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Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3431, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701395


Techniques to mold the flow of light on subwavelength scales enable fundamentally new optical systems and device applications. The realization of programmable, active optical systems with fast, tunable components is among the outstanding challenges in the field. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a few-pixel beam steering device based on electrostatic gate control of excitons in an atomically thin semiconductor with strong light-matter interactions. By combining the high reflectivity of a MoSe2 monolayer with a graphene split-gate geometry, we shape the wavefront phase profile to achieve continuously tunable beam deflection with a range of 10°, two-dimensional beam steering, and switching times down to 1.6 nanoseconds. Our approach opens the door for a new class of atomically thin optical systems, such as rapidly switchable beam arrays and quantum metasurfaces operating at their fundamental thickness limit.

Nature ; 595(7865): 48-52, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194017


One of the first theoretically predicted manifestations of strong interactions in many-electron systems was the Wigner crystal1-3, in which electrons crystallize into a regular lattice. The crystal can melt via either thermal or quantum fluctuations4. Quantum melting of the Wigner crystal is predicted to produce exotic intermediate phases5,6 and quantum magnetism7,8 because of the intricate interplay of Coulomb interactions and kinetic energy. However, studying two-dimensional Wigner crystals in the quantum regime has often required a strong magnetic field9-11 or a moiré superlattice potential12-15, thus limiting access to the full phase diagram of the interacting electron liquid. Here we report the observation of bilayer Wigner crystals without magnetic fields or moiré potentials in an atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructure, which consists of two MoSe2 monolayers separated by hexagonal boron nitride. We observe optical signatures of robust correlated insulating states at symmetric (1:1) and asymmetric (3:1, 4:1 and 7:1) electron doping of the two MoSe2 layers at cryogenic temperatures. We attribute these features to bilayer Wigner crystals composed of two interlocked commensurate triangular electron lattices, stabilized by inter-layer interaction16. The Wigner crystal phases are remarkably stable, and undergo quantum and thermal melting transitions at electron densities of up to 6 × 1012 per square centimetre and at temperatures of up to about 40 kelvin. Our results demonstrate that an atomically thin heterostructure is a highly tunable platform for realizing many-body electronic states and probing their liquid-solid and magnetic quantum phase transitions4-8,17.

Nat Mater ; 20(4): 480-487, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398121


Moiré superlattices in twisted van der Waals materials have recently emerged as a promising platform for engineering electronic and optical properties. A major obstacle to fully understanding these systems and harnessing their potential is the limited ability to correlate direct imaging of the moiré structure with optical and electronic properties. Here we develop a secondary electron microscope technique to directly image stacking domains in fully functional van der Waals heterostructure devices. After demonstrating the imaging of AB/BA and ABA/ABC domains in multilayer graphene, we employ this technique to investigate reconstructed moiré patterns in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayers and directly correlate the increasing moiré periodicity with the emergence of two distinct exciton species in photoluminescence measurements. These states can be tuned individually through electrostatic gating and feature different valley coherence properties. We attribute our observations to the formation of an array of two intralayer exciton species that reside in alternating locations in the superlattice, and open up new avenues to realize tunable exciton arrays in twisted van der Waals heterostructures, with applications in quantum optoelectronics and explorations of novel many-body systems.

Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(9): 750-754, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661373


Van der Waals heterostructures obtained via stacking and twisting have been used to create moiré superlattices1, enabling new optical and electronic properties in solid-state systems. Moiré lattices in twisted bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) result in exciton trapping2-5, host Mott insulating and superconducting states6 and act as unique Hubbard systems7-9 whose correlated electronic states can be detected and manipulated optically. Structurally, these twisted heterostructures feature atomic reconstruction and domain formation10-14. However, due to the nanoscale size of moiré domains, the effects of atomic reconstruction on the electronic and excitonic properties have not been systematically investigated. Here we use near-0°-twist-angle MoSe2/MoSe2 bilayers with large rhombohedral AB/BA domains15 to directly probe the excitonic properties of individual domains with far-field optics. We show that this system features broken mirror/inversion symmetry, with the AB and BA domains supporting interlayer excitons with out-of-plane electric dipole moments in opposite directions. The dipole orientation of ground-state Γ-K interlayer excitons can be flipped with electric fields, while higher-energy K-K interlayer excitons undergo field-asymmetric hybridization with intralayer K-K excitons. Our study reveals the impact of crystal symmetry on TMD excitons and points to new avenues for realizing topologically non-trivial systems16,17, exotic metasurfaces18, collective excitonic phases19 and quantum emitter arrays20,21 via domain-pattern engineering.

Phys Rev Lett ; 124(21): 217403, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530686


The twist degree of freedom provides a powerful new tool for engineering the electrical and optical properties of van der Waals heterostructures. Here, we show that the twist angle can be used to control the spin-valley properties of transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers by changing the momentum alignment of the valleys in the two layers. Specifically, we observe that the interlayer excitons in twisted WSe_{2}/WSe_{2} bilayers exhibit a high (>60%) degree of circular polarization (DOCP) and long valley lifetimes (>40 ns) at zero electric and magnetic fields. The valley lifetime can be tuned by more than 3 orders of magnitude via electrostatic doping, enabling switching of the DOCP from ∼80% in the n-doped regime to <5% in the p-doped regime. These results open up new avenues for tunable chiral light-matter interactions, enabling novel device schemes that exploit the valley degree of freedom.

Phys Rev Lett ; 124(2): 027401, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004011


We demonstrate a new approach for dynamically manipulating the optical response of an atomically thin semiconductor, a monolayer of MoSe_{2}, by suspending it over a metallic mirror. First, we show that suspended van der Waals heterostructures incorporating a MoSe_{2} monolayer host spatially homogeneous, lifetime-broadened excitons. Then, we interface this nearly ideal excitonic system with a metallic mirror and demonstrate control over the exciton-photon coupling. Specifically, by electromechanically changing the distance between the heterostructure and the mirror, thereby changing the local photonic density of states in a controllable and reversible fashion, we show that both the absorption and emission properties of the excitons can be dynamically modulated. This electromechanical control over exciton dynamics in a mechanically flexible, atomically thin semiconductor opens up new avenues in cavity quantum optomechanics, nonlinear quantum optics, and topological photonics.