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1.
Environ Pollut ; : 119833, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931390

RESUMO

The potential effect of gestational exposure to phthalates on the lung function levels during childhood is unclear. Therefore, we examined this association at different ages (from 4 to 11 years) and over the whole childhood. Specifically, we measured 9 phthalate metabolites (MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MCMHP, MBzP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, MEHP) in the urine of 641 gestating women from the INMA study (Spain) and the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FVC/FEV1 in their offspring at ages 4, 7, 9 and 11. We used linear regression and mixed linear regression with a random intercept for subject to assess the association between phthalates and lung function at each study visit and for the overall childhood, respectively. We also assessed the phthalate metabolites mixture effect on lung function using a Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression. We observed that the phthalate metabolites gestational levels were consistently associated with lower FVC and FEV1 at all ages, both when assessed individually and jointly as a mixture, although most associations were not statistically significant. Of note, a 10% increase in MiBP was related to lower FVC (-0.02 (-0.04, 0)) and FEV1 z-scores (-0.02 (-0.04, -0.01) at age 4. Similar significant reductions in FVC were observed at ages 4 and 7 associated to an increase in MEP and MnBP, respectively, and for FEV1 at age 4 associated to an increase in MBzP. WQS regression consistently identified MBzP as an important contributor to the phthalate mixture effect. We can conclude that the gestational exposure to phthalates was associated with children's lower FVC and FEV1, especially in early childhood, and in a statistically significant manner for MEP, MiBP, MBzP and MnBP. Given the ubiquity of phthalate exposure and its established endocrine disrupting effects in children, our findings support current regulations that limit phthalate exposure.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876143

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The identification of novel molecules associated with asthma may provide insights into mechanisms of disease and their potential clinical implications. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a screening of circulating proteins in childhood asthma and to study proteins emerged from human studies in a mouse model of asthma. METHODS: We included 2,264 children from eight birth cohorts from the MeDALL project and the Tucson TCRS Study. In cross-sectional analyses, we tested 46 circulating proteins for association with asthma in the selection stage and carried significant signals forward to a validation and replication stage. As creatine kinase (CK) was the only protein consistently associated with asthma, we also compared whole blood CK gene expression between subjects with and without asthma (n=249) and used a house dust mite (HDM) challenged mouse model to gain insights into CK lung expression and its role in resolution of asthma phenotypes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: As compared with the lowest CK tertile, children in the highest tertile had significantly lower odds for asthma in selection (adjOR: 0.31, 0.15-0.65; p=0.002), validation (0.63, 0.42-0.95; p=0.03), and replication (0.40, 0.16-0.97; p = 0.04) stages. Both cytosolic CK forms (CKM, CKB) were under-expressed in blood from asthmatics compared to controls (p=0.01 and 0.006, respectively). In the lungs of HDM-challenged mice, Ckb expression was reduced and, following HDM challenge, a CKB inhibitor blocked the resolution of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reduction of airway mucin. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating levels and gene expression of CK are inversely associated with childhood asthma. Mouse models support a possible direct involvement of CK in asthma protection via inhibition of AHR and reduction of airway mucin.

4.
PLoS Med ; 19(6): e1004001, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise is a prevalent and known health hazard. However, little is known yet about its effect on children's cognition. We aimed to study the association between exposure to road traffic noise and the development of working memory and attention in primary school children, considering school-outdoor and school-indoor annual average noise levels and noise fluctuation characteristics, as well as home-outdoor noise exposure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We followed up a population-based sample of 2,680 children aged 7 to 10 years from 38 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) between January 2012 to March 2013. Children underwent computerised cognitive tests 4 times (n = 10,112), for working memory (2-back task, detectability), complex working memory (3-back task, detectability), and inattentiveness (Attention Network Task, hit reaction time standard error, in milliseconds). Road traffic noise was measured indoors and outdoors at schools, at the start of the school year, using standard protocols to obtain A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels, i.e., annual average levels scaled to human hearing, for the daytime (daytime LAeq, in dB). We also derived fluctuation indicators out of the measurements (noise intermittency ratio, %; and number of noise events) and obtained individual estimated indoor noise levels (LAeq) correcting for classroom orientation and classroom change between years. Home-outdoor noise exposure at home (Lden, i.e., EU indicator for the 24-hour annual average levels) was estimated using Barcelona's noise map for year 2012, according to the European Noise Directive (2002). We used linear mixed models to evaluate the association between exposure to noise and cognitive development adjusting for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomical vulnerability index at home, indoor or outdoor traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) for corresponding school models or outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for home models. Child and school were included as nested random effects. The median age (percentile 25, percentile 75) of children in visit 1 was 8.5 (7.8; 9.3) years, 49.9% were girls, and 50% of the schools were public. School-outdoor exposure to road traffic noise was associated with a slower development in working memory (2-back and 3-back) and greater inattentiveness over 1 year in children, both for the average noise level (e.g., ‒4.83 points [95% CI: ‒7.21, ‒2.45], p-value < 0.001, in 2-back detectability per 5 dB in street levels) and noise fluctuation (e.g., ‒4.38 [‒7.08, ‒1.67], p-value = 0.002, per 50 noise events at street level). Individual exposure to the road traffic average noise level in classrooms was only associated with inattentiveness (2.49 ms [0, 4.81], p-value = 0.050, per 5 dB), whereas indoor noise fluctuation was consistently associated with all outcomes. Home-outdoor noise exposure was not associated with the outcomes. Study limitations include a potential lack of generalizability (58% of mothers with university degree in our study versus 50% in the region) and the lack of past noise exposure assessment. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that exposure to road traffic noise at school, but not at home, was associated with slower development of working memory, complex working memory, and attention in schoolchildren over 1 year. Associations with noise fluctuation indicators were more evident than with average noise levels in classrooms.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Front Genet ; 13: 867611, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646076

RESUMO

Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has adverse health effects on the offspring, including lower birth weight and increased risk for obesity. These outcomes are also influenced by common genetic polymorphisms. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy and genetic predisposition on birth weight and body mass index (BMI)-related traits in 1,086 children of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project. Methods: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was self-reported. Phenotypic traits were assessed at birth or at the age of 8 years. Ten polygenic risk scores (PRSs) per trait were calculated using the PRSice v2 program. For birth weight, we estimated two sets of PRSs based on two different base GWAS summary statistics: PRS-EGG, which includes HELIX children, and PRS-PanUK, which is completely independent. The best PRS per trait (highest R 2) was selected for downstream analyses, and it was treated in continuous or categorized into three groups. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to evaluate the association of the explanatory variables with the traits of interest. The combined effect was evaluated by including an interaction term in the regression models and then running models stratified by the PRS group. Results: BMI-related traits were correlated among them but not with birth weight. A similar pattern was observed for their PRSs. On average, the PRSs explained ∼4% of the phenotypic variation, with higher PRS values related to higher trait values (p-value <5.55E-08). Sustained maternal smoking was associated with lower birth weight and higher BMI and related traits (p-value <2.99E-02). We identified a gene by environment (GxE) interaction for birth weight between sustained maternal smoking and the PRS-EGG in three groups (p-value interaction = 0.01), which was not replicated with the PRS-PanUK (p-value interaction = 0.341). Finally, we did not find any statistically significant GxE interaction for BMI-related traits (p-value interaction >0.237). Conclusion: Sustained maternal smoking and the PRSs were independently associated with birth weight and childhood BMI-related traits. There was low evidence of GxE interactions.

6.
Environ Int ; 163: 107206, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395578

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess pesticide exposure and its determinants in children aged 5-14 years. Urine samples (n = 953) were collected from 501 participating children living in urban areas (participant n = 300), rural areas but not on a farm (n = 76), and living on a farm (n = 125). The majority provided two samples, one in the high and one in the low spraying season. Information on diet, lifestyle, and demographic factors was collected by questionnaire. Urine was analysed for 20 pesticide biomarkers by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. Nine analytes were detected in > 80% of samples, including six organophosphate insecticide metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DEP, DETP, TCPy, PNP), two pyrethroid insecticide metabolites (3-PBA, trans-DCCA), and one herbicide (2,4-D). The highest concentration was measured for TCPy (median 13 µg/g creatinine), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos and triclopyr, followed by DMP (11 µg/g) and DMTP (3.7 µg/g). Urine metabolite levels were generally similar or low compared to those reported for other countries, while relatively high for TCPy and pyrethroid metabolites. Living on a farm was associated with higher TCPy levels during the high spray season. Living in rural areas, dog ownership and in-home pest control were associated with higher levels of pyrethroid metabolites. Urinary concentrations of several pesticide metabolites were higher during the low spraying season, possibly due to consumption of imported fruits and vegetables. Organic fruit consumption was not associated with lower urine concentrations, but consumption of organic food other than fruit or vegetables was associated with lower concentrations of TCPy in the high spray season. In conclusion, compared to other countries such as the U.S., New Zealand children had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos/triclopyr and pyrethroids. Factors associated with exposure included age, season, area of residence, diet, in-home pest control, and pets.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Biomarcadores , Criança , Clorpirifos/urina , Cromatografia Líquida , Cães , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Inseticidas/urina , Nova Zelândia , Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
J Clin Med ; 11(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456306

RESUMO

The outbreak of a pandemic has negative psychological effects. We aimed to determine the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic during pregnancy and identify the risk factors for maternal well-being. A multicenter, prospective, population-based study was carried out that included women (n = 1320) who were pregnant during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Barcelona (Spain) compared against a pre-pandemic cohort (n = 345). Maternal well-being was assessed using the validated World Health Organization Well-Being Index Questionnaire (WHO-5 Index). Pregnant women attended during the COVID-19 pandemic showed worst WHO-5 well-being scores (median (IQR) of 56 (36-72) for the pandemic cohort vs. 64 (52-76) for the pre-pandemic cohort p < 0.001), with 42.8% of women presenting a poor well-being score vs. 28% for the pre-pandemic cohort (p < 0.001). Presence of a previous psychiatric disorder (OR 7.1; 95% CI 2.6-19, p < 0.001), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.5-2, p < 0.001), or requiring hospital admission for COVID-19 (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.4-16.7, p = 0.014), significantly contributed to low maternal well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic (multivariate analysis). Being infected by SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with a lower well-being score. We conclude that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were higher rates of poor maternal well-being; the infection of SARS-CoV-2 itself did not worsen maternal well-being, but other factors as psychiatric disorders, being in the third trimester of pregnancy or hospital admission for COVID-19 disease did.

8.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(4): 243-252, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate maternal thyroid function is important for an uncomplicated pregnancy. Although multiple observational studies have evaluated the association between thyroid dysfunction and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the methods and definitions of abnormalities in thyroid function tests were heterogeneous, and the results were conflicting. We aimed to examine the association between abnormalities in thyroid function tests and risk of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of individual-participant data, we searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from date of inception to Dec 27, 2019, for prospective cohort studies with data on maternal concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, individually or in combination, as well as on gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, or both. We issued open invitations to study authors to participate in the Consortium on Thyroid and Pregnancy and to share the individual-participant data. We excluded participants who had pre-existing thyroid disease or multifetal pregnancy, or were taking medications that affect thyroid function. The primary outcomes were documented gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Individual-participant data were analysed using logistic mixed-effects regression models adjusting for maternal age, BMI, smoking, parity, ethnicity, and gestational age at blood sampling. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019128585. FINDINGS: We identified 1539 published studies, of which 33 cohorts met the inclusion criteria and 19 cohorts were included after the authors agreed to participate. Our study population comprised 46 528 pregnant women, of whom 39 826 (85·6%) women had sufficient data (TSH and FT4 concentrations and TPO antibody status) to be classified according to their thyroid function status. Of these women, 1275 (3·2%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 933 (2·3%) had isolated hypothyroxinaemia, 619 (1·6%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism, and 337 (0·8%) had overt hyperthyroidism. Compared with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a higher risk of pre-eclampsia (2·1% vs 3·6%; OR 1·53 [95% CI 1·09-2·15]). Subclinical hyperthyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinaemia, or TPO antibody positivity were not associated with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. In continuous analyses, both a higher and a lower TSH concentration were associated with a higher risk of pre-eclampsia (p=0·0001). FT4 concentrations were not associated with the outcomes measured. INTERPRETATION: Compared with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of pre-eclampsia. There was a U-shaped association of TSH with pre-eclampsia. These results quantify the risks of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia in women with thyroid function test abnormalities, adding to the total body of evidence on the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. These findings have potential implications for defining the optimal treatment target in women treated with levothyroxine during pregnancy, which needs to be assessed in future interventional studies. FUNDING: Arkansas Biosciences Institute and Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Hipertireoidismo , Hipotireoidismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Complicações na Gravidez , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Tireotropina , Tiroxina
9.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies that look at the intake of all types of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) during the different stages of pregnancy along with a long-term neuropsychological follow-up of the child. This study aims to explore the association between maternal n-3 PUFA intake during two periods of pregnancy and the child's neuropsychological scores at different ages. METHODS: Prospective data were obtained for 2644 pregnant women recruited between 2004 and 2008 in population-based birth cohorts in Spain. Maternal n-3 PUFA intake during the first and third trimester of pregnancy was estimated using validated food frequency questionnaires. Child neuropsychological functions were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development version one (BSID) at 1 year old, the McCarthy Scale of Children's Abilities (MSCA) at 4 years old, and the Attention Network Test (ANT) at 7 years old. Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression models and adjusted for potential covariates, such as maternal social class, education, cohort location, alcohol consumption, smoking, breastfeeding duration, and energy intake. RESULTS: Compared to participants in the lowest quartile (<1.262 g/day) of n-3 PUFA consumption during the first trimester, those in the highest quartile (>1.657 g/day) had a 2.26 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 4.11) higher MSCA general cognitive score, a 2.48 points (95% CI: 0.53, 4.43) higher MSCA verbal score, and a 2.06 points (95% CI: 0.166, 3.95) higher MSCA executive function score, and a 11.52 milliseconds (95% CI: -22.95, -0.09) lower ANT hit reaction time standard error. In the third pregnancy trimester, the associations were weaker. CONCLUSIONS: Positive associations between n-3 PUFA intake during early pregnancy and child neuropsychological functions at 4 and 7 years of age were found, and further clinical research is needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Environ Int ; 162: 107178, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In utero exposure to bisphenols, widely used in consumer products, may alter lung development and increase the risk of respiratory morbidity in the offspring. However, evidence is scarce and mostly focused on bisphenol A (BPA) only. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of in utero exposure to BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) with asthma, wheeze, and lung function in school-age children, and whether these associations differ by sex. METHODS: We included 3,007 mother-child pairs from eight European birth cohorts. Bisphenol concentrations were determined in maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy (1999-2010). Between 7 and 11 years of age, current asthma and wheeze were assessed from questionnaires and lung function by spirometry. Wheezing patterns were constructed from questionnaires from early to mid-childhood. We performed adjusted random-effects meta-analysis on individual participant data. RESULTS: Exposure to BPA was prevalent with 90% of maternal samples containing concentrations above detection limits. BPF and BPS were found in 27% and 49% of samples. In utero exposure to BPA was associated with higher odds of current asthma (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.27) and wheeze (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.30) (p-interaction sex = 0.01) among girls, but not with wheezing patterns nor lung function neither in overall nor among boys. We observed inconsistent associations of BPF and BPS with the respiratory outcomes assessed in overall and sex-stratified analyses. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that in utero BPA exposure may be associated with higher odds of asthma and wheeze among school-age girls.


Assuntos
Asma , Sons Respiratórios , Asma/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Fenóis , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia
11.
Environ Res ; 211: 113109, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292243

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution influences children's health, however, the biological mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely elucidated. We investigated the association between short- and medium-term outdoor air pollution exposure with protein profiles and their link with blood pressure in 1170 HELIX children aged 6-11 years. Different air pollutants (NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5abs) were estimated based on residential and school addresses at three different windows of exposure (1-day, 1-week, and 1-year before clinical and molecular assessment). Thirty-six proteins, including adipokines, cytokines, or apolipoproteins, were measured in children's plasma using Luminex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured following a standardized protocol. We performed an association study for each air pollutant at each location and time window and each outcome, adjusting for potential confounders. After correcting for multiple-testing, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin 8 (IL8) levels were positively associated with 1-week home exposure to some of the pollutants (NO2, PM10, or PM2.5). NO2 1-week home exposure was also related to higher SBP. The mediation study suggested that HGF could explain 19% of the short-term effect of NO2 on blood pressure, but other study designs are needed to prove the causal directionality between HGF and blood pressure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(4): 2126-2135, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145228

RESUMO

Cognitive skills are a strong predictor of a wide range of later life outcomes. Genetic and epigenetic associations across the genome explain some of the variation in general cognitive abilities in the general population and it is plausible that epigenetic associations might arise from prenatal environmental exposures and/or genetic variation early in life. We investigated the association between cord blood DNA methylation at birth and cognitive skills assessed in children from eight pregnancy cohorts within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium across overall (total N = 2196), verbal (total N = 2206) and non-verbal cognitive scores (total N = 3300). The associations at single CpG sites were weak for all of the cognitive domains investigated. One region near DUSP22 on chromosome 6 was associated with non-verbal cognition in a model adjusted for maternal IQ. We conclude that there is little evidence to support the idea that variation in cord blood DNA methylation at single CpG sites is associated with cognitive skills and further studies are needed to confirm the association at DUSP22.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Criança , Cognição , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(1): 82-92, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies examining associations of early-life cat and dog ownership with childhood asthma have reported inconsistent results. Several factors could explain these inconsistencies, including type of pet, timing, and degree of exposure. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study associations of early-life cat and dog ownership with asthma in school-aged children, including the role of type (cat vs dog), timing (never, prenatal, or early childhood), and degree of ownership (number of pets owned), and the role of allergic sensitization. METHODS: We used harmonized data from 77,434 mother-child dyads from 9 birth cohorts in the European Union Child Cohort Network when the child was 5 to 11 years old. Associations were examined through the DataSHIELD platform by using adjusted logistic regression models, which were fitted separately for each cohort and combined by using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of early-life cat and dog ownership ranged from 12% to 45% and 7% to 47%, respectively, and the prevalence of asthma ranged from 2% to 20%. There was no overall association between either cat or dog ownership and asthma (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97 [95% CI = 0.87-1.09] and 0.92 [95% CI = 0.85-1.01], respectively). Timing and degree of ownership did not strongly influence associations. Cat and dog ownership were also not associated with cat- and dog-specific allergic sensitization (OR = 0.92 [95% CI = 0.75-1.13] and 0.93 [95% CI = 0.57-1.54], respectively). However, cat- and dog-specific allergic sensitization was strongly associated with school-age asthma (OR = 6.69 [95% CI = 4.91-9.10] and 5.98 [95% CI = 3.14-11.36], respectively). There was also some indication of an interaction between ownership and sensitization, suggesting that ownership may exacerbate the risks associated with pet-specific sensitization but offer some protection against asthma in the absence of sensitization. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support early-life cat and dog ownership in themselves increasing the risk of school-age asthma, but they do suggest that ownership may potentially exacerbate the risks associated with cat- and dog-specific allergic sensitization.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Asma , Animais , Asma/epidemiologia , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Propriedade
14.
Environ Pollut ; 297: 118765, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973383

RESUMO

The airway macrophages carbon loading (AMCL) has been suggested to be a biomarker of the long-term exposure to air pollution; however, to date no study has characterized AMCL for the pregnancy period. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the determinants of AMCL during pregnancy in Iran, a middle-income country. This study was based on a sample of 234 pregnant women with term and normal vaginal delivery who were residing in Sabzevar, Iran (2019). We characterized 35 potential determinants of personal exposure to air pollution for each participant, including six personal, nine indoor, and 20 home-outdoor factors. We applied Deletion/Substitution/Addition algorithm to identify the most relevant determinants that could predict AMCL levels. The median (IQR) of AMCL level was 0.12 (0.30) µm2 with a successful sputum induction in 82.9% (194) of participants. Ambient residential PM2.5 levels were positively associated with higher AMCL levels. On the other hand, increased residential distance to the traffic lights, squares and ring-roads, the duration of opening window per day, and opening window during cooking were inversely associated with AMCL levels. Our findings provide novel insights on the different personal, indoor, and outdoor determinants of personal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy in a middle-income country.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Carbono , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Gestantes
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055649, 2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078847

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the SARS-CoV-2 became of concern in January 2020, many preventive measures have been adopted in educational settings to ensure the control of COVID-19 pandemic among children and staff in schools. This study aims to set up a school sentinel surveillance network with the purpose of monitoring SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroprevalence as well as to analyse the impact of preventive interventions of SARS-CoV-2 in school settings. Additionally, we will assess diverse screening strategies in a cohort of students and school staff to monitor the screening acceptance and its potential impact. Altogether, we hope this study will enable the design of more effective strategies for the prevention of COVID-19 spread. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The sentinel schools' study is a cross-sectional, school-based project including 26 participating sentinel schools in Catalonia (Spain). Children, adolescents and staff at the schools will be invited to participate. This project will be carried out from January 2021 to June 2022 as follows: (1) twice yearly serological testing and molecular SARS-CoV-2 detection and questionnaires covering SARS-CoV-2 symptoms, tests, health, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours; (2) an environmental evaluation carried out in different classrooms; (3) SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics and the impact of different variants among confirmed cases and classmates; (4) a participatory process by which the participants are invited to act as coinvestigators to evaluate prevention strategies and provide recommendations to improve COVID-19 prevention in schools. Descriptive analysis will be performed for the main variables collected. The incidence and seroprevalence will be calculated and the association with sociodemographic factors and school characteristics will be determined using multivariate logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the IDIAPJGol and the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron ethics committees. A report will be generated quarterly. Findings will be disseminated at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Criança , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Res ; 209: 112783, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transplacental transfer and breastfeeding are the main transport routes of organic pollutants into children at the beginning of life. Although pollutant transmission through these mechanisms primarily depends on the maternal pollution burden, its impact may be modulated by physiological effects. OBJECTIVES: We have examined whether gestational weight gain (GWG) exerts an influence on the content of lipophilic low volatile pollutants in breast milk. RESULTS: Colostrum from mothers from the INMA cohorts of Sabadell and Gipuzkoa (n = 256 and 119, respectively) with low GWG as defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) from the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine had significantly higher concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and 4,4'-DDE than colostrum in mothers who gained weight within IOM recommendations or in those who exceeded this threshold. Statistically significant differences were also found in the colostrum:maternal serum ratios of these compounds. Women with low GWG retained higher pollutant amounts in colostrum. These observations are consistent with previously described higher concentrations of these pollutants in infant cord blood from mothers with low GWG by IOM standards. They indicate that mobilization of lipophilic organic pollutants by metabolic pregnant changes not only leads to higher fetal transfer but to higher accumulation into the mammary system upon low GWG. CONCLUSIONS: The present results show that insufficient GWG, besides increasing in utero exposure, also enhances pollutant transfer to infants during breastfeeding which considerably extends the significance of this physiological change for the pollutant children intake in early life.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leite Humano , Mães , Gravidez
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 156(3): 494-501, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal sleep duration (an important health indicator) and neonate birth weight. METHODS: The study included 2536 mother-neonate pairs of a Spanish birth cohort (2004-2006, INMA project). The exposures were questionnaire-based measures of sleep duration before and during pregnancy. The primary outcome was neonate birth weight score (g) standardized to 40 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: In women sleeping for <7 h/day before pregnancy, each additional hour of sleep increased birth weight score by 44.7 g (P = 0.049) in the minimally adjusted model, although findings were not statistically significant after considering other potential confounders (P > 0.05). However, increasing sleep duration for the group of mothers who slept for more than 9 h/day decreased birth weight score by 39.2 g per additional hour (P = 0.001). Findings were similar after adjusting for several sociodemographic confounders and maternal depression-anxiety clinical history as an intermediate factor. Similar but attenuated associations were observed with sleep duration in the second trimester of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The relationship between maternal sleep duration before and during pregnancy and neonate birth weight is an inverse U-shaped curve. Excessive sleep duration may adversely affect neonate health through its impact on birth weight.


Assuntos
Mães , Sono , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
18.
Environ Int ; 158: 106933, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban environment may influence neurodevelopment from conception onwards, but there is no evaluation of the impact of multiple groups of exposures simultaneously. We investigated the association between early-life urban environment and cognitive and motor function in children. METHODS: We used data from 5403 mother-child pairs from four population-based birth-cohorts (UK, France, Spain, and Greece). We estimated thirteen urban home exposures during pregnancy and childhood, including: built environment, natural spaces, and air pollution. Verbal, non-verbal, gross motor, and fine motor functions were assessed using validated tests at five years old. We ran adjusted multi-exposure models using the Deletion-Substitution-Addition algorithm. RESULTS: Higher greenness exposure within 300 m during pregnancy was associated with higher verbal abilities (1.5 points (95% confidence interval 0.4, 2.7) per 0.20 unit increase in greenness). Higher connectivity density within 100 m and land use diversity during pregnancy were related to lower verbal abilities. Childhood exposure to PM2.5 mediated 74% of the association between greenness during childhood and verbal abilities. Higher exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy was related to lower fine motor function (-1.2 points (-2.1, -0.4) per 3.2 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5). No associations were found with non-verbal abilities and gross motor function. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that built environment, greenness, and air pollution may impact child cognitive and motor function at five years old. This study adds evidence that well-designed urban planning may benefit children's cognitive and motor development.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Espanha
19.
Environ Res ; 207: 112181, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional and prospective studies have provided evidence of the neurotoxic effect of early exposure to fluoride (F) in pregnancy. It has been negatively associated with cognitive development during childhood, with most research conducted in areas with high F levels in community drinking water (CDW). METHOD: Data from 316 to 248 mother-child pairs from the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment, INMA) birth cohort project with maternal urinary F level adjusted for creatinine (MUFcr) measurements in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. Children's cognitive domains and intelligence indexes were evaluated using the Bayley Scales (age of 1) and the McCarthy Scales (age of 4). Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out adjusting for a wide range of covariates related to the child, mother, family context and other potential neurotoxicants. RESULTS: No association was found between MUFcr levels and Bayley Mental Development Index score. Nevertheless, regarding the McCarthy scales, it was found that per unit (mg/g) of MUFcr across the whole pregnancy, scores in boys were greater for the verbal, performance, numeric and memory domains (ß = 13.86, CI 95%: 3.91, 23.82), (ß = 5.86, CI 95%: 0.32, 11.39), (ß = 6.22, CI 95%: 0.65, 11.79) and (ß = 11.63, CI 95%: 2.62, 20.63) respectively and for General Cognitive Index (ß = 15.4, CI 95%: 6.32, 24.48). For girls there was not any cognitive score significantly associated with MUFcr, being the sex-F interactions significant (P interaction <0.05). Including other toxicants levels, quality of family context or deprivation index did not substantially change the results. CONCLUSIONS: In boys, positive associations were observed between MUFcr and scores in cognitive domains at the age of 4. These findings are inconsistent with those from some previous studies and indicate the need for other population-based studies to confirm or overturn these results at low levels of F in CDW.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Fluoretos/urina , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111900, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life exposure to air pollution can affect lung health. Previous studies have not assessed the implications of both pre- and postnatal exposure to air pollutants on lung function at repeated ages during childhood. In addition, there is the need to identify potential mediators of such effect. OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally assess the association between pre- and postnatal air pollution exposure and lung function during childhood. We also aimed to explore the role of Club cell secretory protein (CC16) as a potential mediator in this association. METHODOLOGY: We included 487 mother-child pairs from the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) Sabadell birth cohort, recruited between 2004 and 2006. Air pollution exposure was estimated for pregnancy, pre-school age, and school-age using temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) modelling. Lung function was measured at ages 4, 7, 9 and 11 by spirometry. At age 4, serum CC16 levels were determined in 287 children. Multivariable linear regression models and linear mixed modelling were applied, while considering potential confounders. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to Particulate Matter (PM)10 and PMcoarse had the most consistent associations with reduced lung function in cross-sectional models. Associations with postnatal exposure were less consistent. Increasing CC16 levels at 4 years were associated with an increase in FEF25-75 (ß = 120.4 mL, 95% CI: 6.30, 234.5) from 4 to 11 years of age. No statistically significant associations were found between pre- or postnatal air pollution and CC16 at age 4. CONCLUSION: Increasing levels of air pollution exposure, particularly prenatal PM10 and PMcoarse exposure, were associated with a reduction in lung function. We were not able to confirm our hypothesis on the mediation role of CC16 in this association, however our results encourage further exploration of this possibility in future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
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