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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We observed four individuals in two unrelated but consanguineous families from Portugal and Brazil affected by early-onset retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis and short stature. The phenotype precisely matched that of an individual of Azorean descent published in 1986 by Liberfarb and coworkers. METHODS: Patients underwent specialized clinical examinations (including ophthalmological, audiological, orthopedic, radiological, and developmental assessment). Exome and targeted sequencing was performed on selected individuals. Minigene constructs were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Affected individuals shared a 3.36-Mb region of autozygosity on chromosome 22q12.2, including a 10-bp deletion (NM_014338.3:c.904-12_904-3delCTATCACCAC), immediately upstream of the last exon of the PISD (phosphatidylserine decarboxylase) gene. Sequencing of PISD from paraffin-embedded tissue from the 1986 case revealed the identical homozygous variant. In HEK293T cells, this variant led to aberrant splicing of PISD transcripts. CONCLUSION: We have identified the genetic etiology of the Liberfarb syndrome, affecting brain, eye, ear, bone, and connective tissue. Our work documents the migration of a rare Portuguese founder variant to two continents and highlights the link between phospholipid metabolism and bone formation, sensory defects, and cerebral development, while raising the possibility of therapeutic phospholipid replacement.

2.
FEBS J ; 286(15): 3008-3032, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286677

RESUMO

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a heterogeneous family of linear polysaccharides that constitute the carbohydrate moiety covalently attached to the protein core of proteoglycans, macromolecules present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Several genetic disorders of bone and connective tissue are caused by mutations in genes encoding for glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases and transporters that are responsible for the synthesis of sulfated GAGs. Phenotypically, these disorders all reflect alterations in crucial biological functions of GAGs in the development, growth and homoeostasis of cartilage and bone. To date, up to 27 different skeletal phenotypes have been linked to mutations in 23 genes encoding for proteins involved in GAG biosynthesis. This review focuses on recent genetic, molecular and biochemical studies of bone and connective tissue disorders caused by GAG synthesis defects. These insights and future research in the field will provide a deeper understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders and will pave the way for developing common therapeutic strategies that might be targeted to a range of individual phenotypes.

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(6): 1072-1080, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211171

RESUMO

Background: A 49-year-old male presented with late-onset demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar atrophy, and cognitive deficit. Nerve biopsy revealed intra-axonal inclusions suggestive of polyglucosan bodies, raising the suspicion of adult polyglucosan bodies disease (OMIM 263570). Methods and Results: While known genes associated with polyglucosan bodies storage were negative, whole-exome sequencing identified an unreported monoallelic variant, c.397G>T (p.Val133Phe), in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene. While we did not identify mutations in genes known to be associated with polygucosan body disease, whole-exome sequencing revealed an unreported monoallelic variant, c.397G>T in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene, encoding a substitution (Val133Phe) in the catalytic domain. Expression of this variant in patient cells resulted in reduced aminoacylation activity in extracts obtained from dermal fibroblasts, without compromising overall protein synthesis. Interpretation: Genetic variants in the genes coding for the different aminoacyl-tRNA synthases are associated with various clinical conditions. To date, a number of HARS variant have been associated with peripheral neuropathy, but not cognitive deficits. Further studies are needed to explore why HARS mutations confer a neuronal-specific phenotype.

4.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 40(2): 177-181, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) encompass a wide spectrum of genetic ocular diseases characterized by considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity. METHODS: Complete ophthalmic examination and next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: We describe a patient with no family history of vision loss, who at the age of 28 years developed visual impairment consistent with a severe form of retinitis pigmentosa. Genetic testing by means of whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous variant in the gene IDH3A. To date, only three papers have reported mutations in IDH3A, in families with early-onset retinal degeneration with or without the presence of macular pseudocoloboma. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of including this rarely-mutated gene in the molecular diagnostic set-ups for IRDs, and further delineates the phenotypic spectrum elicited by mutations in IDH3A.

5.
JCI Insight ; 4(3)2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728324

RESUMO

Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism. In spite of reduced abundance, residual GMAP variants maintain partial Golgi integrity, normal global protein secretion, and subcellular distribution of IFT20 in ODCD. These functions are lost when GMAP-210 is completely abrogated in ACG1A. However, a similar defect in chondrocyte maturation is observed in both disorders, which produces a cellular achondrogenesis phenotype of different severity, ensuing from aberrant glycan processing and impaired extracellular matrix proteoglycan secretion by the Golgi apparatus.

6.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(1): 7-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507725

RESUMO

Mucolipidosis-IIIγ (ML-IIIγ) is a recessively inherited slowly progressive skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in GNPTG. We report the genetic and clinical findings in the largest cohort with ML-IIIγ so far: 18 affected individuals from 12 families including 12 patients from India, five from Turkey, and one from the USA. With consanguinity confirmed in eight of 12 families, molecular characterization showed that all affected patients had homozygous pathogenic GNPTG genotypes, underscoring the rarity of the disorder. Unlike ML-IIIαß, which present with a broader spectrum of severity, the ML-III γ phenotype is milder, with onset in early school age, but nonetheless thus far considered phenotypically not differentiable from ML-IIIαß. Evaluation of this cohort has yielded phenotypic findings including hypertrophy of the forearms and restricted supination as clues for ML-IIIγ, facilitating an earlier correct choice of genotype screening. Early identification of this disorder may help in offering a timely intervention for the relief of carpal tunnel syndrome, monitoring and surgery for cardiac valve involvement, and evaluation of the need for joint replacement. As this condition may be confused with rheumatoid arthritis, confirmation of diagnosis will prevent inappropriate use of immunosuppressants and disease-modifying agents.


Assuntos
Mucolipidoses/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucolipidoses/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Bone ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448303

RESUMO

LBR (Lamin B Receptor) encodes a bifunctional protein important for cholesterol biosynthesis and heterochromatin organization on the inner nuclear membrane. Pathogenic variants in LBR are associated with marked phenotypic variability, ranging from the benign Pelger-Huët anomaly to lethal Greenberg Dysplasia. We performed trio exome sequencing (ES) on two patients with atypical variants of skeletal dysplasia and their unaffected parents. Patient 1 exhibited frontal bossing, mid-face hypoplasia, short stature with rhizomelic limb shortening, and relative macrocephaly at birth. Although remained short, Patient 1 later showed spontaneous improvement in her skeletal findings. Exome sequencing revealed two novel variants in LBR, c.1504C > G (p.Arg502Gly) in exon 12 and c.1748G > T (p.Arg583Leu) in exon 14, which were inherited from her unaffected father and mother, respectively. Sterol analysis revealed an increased level of cholesta­8,14­dien­3ß­ol to 2.9% of total sterols, consistent with a functional deficiency of 3ß­hydroxysterol Δ14­reductase. Patient 2 presented at birth with short stature and marked rhizomelic limb shortening but later exhibited decreasing severity of shortening of the long bones and improvement in the radiographic skeletal abnormalities although he continued to be significantly short at age 10 years. Exome sequencing revealed that Patient 2 is homozygous for a pathogenic variant c.1534C > T (p.Arg512Trp) in exon 12 of LBR, which was inherited from his unaffected consanguineous parents. This report provides further evidence for a phenotypic spectrum of LBR-associated disorders and expands the genotypic spectrum by describing 3 novel disease-causing variants that have not been previously associated with a disease. Moreover, our data on Patient 1 demonstrate that variants throughout the gene appear to influence both the sterol reductase and nuclear functions of LBR.

9.
Rheumatol Int ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327864

RESUMO

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPRD) is a genetic bone disorder characterised by the progressive degeneration of articular cartilage that leads to pain, stiffness and joint enlargement. As PPRD is a rare disease, available literature is mainly represented by single case reports and only a few larger case series. Our aim is to review the literature concerning clinical, laboratory and radiological features of PPRD. PPRD is due to a mutation in Wnt1-inducible signalling protein 3 (WISP3) gene, which encodes a signalling factor involved in cartilage homeostasis. The disease onset in childhood and skeletal changes progresses over time leading to significant disability. PPRD is a rare condition that should be suspected if a child develops symmetrical polyarticular involvement without systemic inflammation, knobbly interphalangeal joints of the hands, and gait abnormalities. A full skeletal survey, or at least a lateral radiograph of the spine, can direct towards a correct diagnosis that can be confirmed molecularly. More than 70 WISP3 mutations have so far been reported. Genetic testing should start with the study of genomic DNA extracted from blood leucocytes, but intronic mutations in WISP3 causing splicing aberrations can only be detected by analysing WISP3 mRNA, which can be extracted from cultured skin fibroblasts. A skin biopsy is, therefore, indicated in patients with typical PPRD findings and negative mutation screening of genomic DNA.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1991-1995, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088855

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is characterized by short stature, distinctive facial features, and developmental/cognitive delay and is caused by mutations in ANKRD11, one of the ankyrin repeat-containing cofactors. After the advent of whole exome sequencing, the number of clinical reports with KBG diagnosis has increased, leading to a revision of the phenotypic spectrum associated with this syndrome. Here, we report a female child showing clinical features of the KBG syndrome in addition to a caudal appendage at the coccyx with prominent skin fold and a peculiar calcaneus malformation. Exons and exon-intron junctions targeted resequencing of SH3PXD2B and MASP1 genes, known to be associated with prominent coccyx, gave negative outcome, whereas sequencing of ANKRD11 whose mutations matched the KBG phenotype of the proband showed a de novo heterozygous frameshift variant c.4528_4529delCC in exon 9 of ANKRD11. This report contributes to expand the knowledge of the clinical features of KBG syndrome and highlights the need to search for vertebral anomalies and suspect this condition in the presence of a prominent, elongated coccyx.

11.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948344

RESUMO

Data from exome sequencing show that a proportion of individuals in whom a genetic disorder is suspected turn out to have not one, but two to four distinct ones. This may require an evolution in our diagnostic attitude towards individuals with complex disorders. We report a patient with splenomegaly, pneumopathy, bone changes and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). "Sea-blue histiocytes" in his bone marrow pointed to a lysosomal storage disease. Homozygosity for a pathogenic mutation in the SMPD1 gene confirmed Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B). Mild cognitive impairment and abnormal brain FDG PET were consistent with FTD. We initially tried to fit the skeletal and neurologic phenotype into the NPD-B diagnosis. However, additional studies revealed a pathogenic mutation in the SQSTM1 gene. Thus, our patient had two distinct diseases; NPD-B, and Paget's disease of bone with FTD. The subsequent finding of a mutation in SQSTM1 gene ended our struggle to explain the combination of findings by a singular "unifying" diagnosis and allowed us to make specific therapeutic decisions. SQSTM1 mutations have been reported in association with FTD, possibly because of defective autophagy. Bisphosphonates may be beneficial for PDB, but since they are known to inhibit acid sphingomyelinase activity, we refrained from using them in this patient. While the principle of looking for unifying diagnosis remains valid, physicians should consider the possibility of co-existing multiple diagnoses when clinical features are difficult to explain by a single one. Accurate diagnostic work-up can guide genetic counseling but also lead to better medical management.

14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 13(586): 2109-2115, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211369

RESUMO

Rare Vascular Diseases (RVD) encompass different types of vessel involvement. Some cause a dilation, others a weakening or tortuosity of the arterial wall, others an obstruction or excessive calcification of arterial walls. Clinical pathway of patients with RVD to diagnosis is often long and complex. Thus, in order to allow early diagnosis and coordinated multidisciplinary management and follow-up, a specialized RVD centre has been set-up at the CHUV, following the framework of the national concept of rare diseases.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 815-823, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100092

RESUMO

Fibronectin is a master organizer of extracellular matrices (ECMs) and promotes the assembly of collagens, fibrillin-1, and other proteins. It is also known to play roles in skeletal tissues through its secretion by osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and mesenchymal cells. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasias (SMDs) comprise a diverse group of skeletal dysplasias and often manifest as short stature, growth-plate irregularities, and vertebral anomalies, such as scoliosis. By comparing the exomes of individuals with SMD with the radiographic appearance of "corner fractures" at metaphyses, we identified three individuals with fibronectin (FN1) variants affecting highly conserved residues. Furthermore, using matching tools and the SkelDys emailing list, we identified other individuals with de novo FN1 variants and a similar phenotype. The severe scoliosis in most individuals and rare developmental coxa vara distinguish individuals with FN1 mutations from those with classical Sutcliffe-type SMD. To study functional consequences of these FN1 mutations on the protein level, we introduced three disease-associated missense variants (p.Cys87Phe [c.260G>T], p.Tyr240Asp [c.718T>G], and p.Cys260Gly [c.778T>G]) into a recombinant secreted N-terminal 70 kDa fragment (rF70K) and the full-length fibronectin (rFN). The wild-type rF70K and rFN were secreted into the culture medium, whereas all mutant proteins were either not secreted or secreted at significantly lower amounts. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated increased intracellular retention of the mutant proteins. In summary, FN1 mutations that cause defective fibronectin secretion are found in SMD, and we thus provide additional evidence for a critical function of fibronectin in cartilage and bone.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Mutação/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Cartilagem/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Escoliose/genética
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 623-629, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985496

RESUMO

In contrast to recessive conditions with biallelic inheritance, identification of dominant (monoallelic) mutations for Mendelian disorders is more difficult, because of the abundance of benign heterozygous variants that act as massive background noise (typically, in a 400:1 excess ratio). To reduce this overflow of false positives in next-generation sequencing (NGS) screens, we developed DOMINO, a tool assessing the likelihood for a gene to harbor dominant changes. Unlike commonly-used predictors of pathogenicity, DOMINO takes into consideration features that are the properties of genes, rather than of variants. It uses a machine-learning approach to extract discriminant information from a broad array of features (N = 432), including: genomic data, intra-, and interspecies conservation, gene expression, protein-protein interactions, protein structure, etc. DOMINO's iterative architecture includes a training process on 985 genes with well-established inheritance patterns for Mendelian conditions, and repeated cross-validation that optimizes its discriminant power. When validated on 99 newly-discovered genes with pathogenic mutations, the algorithm displays an excellent final performance, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92. Furthermore, unsupervised analysis by DOMINO of real sets of NGS data from individuals with intellectual disability or epilepsy correctly recognizes known genes and predicts 9 new candidates, with very high confidence. In summary, DOMINO is a robust and reliable tool that can infer dominance of candidate genes with high sensitivity and specificity, making it a useful complement to any NGS pipeline dealing with the analysis of the morbid human genome.


Assuntos
Genes Dominantes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mutação , Software , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Humanos
18.
Neurogenetics ; 18(4): 185-194, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842795

RESUMO

An X-linked condition characterized by the combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (H-SMD) has been observed in only four families, with linkage to Xq25-27, and recent genetic characterization in two families with a common AIFM1 mutation. In our study, 12 patients (6 families) with H-SMD were identified and underwent comprehensive assessment accompanied by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Pedigree analysis in all families was consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance. Presentation typically occurred between 12 and 36 months. In addition to the two disease-defining features of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia and hypomyelination on MRI, common clinical signs and symptoms included motor deterioration, spasticity, tremor, ataxia, dysarthria, cognitive defects, pulmonary hypertension, nystagmus, and vision loss due to retinopathy. The course of the disease was slowly progressive. All patients had maternally inherited or de novo mutations in or near exon 7 of AIFM1, within a region of 70 bp, including synonymous and intronic changes. AIFM1 mutations have previously been associated with neurologic presentations as varied as intellectual disability, hearing loss, neuropathy, and striatal necrosis, while AIFM1 mutations in this small region present with a distinct phenotype implicating bone. Analysis of cell lines derived from four patients identified significant reductions in AIFM1 mRNA and protein levels in osteoblasts. We hypothesize that AIFM1 functions in bone metabolism and myelination and is responsible for the unique phenotype in this condition.


Assuntos
Fator de Indução de Apoptose/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina/genética , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 13(557): 763-766, 2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722367

RESUMO

Establishing the definitive diagnosis in the case of inherited immune defects (IID) is often challenging because the clinical features can be heterogeneous, atypical and overlapping different disease entities. The next generation sequencing technology (NGS) allows identifying genetic variants that are responsible for the observed clinical presentations. The use of NGS applied to the genes mutated in IIDs or known to be involved in the development, differentiation and regulation of the immune system allows to target hundreds of relevant genes in well characterized patients suspected of carrying inherited immune defects. This approach answers both diagnostic and research needs, facilitates the understanding of the mechanisms that underlie IIDs, and ultimately leads to the discovery of new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação
20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15861, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604699

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2/ANTXR2), a transmembrane surface protein, cause hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS), a severe genetic disorder that is characterized by large subcutaneous nodules, gingival hypertrophy and severe painful joint contracture. Here we show that CMG2 is an important regulator of collagen VI homoeostasis. CMG2 loss of function promotes accumulation of collagen VI in patients, leading in particular to nodule formation. Similarly, collagen VI accumulates massively in uteri of Antxr2-/- mice, which do not display changes in collagen gene expression, and leads to progressive fibrosis and sterility. Crossing Antxr2-/- with Col6a1-/- mice leads to restoration of uterine structure and reversion of female infertility. We also demonstrate that CMG2 may act as a signalling receptor for collagen VI and mediates its intracellular degradation.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo VI/metabolismo , Hialinose Sistêmica/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Útero/patologia
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