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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1203, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in ANTXR2 which leads to loss of function of the transmembrane protein anthrax toxin receptor 2. It is distinguished by characteristic skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint and bone disease, and systemic involvement. METHODS: Based on the case of an 11-year-old female patient with typical features of hyaline fibromatosis syndrome and the underlying pathogenic compound heterozygote variants in ANTXR2 we discuss the genetic and clinical aspects of hyaline fibromatosis syndrome. RESULTS: The novel mutation in ANTXR2 (c.1223T>C, p.Leu408Pro variant) seems to allow for a protracted course of the disease. CONCLUSION: Our findings add to the phenotypic, genetic, and biochemical spectrum of hyaline fibromatosis syndrome.

2.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 17, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new monogenic neurodegenerative disease affecting ribosomal metabolism has recently been identified in association with a monoallelic UBTF putative gain of function variant (NM_001076683.1:c.628G>A, hg19). Phenotype is consistent among these probands with progressive motor, cognitive, and behavioural regression in early to middle childhood. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a child with this monoallelic UBTF variant who presented with progressive disease including regression, episodes of subacute deterioration during febrile illnesses and a remarkable EEG pattern with a transient pattern of semi-periodic slow waves. CONCLUSIONS: This case further supports the phenotype-genotype correlation of neurodegeneration associated with UBTF c.628G>A. Moreover, it brings new insights into the clinical features and EEG that could possibly serve as diagnostic markers of this otherwise nonspecific phenotype.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 41(3): 655-667, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705726

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) comprise a large number of inherited metabolic defects that affect the biosynthesis and attachment of glycans. CDGs manifest as a broad spectrum of disease, most often including neurodevelopmental and skeletal abnormalities and skin laxity. Two patients with biallelic CSGALNACT1 variants and a mild skeletal dysplasia have been described previously. We investigated two unrelated patients presenting with short stature with advanced bone age, facial dysmorphism, and mild language delay, in whom trio-exome sequencing identified novel biallelic CSGALNACT1 variants: compound heterozygosity for c.1294G>T (p.Asp432Tyr) and the deletion of exon 4 that includes the start codon in one patient, and homozygosity for c.791A>G (p.Asn264Ser) in the other patient. CSGALNACT1 encodes CSGalNAcT-1, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. Biochemical studies demonstrated significantly reduced CSGalNAcT-1 activity of the novel missense variants, as reported previously for the p.Pro384Arg variant. Altered levels of chondroitin, dermatan, and heparan sulfate moieties were observed in patients' fibroblasts compared to controls. Our data indicate that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CSGALNACT1 disturb glycosaminoglycan synthesis and cause a mild skeletal dysplasia with advanced bone age, CSGALNACT1-CDG.

4.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877759

RESUMO

Variants in more than 271 different genes have been linked to hereditary retinal diseases, making comprehensive genomic approaches mandatory for accurate diagnosis. We explored the genetic landscape of retinal disorders in consanguineous families from North-Western Pakistan, harboring a population of approximately 35 million inhabitants that remains relatively isolated and highly inbred (~50% consanguinity). We leveraged on the high degree of consanguinity by applying genome-wide high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping followed by targeted Sanger sequencing of candidate gene(s) lying inside autozygous intervals. In addition, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on at least one proband per family. We identified 7 known and 4 novel variants in a total of 10 genes (ABCA4, BBS2, CNGA1, CNGA3, CNGB3, MKKS, NMNAT1, PDE6B, RPE65, and TULP1) previously known to cause inherited retinal diseases. In spite of all families being consanguineous, compound heterozygosity was detected in one family. All homozygous pathogenic variants resided in autozygous intervals ≥2.0 Mb in size. Putative founder variants were observed in the ABCA4 (NM_000350.2:c.214G>A; p.Gly72Arg; ten families) and NMNAT1 genes (NM_022787.3:c.25G>A; p.Val9Met; two families). We conclude that geographic isolation and sociocultural tradition of intrafamilial mating in North-Western Pakistan favor both the clinical manifestation of rare "generic" variants and the prevalence of founder mutations.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1294-1301, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761294

RESUMO

The development of hindlimbs in tetrapod species relies specifically on the transcription factor TBX4. In humans, heterozygous loss-of-function TBX4 mutations cause dominant small patella syndrome (SPS) due to haploinsufficiency. Here, we characterize a striking clinical entity in four fetuses with complete posterior amelia with pelvis and pulmonary hypoplasia (PAPPA). Through exome sequencing, we find that PAPPA syndrome is caused by homozygous TBX4 inactivating mutations during embryogenesis in humans. In two consanguineous couples, we uncover distinct germline TBX4 coding mutations, p.Tyr113∗ and p.Tyr127Asn, that segregated with SPS in heterozygous parents and with posterior amelia with pelvis and pulmonary hypoplasia syndrome (PAPPAS) in one available homozygous fetus. A complete absence of TBX4 transcripts in this proband with biallelic p.Tyr113∗ stop-gain mutations revealed nonsense-mediated decay of the endogenous mRNA. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TBX4 deletion in Xenopus embryos confirmed its restricted role during leg development. We conclude that SPS and PAPPAS are allelic diseases of TBX4 deficiency and that TBX4 is an essential transcription factor for organogenesis of the lungs, pelvis, and hindlimbs in humans.

6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1909-1913, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643150

RESUMO

In Switzerland, since modifications of the law regulating reproductive medicine introduced the 1rst of September 2017, preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) has been legalised. Infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) can benefit from this technology by detecting which embryos are aneuploid (ie abnormal number of chromosomes, PGT-A). This is performed in order to transfer euploid embryos (normal number of chromosomes) and to optimise success, though data are limited. Couples at risk of transmitting a severe monogenic disease or unbalanced translocation can undergo PGT for monogenic disease or chromosomal structural rearrangements (PGT-M/SR). These tests are subject to strict legal criteria. Their clinical application needs to be approved through a multidisciplinary approach taking into account legal and ethical issues while respecting the autonomy of the couples.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/ética , Testes Genéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/ética , Aneuploidia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Suíça
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614862

RESUMO

Variations in genes encoding for the enzymes responsible for synthesizing the linker region of proteoglycans may result in recessive conditions known as "linkeropathies". The two phenotypes related to mutations in genes B4GALT7 and B3GALT6 (encoding for galactosyltransferase I and II respectively) are similar, characterized by short stature, hypotonia, joint hypermobility, skeletal features and a suggestive face with prominent forehead, thin soft tissue and prominent eyes. The most outstanding feature of these disorders is the combination of severe connective tissue involvement, often manifesting in newborns and infants, and skeletal dysplasia that becomes apparent during childhood. Here, we intend to more accurately define some of the clinical features of B4GALT7 and B3GALT6-related conditions and underline the extreme hypermobility of distal joints and the soft, doughy skin on the hands and feet as features that may be useful as the first clues for a correct diagnosis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/genética , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo
8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(12): 2393-2419, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633310

RESUMO

The application of massively parallel sequencing technology to the field of skeletal disorders has boosted the discovery of the underlying genetic defect for many of these diseases. It has also resulted in the delineation of new clinical entities and the identification of genes and pathways that had not previously been associated with skeletal disorders. These rapid advances have prompted the Nosology Committee of the International Skeletal Dysplasia Society to revise and update the last (2015) version of the Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders. This newest and tenth version of the Nosology comprises 461 different diseases that are classified into 42 groups based on their clinical, radiographic, and/or molecular phenotypes. Remarkably, pathogenic variants affecting 437 different genes have been found in 425/461 (92%) of these disorders. By providing a reference list of recognized entities and their causal genes, the Nosology should help clinicians achieve accurate diagnoses for their patients and help scientists advance research in skeletal biology.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2734-2743, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We observed four individuals in two unrelated but consanguineous families from Portugal and Brazil affected by early-onset retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis and short stature. The phenotype precisely matched that of an individual of Azorean descent published in 1986 by Liberfarb and coworkers. METHODS: Patients underwent specialized clinical examinations (including ophthalmological, audiological, orthopedic, radiological, and developmental assessment). Exome and targeted sequencing was performed on selected individuals. Minigene constructs were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Affected individuals shared a 3.36-Mb region of autozygosity on chromosome 22q12.2, including a 10-bp deletion (NM_014338.3:c.904-12_904-3delCTATCACCAC), immediately upstream of the last exon of the PISD (phosphatidylserine decarboxylase) gene. Sequencing of PISD from paraffin-embedded tissue from the 1986 case revealed the identical homozygous variant. In HEK293T cells, this variant led to aberrant splicing of PISD transcripts. CONCLUSION: We have identified the genetic etiology of the Liberfarb syndrome, affecting brain, eye, ear, bone, and connective tissue. Our work documents the migration of a rare Portuguese founder variant to two continents and highlights the link between phospholipid metabolism and bone formation, sensory defects, and cerebral development, while raising the possibility of therapeutic phospholipid replacement.

10.
FEBS J ; 286(15): 3008-3032, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286677

RESUMO

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a heterogeneous family of linear polysaccharides that constitute the carbohydrate moiety covalently attached to the protein core of proteoglycans, macromolecules present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Several genetic disorders of bone and connective tissue are caused by mutations in genes encoding for glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases and transporters that are responsible for the synthesis of sulfated GAGs. Phenotypically, these disorders all reflect alterations in crucial biological functions of GAGs in the development, growth and homoeostasis of cartilage and bone. To date, up to 27 different skeletal phenotypes have been linked to mutations in 23 genes encoding for proteins involved in GAG biosynthesis. This review focuses on recent genetic, molecular and biochemical studies of bone and connective tissue disorders caused by GAG synthesis defects. These insights and future research in the field will provide a deeper understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders and will pave the way for developing common therapeutic strategies that might be targeted to a range of individual phenotypes.

11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(6): 1072-1080, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211171

RESUMO

Background: A 49-year-old male presented with late-onset demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar atrophy, and cognitive deficit. Nerve biopsy revealed intra-axonal inclusions suggestive of polyglucosan bodies, raising the suspicion of adult polyglucosan bodies disease (OMIM 263570). Methods and Results: While known genes associated with polyglucosan bodies storage were negative, whole-exome sequencing identified an unreported monoallelic variant, c.397G>T (p.Val133Phe), in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene. While we did not identify mutations in genes known to be associated with polygucosan body disease, whole-exome sequencing revealed an unreported monoallelic variant, c.397G>T in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene, encoding a substitution (Val133Phe) in the catalytic domain. Expression of this variant in patient cells resulted in reduced aminoacylation activity in extracts obtained from dermal fibroblasts, without compromising overall protein synthesis. Interpretation: Genetic variants in the genes coding for the different aminoacyl-tRNA synthases are associated with various clinical conditions. To date, a number of HARS variant have been associated with peripheral neuropathy, but not cognitive deficits. Further studies are needed to explore why HARS mutations confer a neuronal-specific phenotype.

12.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 40(2): 177-181, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) encompass a wide spectrum of genetic ocular diseases characterized by considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity. METHODS: Complete ophthalmic examination and next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: We describe a patient with no family history of vision loss, who at the age of 28 years developed visual impairment consistent with a severe form of retinitis pigmentosa. Genetic testing by means of whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous variant in the gene IDH3A. To date, only three papers have reported mutations in IDH3A, in families with early-onset retinal degeneration with or without the presence of macular pseudocoloboma. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of including this rarely-mutated gene in the molecular diagnostic set-ups for IRDs, and further delineates the phenotypic spectrum elicited by mutations in IDH3A.

13.
JCI Insight ; 4(3)2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728324

RESUMO

Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism. In spite of reduced abundance, residual GMAP variants maintain partial Golgi integrity, normal global protein secretion, and subcellular distribution of IFT20 in ODCD. These functions are lost when GMAP-210 is completely abrogated in ACG1A. However, a similar defect in chondrocyte maturation is observed in both disorders, which produces a cellular achondrogenesis phenotype of different severity, ensuing from aberrant glycan processing and impaired extracellular matrix proteoglycan secretion by the Golgi apparatus.

14.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 37(2): 378-383, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948344

RESUMO

Data from exome sequencing show that a proportion of individuals in whom a genetic disorder is suspected turn out to have not one, but two to four distinct ones. This may require an evolution in our diagnostic attitude towards individuals with complex disorders. We report a patient with splenomegaly, pneumopathy, bone changes and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). "Sea-blue histiocytes" in his bone marrow pointed to a lysosomal storage disease. Homozygosity for a pathogenic mutation in the SMPD1 gene confirmed Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B). Mild cognitive impairment and abnormal brain FDG PET were consistent with FTD. We initially tried to fit the skeletal and neurologic phenotype into the NPD-B diagnosis. However, additional studies revealed a pathogenic mutation in the SQSTM1 gene. Thus, our patient had two distinct diseases; NPD-B, and Paget's disease of bone with FTD. The subsequent finding of a mutation in SQSTM1 gene ended our struggle to explain the combination of findings by a singular "unifying" diagnosis and allowed us to make specific therapeutic decisions. SQSTM1 mutations have been reported in association with FTD, possibly because of defective autophagy. Bisphosphonates may be beneficial for PDB, but since they are known to inhibit acid sphingomyelinase activity, we refrained from using them in this patient. While the principle of looking for unifying diagnosis remains valid, physicians should consider the possibility of co-existing multiple diagnoses when clinical features are difficult to explain by a single one. Accurate diagnostic work-up can guide genetic counseling but also lead to better medical management.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Demência Frontotemporal/complicações , Hepatomegalia/complicações , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo B/complicações , Osteíte Deformante/complicações , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Esplenomegalia/complicações , Medula Óssea/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo B/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteíte Deformante/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Rheumatol Int ; 39(3): 441-452, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327864

RESUMO

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPRD) is a genetic bone disorder characterised by the progressive degeneration of articular cartilage that leads to pain, stiffness and joint enlargement. As PPRD is a rare disease, available literature is mainly represented by single case reports and only a few larger case series. Our aim is to review the literature concerning clinical, laboratory and radiological features of PPRD. PPRD is due to a mutation in Wnt1-inducible signalling protein 3 (WISP3) gene, which encodes a signalling factor involved in cartilage homeostasis. The disease onset in childhood and skeletal changes progresses over time leading to significant disability. PPRD is a rare condition that should be suspected if a child develops symmetrical polyarticular involvement without systemic inflammation, knobbly interphalangeal joints of the hands, and gait abnormalities. A full skeletal survey, or at least a lateral radiograph of the spine, can direct towards a correct diagnosis that can be confirmed molecularly. More than 70 WISP3 mutations have so far been reported. Genetic testing should start with the study of genomic DNA extracted from blood leucocytes, but intronic mutations in WISP3 causing splicing aberrations can only be detected by analysing WISP3 mRNA, which can be extracted from cultured skin fibroblasts. A skin biopsy is, therefore, indicated in patients with typical PPRD findings and negative mutation screening of genomic DNA.


Assuntos
Artropatias/congênito , Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular CCN/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Íntrons , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/genética , Artropatias/fisiopatologia , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Radiografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Pele/citologia
16.
Bone ; 120: 354-363, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448303

RESUMO

LBR (Lamin B Receptor) encodes a bifunctional protein important for cholesterol biosynthesis and heterochromatin organization on the inner nuclear membrane. Pathogenic variants in LBR are associated with marked phenotypic variability, ranging from the benign Pelger-Huët anomaly to lethal Greenberg Dysplasia. We performed trio exome sequencing (ES) on two patients with atypical variants of skeletal dysplasia and their unaffected parents. Patient 1 exhibited frontal bossing, mid-face hypoplasia, short stature with rhizomelic limb shortening, and relative macrocephaly at birth. Although remained short, Patient 1 later showed spontaneous improvement in her skeletal findings. Exome sequencing revealed two novel variants in LBR, c.1504C > G (p.Arg502Gly) in exon 12 and c.1748G > T (p.Arg583Leu) in exon 14, which were inherited from her unaffected father and mother, respectively. Sterol analysis revealed an increased level of cholesta­8,14­dien­3ß­ol to 2.9% of total sterols, consistent with a functional deficiency of 3ß­hydroxysterol Δ14­reductase. Patient 2 presented at birth with short stature and marked rhizomelic limb shortening but later exhibited decreasing severity of shortening of the long bones and improvement in the radiographic skeletal abnormalities although he continued to be significantly short at age 10 years. Exome sequencing revealed that Patient 2 is homozygous for a pathogenic variant c.1534C > T (p.Arg512Trp) in exon 12 of LBR, which was inherited from his unaffected consanguineous parents. This report provides further evidence for a phenotypic spectrum of LBR-associated disorders and expands the genotypic spectrum by describing 3 novel disease-causing variants that have not been previously associated with a disease. Moreover, our data on Patient 1 demonstrate that variants throughout the gene appear to influence both the sterol reductase and nuclear functions of LBR.


Assuntos
Osteocondrodisplasias/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Linhagem , Fenótipo
17.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(1): 7-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507725

RESUMO

Mucolipidosis-IIIγ (ML-IIIγ) is a recessively inherited slowly progressive skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in GNPTG. We report the genetic and clinical findings in the largest cohort with ML-IIIγ so far: 18 affected individuals from 12 families including 12 patients from India, five from Turkey, and one from the USA. With consanguinity confirmed in eight of 12 families, molecular characterization showed that all affected patients had homozygous pathogenic GNPTG genotypes, underscoring the rarity of the disorder. Unlike ML-IIIαß, which present with a broader spectrum of severity, the ML-III γ phenotype is milder, with onset in early school age, but nonetheless thus far considered phenotypically not differentiable from ML-IIIαß. Evaluation of this cohort has yielded phenotypic findings including hypertrophy of the forearms and restricted supination as clues for ML-IIIγ, facilitating an earlier correct choice of genotype screening. Early identification of this disorder may help in offering a timely intervention for the relief of carpal tunnel syndrome, monitoring and surgery for cardiac valve involvement, and evaluation of the need for joint replacement. As this condition may be confused with rheumatoid arthritis, confirmation of diagnosis will prevent inappropriate use of immunosuppressants and disease-modifying agents.


Assuntos
Mucolipidoses/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucolipidoses/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1991-1995, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088855

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is characterized by short stature, distinctive facial features, and developmental/cognitive delay and is caused by mutations in ANKRD11, one of the ankyrin repeat-containing cofactors. After the advent of whole exome sequencing, the number of clinical reports with KBG diagnosis has increased, leading to a revision of the phenotypic spectrum associated with this syndrome. Here, we report a female child showing clinical features of the KBG syndrome in addition to a caudal appendage at the coccyx with prominent skin fold and a peculiar calcaneus malformation. Exons and exon-intron junctions targeted resequencing of SH3PXD2B and MASP1 genes, known to be associated with prominent coccyx, gave negative outcome, whereas sequencing of ANKRD11 whose mutations matched the KBG phenotype of the proband showed a de novo heterozygous frameshift variant c.4528_4529delCC in exon 9 of ANKRD11. This report contributes to expand the knowledge of the clinical features of KBG syndrome and highlights the need to search for vertebral anomalies and suspect this condition in the presence of a prominent, elongated coccyx.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Cóccix/anormalidades , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Alelos , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Facies , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Cariótipo , Radiografia , Avaliação de Sintomas
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