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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare midterm outcomes of aortic valve-replacing root replacement (AVR) and aortic valve-sparing root replacement (AVS) operations in patients with Marfan syndrome. METHODS: Patients who met strict Ghent diagnostic criteria for Marfan syndrome and who underwent either AVR or AVS between March 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a 3-year follow-up prospective, multicenter, international registry study; the study was subsequently amended to include 20-year follow-up. Enrollees were followed clinically and echocardiographically. RESULTS: Of the 316 patients enrolled, 77 underwent AVR and 239 underwent AVS; 214 gave reconsent for 20-year follow-up. The median clinical follow-up time for surviving patients was 64 months (interquartile range, 42-66 months). Survival rates for the AVR and AVS groups were similar at 88.2% ± 4.4% and 95.0% ± 1.5%, respectively (P = .1). Propensity score-adjusted competing risk modeling showed associations between AVS and higher cumulative incidences of major adverse valve-related events, valve-related morbidity, combined structural valve deterioration and nonstructural valve dysfunction, and aortic regurgitation ≥2+ (all P < .01). No differences were found for reintervention (P = .7), bleeding (P = .2), embolism (P = .3), or valve-related mortality (P = .8). CONCLUSIONS: Five years postoperatively, major adverse valve-related events and valve-related morbidity were more frequent after AVS than after AVR procedures, primarily because of more frequent aortic valve dysfunction. No between-group differences were found in rates of survival, valve-related mortality, reintervention on the aortic valve, or bleeding. We plan to follow this homogenous cohort for 20 years after aortic root replacement.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current cardiac surgery risk models do not address a substantial fraction of procedures. We sought to create models to predict the risk of operative mortality for an expanded set of cases. METHODS: Four supervised machine learning models were trained using preoperative variables present in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) data set of the Massachusetts General Hospital to predict and classify operative mortality in procedures without STS risk scores. A total of 424 (5.5%) mortality events occurred out of 7745 cases. Models included logistic regression with elastic net regularization (LogReg), support vector machine, random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosted trees (XGBoost). Model discrimination was assessed via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and calibration was assessed via calibration slope and expected-to-observed event ratio. External validation was performed using STS data sets from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) and the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH). RESULTS: Models performed comparably with the highest mean AUC of 0.83 (RF) and expected-to-observed event ratio of 1.00. On external validation, the AUC was 0.81 in BWH (RF) and 0.79 in JHH (LogReg/RF). Models trained and applied on the same institution's data achieved AUCs of 0.81 (BWH: LogReg/RF/XGBoost) and 0.82 (JHH: LogReg/RF/XGBoost). CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning models trained on preoperative patient data can predict operative mortality at a high level of accuracy for cardiac surgical procedures without established risk scores. Such procedures comprise 23% of all cardiac surgical procedures nationwide. This work also highlights the value of using local institutional data to train new prediction models that account for institution-specific practices.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389310
5.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(3): 781-797, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304894

RESUMO

This International evidence-based nomenclature and classification consensus on the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and its aortopathy recognizes 3 types of bicuspid aortic valve: 1. Fused type, with 3 phenotypes: right-left cusp fusion, right-non cusp fusion and left-non cusp fusion; 2. 2-sinus type with 2 phenotypes: Latero-lateral and antero-posterior; and 3. Partial-fusion or forme fruste. This consensus recognizes 3 bicuspid-aortopathy types: 1. Ascending phenotype; root phenotype; and 3. extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Aorta , Doenças da Aorta/classificação , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aortografia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
6.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(3): e383-e414, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304896

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Aorta , Doenças da Aorta/classificação , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aortografia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(3): e203-e235, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304860

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine
8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(3): 1005-1022, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304861

RESUMO

This International evidence-based nomenclature and classification consensus on the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and its aortopathy recognizes 3 types of bicuspid aortic valve: 1. Fused type, with 3 phenotypes: right-left cusp fusion, right-non cusp fusion and left-non cusp fusion; 2. 2-sinus type with 2 phenotypes: Latero-lateral and antero-posterior; and 3. Partial-fusion or forme fruste. This consensus recognizes 3 bicuspid-aortopathy types: 1. Ascending phenotype; root phenotype; and 3. extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine
9.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(3): 481-496, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292332

RESUMO

This International evidence-based nomenclature and classification consensus on the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and its aortopathy recognizes 3 types of bicuspid aortic valve: 1. Fused type, with 3 phenotypes: right-left cusp fusion, right-non cusp fusion and left-non cusp fusion; 2. 2-sinus type with 2 phenotypes: Latero-lateral and antero-posterior; and 3. Partial-fusion or forme fruste. This consensus recognizes 3 bicuspid-aortopathy types: 1. Ascending phenotype; root phenotype; and 3. extended phenotypes.

10.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(3): 448-476, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293102

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes.

12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C (HCV) has encouraged lung transplantation with HCV+ donors. Early trials have been promising(1, 2), however nationwide data has not been previously examined. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for adult patients receiving lung transplants from 2016-2019. We excluded multiorgan transplants, incomplete data, and loss to follow-up. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) determined HCV status. Propensity matching was performed for comparison of outcomes. RESULTS: HCV NAT+ lungs were transplanted in 189 patients, compared to 9511 recipients of NAT- lungs. HCV NAT+ donors were younger (mean: 33 vs 35 years, p=0.017) with higher rates of PaO2/FiO2 >300 (83.6% vs 76.5%, p=0.029). Recipients of NAT+ lungs had lower lung allocation scores (mean: 39.3 vs 42.4; p=0.009). Distance traveled was significantly further for HCV viremic donor lungs (mean: 416 vs 206 miles, p<0.001). Kaplan Meier survival analysis demonstrated no difference in survival (p=0.56). There were no differences in airway dehiscence (p-0.629), acute rejection (p>0.999) or reintubation (p=0.304). At mean follow-up of 395 days, 63 recipients of NAT+ lungs (40.0%) seroconverted, 14 with viremia. 1-year mortality rates among seroconverted patients was 6.0% and did not differ significantly from 14.0% in non-seroconverted patients or 13.2% in recipients of HCV-negative lungs. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term outcomes of lung transplantation from HCV viremic donors are promising, with no difference in early complications or survival. The effects of seroconversion and long-term outcomes including chronic rejection and infection need to be further explored.

13.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(2): e183-e353, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972115
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 1-9, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter edge-to-edge (TEER) mitral repair may be complicated by residual or recurrent mitral regurgitation. An increasing need for surgical reintervention has been reported, but operative outcomes are ill defined. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated national outcomes of mitral surgery after TEER. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was used to identify 524 adults who underwent mitral surgery after TEER between July 2014 and June 2020. Emergencies (5.0%; n = 26), previous mitral surgery (5.3%; n = 28), or open implantation of transcatheter prostheses (1.5%; n = 8) were excluded. The primary outcome was 30-day or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In the study cohort of 463 patients, the median age was 76 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67 to 81 years), median left ventricular ejection fraction was 57% (IQR: 48% to 62%), and 177 (38.2%) patients had degenerative disease. Major concomitant cardiac surgery was performed in 137 (29.4%) patients: in patients undergoing isolated mitral surgery, the median STS-predicted mortality was 6.5% (IQR: 3.9% to 10.5%), the observed mortality was 10.2% (n = 23 of 225), and the ratio of observed to expected mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8 to 1.9). Predictors of mortality included urgent surgery (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.6), nondegenerative/unknown etiology (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5), creatinine of >2.0 mg/dl (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9 to 7.9) and age of >80 years (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.4). In a volume outcomes analysis in an expanded cohort of 591 patients at 227 hospitals, operative mortality was 2.6% (n = 2 of 76) in 4 centers that performed >10 cases versus 12.4% (n = 64 of 515) in centers performing fewer (p = 0.01). The surgical repair rate after failed TEER was 4.8% (n = 22) and was 6.8% (n = 12) in degenerative disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that mitral repair is infrequently achieved after failed TEER, which may have implications for treatment choice in lower-risk and younger patients with degenerative disease. These findings should inform patient consent for TEER, clinical trial design, and clinical performance measures.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Reoperação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984483

RESUMO

Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is common in the setting of type A aortic dissection (TAAD) repair. Here, we evaluated the association between prosthesis choice and patient outcomes in an international patient cohort. We reviewed data from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) interventional cohort to examine the relationship between valve choice and short- and mid-term patient outcomes. Between January 1996 and March 2016, 1290 surgically treated patients with TAAD were entered into the IRAD interventional cohort. Of those, 364 patients undergoing TAAD repair underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR; mean age, 57 years). The mechanical valve cohort consisted of 189 patients, of which 151 (79.9%) had a root replacement. The nonmechanical valve cohort consisted of 5 patients who received homografts and 160 patients who received a biologic AVR, with a total of 118 (71.5%) patients who underwent root replacements. The mean follow-up time was 2.92 ± 1.75 years overall (2.46 ± 1.69 years for the mechanical valve cohort and 3.48 ± 1.8 years for the nonmechanical valve cohort). After propensity matching, Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4-year survival rates after surgery were 64.8% in the mechanical valve group compared with 74.7% in the nonmechanical valve group (p = 0.921). A stratified Cox model for 4-year mortality showed no difference in hazard between valve types after adjusting for the propensity score (p = 0.854). A biologic valve is a reasonable option in patients with TAAD who require AVR. Although this option avoids the potential risks of anticoagulation, long-term follow up is necessary to assess the effect of reoperations or transcatheter interventions for structural valve degeneration.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular procedural volumes can serve as metrics of hospital infrastructure and quality, and are the basis for thresholds for initiating transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) programs. Whether hospital volumes of TMVr, surgical mitral valve replacement or repair (SMVRr), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are indicators of TMVr quality of care is not known. METHODS: We used the 2017 Nationwide Readmissions Database to identify hospitals that performed at least 5 TMVr procedures. Hospitals were divided into quartiles of TMVr volume. Associations of hospital TMVr, SMVRr, and PCI volumes, as well as SMVRr and PCI outcomes with TMVr outcomes were examined. Outcomes studied were risk-standardized in-hospital mortality rate (RSMR) and 30-day readmission rate (RSRR). RESULTS: The study included 3404 TMVr procedures performed across 150 hospitals in the US. The median hospital TMVr volume was 17 (IQR 10, 28). The mean hospital-level RSMR and RSRR for TMVr were 3.0% (95% CI 2.5%, 3.4%) and 14.8% (95% CI 14.5%, 15.0%), respectively. There was no significant association between hospital TMVr volume (as quartiles or as a continuous variable) and TMVr RSMR or RSRR (P > 0.05). Similarly, there was weak or no correlation between hospital SMVRr and PCI volumes and outcomes with TMVr RSMR or RSRR (Pearson correlation coefficients, r = -0.199 to 0.269). CONCLUSION: In this study, we found no relationship between hospital TMVr, SMVRr, and PCI volume and TMVr outcomes. Further studies are needed to determine more appropriate structure and process measures to assess the performance of established and new TMVr centers.

19.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(2): 305-311, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Kommerell diverticulum (KD) is a rare congenital vascular anomaly often associated with an aberrant subclavian artery (ASCA). Definitive indications for intervention remain unclear. We present open and endovascular (EV) operative outcomes in a large contemporary series and propose a management algorithm. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2020, 224 patients presented with ASCA and associated KD to our institution. Of the 43 (19.2%) patients who underwent operative repair, 31 (72.1%) had open surgical (OS) repair via thoracotomy and 12 (27.9%) had EV repair. Univariable and bivariable statistical analyses were conducted stratified by approach. The median follow-up time was 5.4 years (IQR, 2.9-9.7). RESULTS: Patients in EV group were older (68 years vs 47 years, P < 0.001) and had larger aneurysms (base diameter 3.2 cm vs 21.5 cm, P = 0.007). All patients with dysphagia lusoria were treated with open surgery (n = 20). Asymptomatic patients with incidentally detected KD (50% vs 16.1%), those with chest or back pain (50% vs 19.4%) and patients who presented with an aortic emergency (25% vs 6.5%) were more likely to be treated endovascularly (P = 0.001). Carotid-to-subclavian bypass was used in 38 (88.4%) patients. There were no operative mortalities. In-hospital mortality was similar between groups (3.2% vs 16.7%, P = 0.121). Mid-term mortality was higher in the EV group [4 (33.8%) vs 0, P < 0.001]. There were 2 (15.4%) postoperative strokes in the EV group. There were no statistically significant differences in other postoperative complications or hospital length of stay between groups. CONCLUSIONS: KD can be managed using open or EV approaches with low morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategy should depend on clinical presentation and patient factors.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular , Divertículo , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Divertículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Divertículo/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Subclávia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) recommend use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) over warfarin, yet clinical trials excluded individuals with post cardiac surgery AF. We sought to compare outcomes with NOACs vs warfarin for new onset post cardiac surgery AF. METHODS: We examined 26,522 patients from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons' database with post cardiac surgery AF who were discharged on oral anticoagulation from July 2017-December 2018. Three primary outcomes were evaluated: 30-day mortality, major bleeding complications, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. Secondary outcomes included postoperative length of stay, 30-day myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and pericardial effusion/tamponade. RESULTS: A total of 9769 (36.8%) participants were prescribed NOACs and 16,753 (63.2%) warfarin. In multivariable analysis, there was no association between type of anticoagulant and 30-day major bleeding complications (odds ratio [OR]NOAC/warfarin 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.18), stroke/transient ischemic attack (ORNOAC/warfarin 0.94, 95% CI 0.53-1.67) or mortality (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.08, 95% CI 0.80-1.45). After stratification by renal function or isolated coronary bypass vs valve surgery, there remained no difference in the primary outcomes. Additionally, there was no difference in 30-day myocardial infarction (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.17, 95% CI 0.62-2.22), venous thromboembolism (ORNOAC/warfarin 0.91, 95% CI 0.47-1.78), or pericardial effusion/tamponade (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.09, 95% CI 0.80-1.47) between the 2 groups. NOAC therapy was associated with a half-day reduction in postoperative length of stay (ßNOAC/warfarin -0.47, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.33). CONCLUSIONS: NOACs are associated with a reduction in postoperative length of stay, without excess bleeding or other short-term complications, compared with warfarin. These findings support the broader use of NOACs as a safe alternative to warfarin in patients with post cardiac surgery AF at elevated stroke risk and acceptable bleeding risk.

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