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1.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 395-405, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, the most effective duration for adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor remains unclear. METHODS: In this prospective, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy to receive the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for an additional 2 years (2-year group, receiving a total of 7 years) or an additional 5 years (5-year group, receiving a total of 10 years). The primary end point was disease-free survival. The primary analysis included all the patients who were still participating in the trial and who had no recurrence 2 years after randomization (i.e., when treatment in the 2-year group had ended). Secondary end points were overall survival, contralateral breast cancer, second primary cancer, and clinical bone fracture. RESULTS: Among the 3484 women who were enrolled in the trial, 3208 remained in the trial without disease progression after the first 2 years of extended anastrozole treatment following randomization. Among these women, disease progression or death occurred in 335 women in each treatment group in the primary-analysis set at 8 years (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P = 0.90). No between-group differences occurred in most secondary end points, and subgroup analyses did not indicate differences in any particular subgroup. The risk of clinical bone fracture was higher in the 5-year group than in the 2-year group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.84). CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy, extending hormone therapy by 5 years provided no benefit over a 2-year extension but was associated with a greater risk of bone fracture. (Funded by AstraZeneca and the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group; ABCSG-16/SALSA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00295620.).


Assuntos
Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico
2.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264486

RESUMO

Despite improved clinical outcomes, intrinsic or acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment has limited the success of this treatment in HR+ HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients. Biomarkers are urgently needed, and longitudinal biomarker measurements may harbor more dynamic predictive and prognostic information compared to single time point measurements. The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal evolution of circulating tumor fractions within cell-free DNA assessed by an untargeted sequencing approach during CDK4/6 therapy and to quantify the potential association between longitudinal z-score measurements and clinical outcome by using joint models. Forty-nine HR+ HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients were enrolled, and z-score levels were measured at baseline and during 132 follow-up visits (median number of measurements per patient = 3, 25th -75th percentile: 3-5, range: 1-8). We observed higher baseline z-score levels (estimated difference 0.57, 95% CI: 0.147-0.983, P-value = 0.008) and a constant increase of z-score levels over follow-up time (overall P-value for difference in log z-score over time = 0.024) in patients who developed progressive disease. Importantly, the joint model revealed that elevated z-score trajectories were significantly associated with higher progression risk (HR of log z-score at any time of follow-up = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.44-7.55, P = 0.005). In contrast, single z-score measurement at CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment start did not predict risk of progression. In this prospective study, we demonstrate proof-of-concept that longitudinal z-score trajectories rather than single time point measurements may harbor important dynamic information on the development of disease progression in HR+ HER2- breast cancer patients undergoing CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(12)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835715

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays a role in carcinogenesis, but it also contributes to the modulation of tumor cells and microenvironment caused by chemotherapeutics. One of the consequences of oxidative stress is lipid peroxidation, which can, through reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), affect cell signaling pathways. On the other hand, cancer stem cells (CSC) are now recognized as a major factor of malignancy by causing metastasis, relapse, and therapy resistance. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress and HNE modulation of the microenvironment can influence CSC growth, modifications of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, the antioxidant system, and the frequency of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC). Our results showed that oxidative changes in the microenvironment of BCSC and particularly chronic oxidative stress caused changes in the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells. In addition, changes associated with EMT, increase in glutathione (GSH) and Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) were observed in breast cancer cells grown on HNE pretreated collagen and under chronic oxidative stress. Our results suggest that chronic oxidative stress can be a bidirectional modulator of BCSC fate. Low levels of HNE can increase differentiation markers in BCSC, while higher levels increased GSH and NRF2 as well as certain EMT markers, thereby increasing therapy resistance.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(13): 4274-4283, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the residual cancer burden (RCB) predictive performance, the potential subgroup effects, and time-dependent impact on breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy in a developer's independent cohort is essential for its usage in clinical routine. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, the RCB scores of 184 female breast cancer patients were prospectively collected, and subsequent clinicopathological and follow-up data were obtained retrospectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), as well as subgroup analysis, and time-dependent variables were calculated with multivariate, complex, or linear statistical models. RESULTS: A total of 184 patients (HER2 33%, TNBC 27%), with a mean follow-up time of 4 years, treated with neoadjuvant systemic therapy (92% anthracycline-taxane based) were analyzed revealing 43 events (38 recurrences, 28 deaths). High RCB scores were associated with recurrence (median index: 2.34 vs. 1.39 points, rank-sum p < 0.0001), decreased RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.24, p < 0.0001) and reduced OS (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.49-2.59, p < 0.0001). The RCB score showed proportionality of hazards (interaction HR with linear follow-up time = 1.00, p = 0.896) and good discriminating power (Harrell's c index 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the RCB score as externally valid prognostic marker and being independent of molecular subtype for RFS and OS in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasia Residual/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416207

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic and predictive value of an untargeted assessment of tumor fractions in the plasma of metastatic breast cancer patients and to compare circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) with circulating tumor cells (CTC) and conventional tumor markers. In metastatic breast cancer patients (n = 29), tumor fractions in plasma were assessed using the untargeted mFAST-SeqS method from 127 serial blood samples. Resulting z-scores for the ctDNA were compared to tumor fractions established with the recently published ichorCNA algorithm and associated with the clinical outcome. We observed a close correlation between mFAST-SeqS z-scores and ichorCNA ctDNA quantifications. Patients with mFAST-SeqS z-scores above three (34.5%) showed significantly worse overall survival (p = 0.014) and progression-free survival (p = 0.018) compared to patients with lower values. Elevated z-score values were clearly associated with radiologically proven progression. The baseline CTC count, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cancer antigen (CA)15-5 had no prognostic impact on the outcome of patients in the analyzed cohort. This proof of principle study demonstrates the prognostic impact of ctDNA levels detected with mFAST-SeqS as a very fast and cost-effective means to assess the ctDNA fraction without prior knowledge of the genetic landscape of the tumor. Furthermore, mFAST-SeqS-based ctDNA levels provided an early means of measuring treatment response.

6.
Oncotarget ; 8(54): 92483-92496, 2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190932

RESUMO

Blood-based biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provide dynamic real-time assessment of molecular tumor characteristics beyond the primary tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a size-based microfilter to assess multigene methylation analysis of enriched CTCs in a prospective proof-of principle study. We examined the quantitative methylation status of nine genes (AKR1B1, BMP6, CST6, HOXB4, HIST1H3C, ITIH5, NEUROD1, RASSF1, SOX17) in enriched CTCs from metastatic breast cancer patients. Feasibility and clinical performance testing were assessed in a test set consisting of 37 patients and 25 healthy controls. With established cut-off values from the healthy control group, methylation of enriched CTCs was detected in at least one gene in 18/37 patients (48.6%), while 97.8% of all control samples were unmethylated. Patients with CTCs unmethylated for CST6, ITIH5, or RASSF1 showed significantly longer PFS compared to patients with corresponding enriched methylated CTCs. This proof-of-principle study shows the feasibility of a size-based microfilter to enrich and analyze multigene methylation profile of CTCs from metastatic breast cancer patients. For the first time, we report that multigene methylation analysis of enriched CTCs provides prognostic information in metastatic breast cancer patients.

7.
Memo ; 10(2): 82-85, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28725276

RESUMO

Developments in early breast cancer presented at the 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium included important studies on extending adjuvant endocrine therapy with aromatase inhibitors, the role of bisphosphonates, and evidence for molecular prognostic factors and circulating tumor cells in early stage breast cancer patients.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 1027, 2015 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26715527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary goal of preoperative systemic treatment (PST) in patients with breast cancer is downsizing of tumors to enhance the rate of breast conserving surgery. Additionally, preoperative systemic treatment offers the possibility to assess for chemosensitivity of early stage disease. In various cancers the prognostic value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was demonstrated, indicating that high NLR determines worse prognosis of the patients. The goal of our study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic value of NLR in early stage breast cancer patients undergoing PST. METHODS: 247 female patients with histologically proven breast cancer were analysed in this retrospective analysis. The NLR before the initiation of PST was documented. Histopathological response in surgically removed specimens was evaluated using a modified Sinn regression score and the pCR defined as no invasive tumor in primary tumor and lymph nodes. NLR was correlated with response to PST and disease free survival. RESULTS: PST was categorized into five groups (anthracycline containing, anthracycline and taxane containing, taxane containing, hormone treatment and other chemotherapies). pCR rate was defined as no invasive rest of tumor either in primary tumor or (ypT0 = Sinn) or in primary tumor and in lymph nodes (ypT0isypN0). Median NLR in patients without any invasive tumor rest was significantly higher than in patients either with some invasive tumor rest or not responding to chemotherapy. Despite this primary difference, the results were not stable across the analysed treatment groups particularly in the group with highest pCR rates (taxane and anthracycline treatment). Further, no association with disease free survival could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a reverse trend with the higher NLR prior to systemic treatment in patients who achieved pCR, we could not demonstrate predictive or prognostic value of NLR in the cohort of early stage breast cancer patients treated with PST.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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