% in both sexes) variance. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate-to-substantial proportion of genetic and environmental variance that contributes to AMC risk is not shared with AUD, underscoring the need for additional gene identification efforts for AMC. Furthermore, the prominent influence of environmental factors specific to AMC provides a promising area for the identification of prevention targets. We did not observe significant sex differences in the etiology of AMC, although follow-up is warranted in other well-powered studies.

9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated cystitis is one of the most common reasons for antibiotic treatment in otherwise healthy women. Nationwide studies on antibiotic treatment for this infection and in relation to factors beyond the infection itself have hitherto not been available. METHODS: This was a nationwide open cohort study consisting of 352,507 women aged 15-50 years with uncomplicated cystitis (2006-2018). The outcome was a redeemed antibiotic prescription within five days from the cystitis diagnosis. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between the outcome and the predictor variables. RESULTS: This study identified 192,065 redeemed treatments (54.5%). Several sociodemographic variables were associated with antibiotic treatment. For example, women with the lowest income had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.26 (95% CI 1.23-1.28) compared to those with the highest income. History of cervical cancer and high parity were also associated with lower treatment rates. CONCLUSION: This study presents novel factors beyond the infection which seem to affect the antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated cystitis in women. Future studies to investigate possible mechanisms are warranted in order to properly use our findings. This may help healthcare workers and planners to provide a more equal treatment plan for this common infection, which may reduce misuse of antibiotics, decrease costs and improve efforts against antibiotic resistance.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743253

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Men with drug use disorders (DUD) may potentially be at high risk for prostate cancer mortality because of delayed diagnosis and/or undertreatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and stage at time of diagnosis among men with DUD compared to the general male population in Sweden. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study based on Swedish national register data for the period January 1997-December 2016. The study was based on 1,361,532 men aged 50-75 years at inclusion, of whom 9,259 were registered with DUD. Cox regression analysis was used to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident and fatal prostate cancer, and cancer stage at time of diagnosis, associated with DUD. RESULTS: DUD was associated with a slightly increased risk of incident prostate cancer (HR: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.14, p = 0.048) and substantially higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (HR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.40-1.82, p < 0.001), adjusted for age, socioeconomic factors, and comorbidities related to tobacco smoking and alcohol use disorder. No association was found between DUD and prostate cancer stage at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Men with DUD have an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer, possibly related to undertreatment in this patient population. Our findings should raise attention among medical staff and decision-makers towards a disadvantaged group of men in need of easily accessible prostate cancer evaluation and treatment.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1210, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of breast cancer (BC) diagnosed as a second primary malignancy after a first primary non-breast cancer (BCa-2), it is unclear about the familial risk of BC among women with a first-degree relative (FDR, parents or siblings) affected by a BCa-2. METHODS: In this Swedish nationwide cohort study, 5315 women with a FDR affected by BCa-2 and 115,048 women with a FDR affected by BC as the first primary cancer (BCa-1) were followed for the first primary invasive BC diagnosis. Relative risk (RR) of BC was estimated through Poisson regression by using 2,743,777 women without a family history of cancer as reference. The risk was stratified by the diagnostic age of BC in FDR, proband type, the time interval between the first primary cancer and BCa-2 in FDR as well as the site of first primary cancer diagnosed in FDR before BCa-2. We also calculated the cumulative incidence of BC from birth to a specific age for the three groups. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence from birth to age 70 was 10% among women with a family history of BCa-2. The RR of BC with a family history of BCa-2 (RR, 1.68, 95%CI, 1.49 to 1.88) was comparable to that with BCa-1 (1.68, 1.63 to 1.73). The risk was largely consistent irrespective of proband type. The age of onset of BCa-2 in FDR (RR early-onset, 1.72 vs. RR late-onset 1.67) had less influence on the risk compared to BCa-1 in FDR (1.89 vs. 1.63). In the analysis stratified by the time between the first primary cancer and BCa-2 in relatives, the risks were largely similar. For the site of first primary cancer diagnosed in FDR before BCa-2, the increased BC risk was found in women whose FDRs were diagnosed with first primary gastric, colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, nervous system and endocrine gland cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a family history of BCa-2 have a similar overall BC risk as those with a family history of BCa-1. The risk varied according to the site of first primary cancer diagnosed in FDR before BCa-2.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is little evidence on the effect of long-term trajectories of body mass index (BMI) over the life course. By using repeated assessments, the aim was to study the risk of CHD in adults during 38 years in different trajectories of BMI. METHODS: A sample of 2129 men and women, aged 20-59 years at baseline, took part in four repeated interviews between 1980 and 2005. Data on BMI, medical history, lifestyle and socioeconomy were collected. Based on the World Health Organization categories of BMI, life course trajectories of stable normal weight, stable overweight, stable obesity, increasing BMI and fluctuating BMI were created. The individuals were followed through national registers for first hospitalization of CHD (389 events) until the end of 2017, and Hazard Ratios (HRs) were calculated, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle factors and metabolic comorbidities. RESULTS: Stable normal weight in all assessments was the reference group. Those who had an increase in BMI from normal weight in the first assessment to overweight or obesity in later assessments had no increased risk of CHD, HR 1.04 (95% CI: 0.70-1.53). The HR for individuals with fluctuating BMI was 1.25 (0.97-1.61), for stable overweight 1.43 (1.03-1.98), for stable obesity 1.50 (0.92-2.55), and for stable overweight or obesity 1.45 (1.07-1.97), after full adjustments. CONCLUSION: Having a stable overweight or obesity throughout adult life was associated with increased CHD risk but changing from normal weight at baseline to overweight or obesity was not associated with increased CHD risk. Prevention of obesity early in life may be particularly important to reduce CHD risk.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is clinically heterogeneous. We examine its potential genetic heterogeneity as a function of sex, age, clinical features and mode of ascertainment. METHODS: In the Swedish population born 1932-1995 (n = 5 829 952), we examined the genetic risk profiles for AUD, major depression (MD), anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, drug use disorder (DUD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminal behavior (CB) in 361 124 cases of AUD subdivided by sex, age at onset (AAO), recurrence, mode of ascertainment and medical complications. Family genetic risk scores (FGRS), calculated from 1st to 5th-degree relatives controlling of cohabitation, assesses genetic risk from phenotypes in the family, not from DNA variants. RESULTS: FGRS profiles differed modestly across sex with all scores higher in females. Differences were more pronounced for AAO and recurrence with the FGRS for AUD, DUD, ADHD and CB substantially higher in cases with early AAO or high recurrence rates. Genetic profiles differed considerably by mode of ascertainment, with higher FGRS for AUD and most other disorders in patients seen in hospital v. primary care settings. Cases of AUD with medical complications had higher FGRS for AUD. AUD cases comorbid with MD and DUD had higher FGRS risk for AUD, but this genetic may be less specific given increases in FGRS for multiple other disorders. CONCLUSIONS: From a genetic perspective, AUD differs substantially as a function of AAO, recurrence, mode of ascertainment and patterns of comorbidity, suggesting caution in cross-sample comparisons of AUD cohorts that differ in these features.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1123, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Favorable survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) has increased the likelihood of second primary cancer (SPC). We assess the influence of patient characteristics at diagnosis of first melanoma and the type of SPC (second melanoma and other SPC) on overall survival. METHODS: We used the Swedish Cancer Registry data to assess overall survival in melanoma for the period 1990 to 2015. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with Cox regression models by considering SPC diagnosis as a time-dependent variable. RESULTS: A total of 46,726 patients were diagnosed with melanoma, and 15.3% of them developed SPC, among which, two thirds were other SPCs. Second melanomas were diagnosed early (31% during the first year) compared to non-melanoma SPCs (9.5%). Survival for women with second melanoma or other SPC (56 and 21% alive after 25 years of follow-up, respectively) exceeded the male rates (21 and 10%, respectively) but all these figures were lower than for females (60% alive) or males (48%) without SPC. Time dependent analysis showed vastly increased HRs for cancer types that are fatal also as first cancers, but SPC-specific HRs remained relatively uniform, irrespective of SPC diagnosed soon or late after first melanoma. In early-onset melanoma, SPC diagnosis after 10 years may not negatively influence overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: As the overall survival of patients with many types of SPCs is unfavorable, advice about health lifestyle should benefit smoking patients and early detection methods may be recommended for SPCs of the breast, prostate and colorectum.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643643

RESUMO

Importance: Preterm delivery has been associated with future cardiometabolic disorders in women. However, the long-term risks of chronic hypertension associated with preterm delivery and whether such risks are attributable to familial confounding are unclear. Such knowledge is needed to improve long-term risk assessment, clinical monitoring, and cardiovascular prevention strategies in women. Objective: To examine the long-term risks of chronic hypertension associated with preterm delivery in a large population-based cohort of women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national cohort study assessed all 2 195 989 women in Sweden with a singleton delivery from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 2015. Data analyses were conducted from March 8, 2021, to August 20, 2021. Exposures: Pregnancy duration identified from nationwide birth records. Main Outcomes and Measures: New-onset chronic hypertension identified from primary care, specialty outpatient, and inpatient diagnoses using administrative data. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) while adjusting for preeclampsia, other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and other maternal factors. Cosibling analyses were assessed for potential confounding by shared familial (genetic and/or environmental) factors. Results: In 46.1 million person-years of follow-up, 351 189 of 2 195 989 women (16.0%) were diagnosed with hypertension (mean [SD] age, 55.4 [9.9] years). Within 10 years after delivery, the adjusted HR for hypertension associated with preterm delivery (gestational age <37 weeks) was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.61-1.74) and when further stratified was 2.23 (95% CI, 1.98-2.52) for extremely preterm (22-27 weeks of gestation), 1.85 (95% CI, 1.74-1.97) for moderately preterm (28-33 weeks of gestation), 1.55 (95% CI, 1.48-1.63) for late preterm (34-36 weeks of gestation), and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.22-1.30) for early-term (37-38 weeks of gestation) compared with full-term (39-41 weeks of gestation) delivery. These risks decreased but remained significantly elevated at 10 to 19 years (preterm vs full-term delivery: adjusted HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.36-1.44), 20 to 29 years (preterm vs full-term delivery: adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.18-1.23), and 30 to 43 years (preterm vs full-term delivery: adjusted HR, 95% CI, 1.12; 1.10-1.14) after delivery. These findings were not explained by shared determinants of preterm delivery and hypertension within families. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large national cohort study, preterm delivery was associated with significantly higher future risks of chronic hypertension. These associations remained elevated at least 40 years later and were largely independent of other maternal and shared familial factors. Preterm delivery should be recognized as a lifelong risk factor for hypertension in women.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Conduct disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by repetitive and persistent norm-breaking behavior. This study aimed to compare the risk of conduct disorder between first- and second-generation immigrant children and adolescents and their native controls. METHODS: In this nationwide, open-cohort study from Sweden, participants were born 1987-2010, aged 4-16 years at baseline, and were living in the country for at least one year during the follow-up period between 2001 and 2015. The sample included 1,902,526 and 805,450 children-adolescents with native and immigrant backgrounds, respectively. Data on the conduct disorder diagnoses were retrieved through the National Patient Register. We estimated the incidence of conduct disorder and calculated adjusted Hazard Ratios. RESULTS: Overall, the adjusted risk of conduct disorder was lower among first-generation immigrants and most second-generation immigrant groups compared with natives (both males and females). However, second-generation immigrants with a Swedish-born mother and a foreign-born father had a higher risk of conduct disorder than natives. Similar results were found for sub-diagnoses of conduct disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk of conduct disorder among second-generation immigrants with a Swedish-born mother and the lower risk among most of the other immigrant groups warrants special attention and an investigation of potential underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 247-254, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700213

RESUMO

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are important risk factors for suicide, yet little is known about how suicide risks vary by specific SUDs. We examined these risks for the first time in a large general population to facilitate comparisons across SUDs. A national cohort study was conducted of all 6,947,191 adults in Sweden. SUDs (opioid, sedative/hypnotic, hallucinogen, cannabis, amphetamine, cocaine, and alcohol use disorders) were identified using inpatient, outpatient, and crime data, and suicide deaths using nationwide death data with follow-up during 2003-2016. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for suicide death while adjusting for sociodemographic factors and psychiatric, SUD, and somatic comorbidities. Co-sibling analyses assessed for confounding by unmeasured shared familial (genetic and/or environmental) factors. In 79.8 million person-years of follow-up, 15,616 (0.2%) suicide deaths were identified. All SUDs were associated with significantly increased risks, with HRs ranging from 12- to 26-fold and 2.5- to 6.4-fold before and after adjusting for covariates, respectively. After adjusting for all covariates, opioid use disorder was the strongest risk factor (HR, 6.39; 95% CI, 5.53-7.38) (P ≤ 0.002 compared with any other SUD), followed by sedative/hypnotic use disorder (4.62; 4.06-5.27) (P ≤ 0.009 compared with any other SUD except opioid or hallucinogen). Most associations persisted after controlling for shared familial factors, consistent with causal effects. In this large national cohort, all SUDs were associated with significantly increased risks of suicide death, especially opioid and sedative/hypnotic use disorders. These findings may improve risk stratification and inform interventions to prevent suicide in the highest-risk subgroups with SUDs.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial cancer can be defined through the occurrence of the same cancer in two or more family members. We describe a nationwide landscape of familial cancer, including its frequency and the risk that it conveys, by using the largest family database in the world with complete family structures and medically confirmed cancers. PATIENTS/METHODS: We employed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate familial risks for concordant cancer among first-degree relatives using the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 through 2016. RESULTS: Cancer risks in a 20-84 year old population conferred by affected parents or siblings were about two-fold compared to the risk for individuals with unaffected relatives. For small intestinal, testicular, thyroid and bone cancers and Hodgkin disease, risks were higher, five-to-eight-fold. Novel familial associations included adult bone, lip, pharyngeal, and connective tissue cancers. Familial cancers were found in 13.2% of families with cancer; for prostate cancer, the proportion was 26.4%. High-risk families accounted for 6.6% of all cancer families. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: High-risk family history should be exceedingly considered for management, including targeted genetic testing. For the major proportion of familial clustering, where genetic testing may not be feasible, medical and behavioral intervention should be indicated for the patient and their family members, including screening recommendations and avoidance of carcinogenic exposure.

19.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553368

RESUMO

The anti-cancer potential of dipyridamole has been suggested from experiments, but evidence from population-based studies is still lacking. We aimed to explore if dipyridamole use was related to a lower risk of lymphoid neoplasms. We identified individuals with prescription of aspirin after diagnosis of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease since 2006 by linking several Swedish registers. In these aspirin users, those with dipyridamole prescription were further identified as the study group and patients without dipyridamole were randomly selected as reference group with 1:1 ratio using a propensity score-matching approach. After a median of 6·67 years of follow-up, a total of 46 patients with dipyridamole use developed lymphoid neoplasms with an incidence rate of 0·49 per 1 000 person-years, while the rate in the matched group was 0·74 per 1 000 person-years. As compared to non-users, dipyridamole users were associated with a significantly decreased risk of lymphoid neoplasms [hazard ratio (HR) = 0·65; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0·43-0·98]. Specifically, the reduced risk was observed for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (HR = 0·64; 95% CI = 0·42-0·94), especially B-cell lymphomas (HR = 0·56; 95% CI = 0·35-0·88). Dipyridamole use was related to a lower risk of lymphoid neoplasms, indicating a clinical potential of dipyridamole to be an adjunct anti-tumour agent against lymphoid neoplasms.

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