Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 61
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1169-1181, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155286

RESUMO

Polygenic scores (PSs) are becoming a useful tool to identify individuals with high genetic risk for complex diseases, and several projects are currently testing their utility for translational applications. It is also tempting to use PSs to assess whether genetic variation can explain a part of the geographic distribution of a phenotype. However, it is not well known how the population genetic properties of the training and target samples affect the geographic distribution of PSs. Here, we evaluate geographic differences, and related biases, of PSs in Finland in a geographically well-defined sample of 2,376 individuals from the National FINRISK study. First, we detect geographic differences in PSs for coronary artery disease (CAD), rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body-mass index (BMI), and height, but not for Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Second, we use height as a model trait to thoroughly assess the possible population genetic biases in PSs and apply similar approaches to the other phenotypes. Most importantly, we detect suspiciously large accumulations of geographic differences for CAD, WHR, BMI, and height, suggesting bias arising from the population's genetic structure rather than from a direct genotype-phenotype association. This work demonstrates how sensitive the geographic patterns of current PSs are for small biases even within relatively homogeneous populations and provides simple tools to identify such biases. A thorough understanding of the effects of population genetic structure on PSs is essential for translational applications of PSs.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1847, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015462

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health burden currently affecting 10-15% of adults worldwide. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function is commonly used to diagnose CKD. We analyze eGFR data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and Michigan Genomics Initiative and perform a GWAS meta-analysis with public summary statistics, more than doubling the sample size of previous meta-analyses. We identify 147 loci (53 novel) associated with eGFR, including genes involved in transcriptional regulation, kidney development, cellular signaling, metabolism, and solute transport. Additionally, sex-stratified analysis identifies one locus with more significant effects in women than men. Using genetic risk scores constructed from these eGFR meta-analysis results, we show that associated variants are generally predictive of CKD with only modest improvements in detection compared with other known clinical risk factors. Collectively, these results yield additional insight into the genetic factors underlying kidney function and progression to CKD.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3391, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140000

RESUMO

Large-scale deep-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is now feasible and offers potential advantages for locus discovery. We perform WGS in 16,324 participants from four ancestries at mean depth >29X and analyze genotypes with four quantitative traits-plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Common variant association yields known loci except for few variants previously poorly imputed. Rare coding variant association yields known Mendelian dyslipidemia genes but rare non-coding variant association detects no signals. A high 2M-SNP LDL-C polygenic score (top 5th percentile) confers similar effect size to a monogenic mutation (~30 mg/dl higher for each); however, among those with severe hypercholesterolemia, 23% have a high polygenic score and only 2% carry a monogenic mutation. At these sample sizes and for these phenotypes, the incremental value of WGS for discovery is limited but WGS permits simultaneous assessment of monogenic and polygenic models to severe hypercholesterolemia.

9.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1234-1239, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061737

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, we performed a genome-wide association study of >1,000,000 people, including 60,620 atrial fibrillation cases and 970,216 controls. We identified 142 independent risk variants at 111 loci and prioritized 151 functional candidate genes likely to be involved in atrial fibrillation. Many of the identified risk variants fall near genes where more deleterious mutations have been reported to cause serious heart defects in humans (GATA4, MYH6, NKX2-5, PITX2, TBX5)1, or near genes important for striated muscle function and integrity (for example, CFL2, MYH7, PKP2, RBM20, SGCG, SSPN). Pathway and functional enrichment analyses also suggested that many of the putative atrial fibrillation genes act via cardiac structural remodeling, potentially in the form of an 'atrial cardiomyopathy'2, either during fetal heart development or as a response to stress in the adult heart.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2606, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973585

RESUMO

Lipoprotein(a), Lp(a), is a modified low-density lipoprotein particle that contains apolipoprotein(a), encoded by LPA, and is a highly heritable, causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that varies in concentrations across ancestries. Here, we use deep-coverage whole genome sequencing in 8392 individuals of European and African ancestry to discover and interpret both single-nucleotide variants and copy number (CN) variation associated with Lp(a). We observe that genetic determinants between Europeans and Africans have several unique determinants. The common variant rs12740374 associated with Lp(a) cholesterol is an eQTL for SORT1 and independent of LDL cholesterol. Observed associations of aggregates of rare non-coding variants are largely explained by LPA structural variation, namely the LPA kringle IV 2 (KIV2)-CN. Finally, we find that LPA risk genotypes confer greater relative risk for incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases compared to directly measured Lp(a), and are significantly associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans.

11.
Neuron ; 98(4): 743-753.e4, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731251

RESUMO

Complex traits, including migraine, often aggregate in families, but the underlying genetic architecture behind this is not well understood. The aggregation could be explained by rare, penetrant variants that segregate according to Mendelian inheritance or by the sufficient polygenic accumulation of common variants, each with an individually small effect, or a combination of the two hypotheses. In 8,319 individuals across 1,589 migraine families, we calculated migraine polygenic risk scores (PRS) and found a significantly higher common variant burden in familial cases (n = 5,317, OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.71-1.81, p = 1.7 × 10-109) compared to population cases from the FINRISK cohort (n = 1,101, OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.25-1.38, p = 7.2 × 10-17). The PRS explained 1.6% of the phenotypic variance in the population cases and 3.5% in the familial cases (including 2.9% for migraine without aura, 5.5% for migraine with typical aura, and 8.2% for hemiplegic migraine). The results demonstrate a significant contribution of common polygenic variation to the familial aggregation of migraine.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(R1): R14-R21, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547983

RESUMO

The combination of electronic health records (EHRs) with genetic data has ushered in the next wave of complex disease genetics. Population-based biobanks and other large cohorts provide sufficient sample sizes to identify novel genetic associations across the hundreds to thousands of phenotypes gleaned from EHRs. In this review, we summarize the current state of these EHR-linked biobanks, explore ongoing methods development in the field and highlight recent discoveries of genetic associations. We enumerate the many existing biobanks with EHRs linked to genetic data, many of which are available to researchers via application and contain sample sizes >50 000. We also discuss the computational and statistical considerations for analysis of such large datasets including mixed models, phenotype curation and cloud computing. Finally, we demonstrate how genome-wide association studies and phenome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic findings for complex diseases, specifically cardiometabolic traits. As more researchers employ innovative hypotheses and analysis approaches to study EHR-linked biobanks, we anticipate a richer understanding of the genetic etiology of complex diseases.

13.
Addict Biol ; 2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532581

RESUMO

The heritability of nicotine dependence based on family studies is substantial. Nevertheless, knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture remains meager. Our aim was to identify novel genetic variants responsible for interindividual differences in smoking behavior. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1715 ever smokers ascertained from the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort enriched for heavy smoking. Data imputation used the 1000 Genomes Phase I reference panel together with a whole genome sequence-based Finnish reference panel. We analyzed three measures of nicotine addiction-smoking quantity, nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal. We annotated all genome-wide significant SNPs for their functional potential. First, we detected genome-wide significant association on 16p12 with smoking quantity (P = 8.5 × 10-9 ), near CLEC19A. The lead-SNP stands 22 kb from a binding site for NF-κB transcription factors, which play a role in the neurotrophin signaling pathway. However, the signal was not replicated in an independent Finnish population-based sample, FINRISK (n = 6763). Second, nicotine withdrawal showed association on 2q21 in an intron of TMEM163 (P = 2.1 × 10-9 ), and on 11p15 (P = 6.6 × 10-8 ) in an intron of AP2A2, and P = 4.2 × 10-7 for a missense variant in MUC6, both involved in the neurotrophin signaling pathway). Third, association was detected on 3p22.3 for maximum number of cigarettes smoked per day (P = 3.1 × 10-8 ) near STAC. Associating CLEC19A and TMEM163 SNPs were annotated to influence gene expression or methylation. The neurotrophin signaling pathway has previously been associated with smoking behavior. Our findings further support the role in nicotine addiction.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 103-115, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290336

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure, and premature death. The pathogenesis of AF remains poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective treatments. To understand the genetic variation and biology underlying AF, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,337 AF individuals and 61,607 AF-free individuals from Norway, including replication in an additional 30,679 AF individuals and 278,895 AF-free individuals. Through genotyping and dense imputation mapping from whole-genome sequencing, we tested almost nine million genetic variants across the genome and identified seven risk loci, including two novel loci. One novel locus (lead single-nucleotide variant [SNV] rs12614435; p = 6.76 × 10-18) comprised intronic and several highly correlated missense variants situated in the I-, A-, and M-bands of titin, which is the largest protein in humans and responsible for the passive elasticity of heart and skeletal muscle. The other novel locus (lead SNV rs56202902; p = 1.54 × 10-11) covered a large, gene-dense chromosome 1 region that has previously been linked to cardiac conduction. Pathway and functional enrichment analyses suggested that many AF-associated genetic variants act through a mechanism of impaired muscle cell differentiation and tissue formation during fetal heart development.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(21): e009774, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608196

RESUMO

Background Recent studies have shown an increasing prevalence of vascular risk factors in young adults with ischemic stroke ( IS ). However, the strength of the association between all vascular risk factors and early-onset IS has not been fully established. Methods and Results We compared 961 patients with a first-ever IS at 25 to 49 years to 1403 frequency-matched stroke-free controls from a population-based cohort study ( FINRISK ). Assessed risk factors included an active malignancy, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, current smoking status, a family history of stroke, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We performed subgroup analyses based on age, sex, and IS etiology. In a fully adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis, significant risk factors for IS consisted of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR], 10.43; 95% confidence interval [ CI ], 2.33-46.77], cardiovascular disease (OR, 8.01; 95% CI , 3.09-20.78), type 1 diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.72; 95% CI , 3.15-14.33), type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.31; 95% CI , 1.35-3.95), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 1.81; 95% CI , 1.37-2.40), current smoking status (OR, 1.81; 95% CI , 1.50-2.17), hypertension (OR, 1.43; 95% CI , 1.17-1.75), and a family history of stroke (OR, 1.37; 95% CI , 1.04-1.82). High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol exhibited an inverse association with IS . In the subgroup analyses, the most consistent associations appeared for current smoking status and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions Our study establishes the associations between 11 vascular risk factors and early-onset IS , among which atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, and both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in particular showed strong associations.

16.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 416-425, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166213

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 individuals, we increased the yield of independent signals for lung function from 54 to 97. A genetic risk score was associated with COPD susceptibility (odds ratio per 1 s.d. of the risk score (∼6 alleles) (95% confidence interval) = 1.24 (1.20-1.27), P = 5.05 × 10-49), and we observed a 3.7-fold difference in COPD risk between individuals in the highest and lowest genetic risk score deciles in UK Biobank. The 97 signals show enrichment in genes for development, elastic fibers and epigenetic regulation pathways. We highlight targets for drugs and compounds in development for COPD and asthma (genes in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and CHRM3) and describe targets for potential drug repositioning from other clinical indications.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 97(4): 456-463, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27840886

RESUMO

The contribution of filaggrin null mutations to predicting atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment response is not clear, nor have such mutations been studied in the Finnish population. This study tested the association of the 4 most prevalent European FLG null mutations, the 2 Finnish enriched FLG null mutations, the FLG 12-repeat allele, and 50 additional epidermal barrier gene variants, with risk of AD, disease severity, clinical features, risk of other atopic diseases, age of onset, and treatment response in 501 patients with AD and 1,710 controls. AD, early-onset AD, palmar hyperlinearity, and asthma showed significant associations with the combined FLG null genotype. Disease severity and treatment response were independent of patient FLG status. Carrier frequencies of R501X, 2282del4, and S3247X were notably lower in Finns compared with reported frequencies in other populations. This data confirms FLG mutations as risk factors for AD in Finns, but also questions their feasibility as biomarkers in predicting treatment response.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Mutação , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Finlândia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Stroke ; 47(6): 1593-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27217509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke has been associated with a poor outcome; however, this has not been evaluated in young adults. METHODS: The relationship between BP and long-term outcome was assessed in 1004 consecutive young, first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 years enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry. BP parameters included systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure at admission and 24 hours. The primary outcome measure was recurrent stroke in the long-term follow-up. Adjusted for demographics and preexisting comorbidities, Cox regression models were used to assess independent BP parameters associated with outcome. RESULTS: Of our patients (63% male), 393 patients (39%) had prestroke hypertension and 358 (36%) used antihypertensive treatment. The median follow-up period was 8.9 years (interquartile range 5.7-13.2). Patients with a recurrent stroke (n=142, 14%) had significantly higher admission SBP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure (P<0.001) and 24-h SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure compared with patients without the recurrent stroke. Patients with SBP ≥160 mm Hg compared with those with SBP <160 mm Hg had significantly more recurrent strokes (hazard ratio 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.05-4.55]; P<0.001) occurring earlier (13.9 years [13.0-14.6] versus 16.2 [15.8-16.6]; P<0.001) within the follow-up period. In multivariable analyses, higher admission SBP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure were independently associated with the risk of recurrent stroke, while the 24-hour BP levels were not. CONCLUSIONS: In young ischemic stroke patients, high acute phase BP levels are independently associated with a high risk of recurrent strokes.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Genet ; 12(5): e1006078, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27227539

RESUMO

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a complex and common familial dyslipidemia characterized by elevated total cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels with over five-fold risk of coronary heart disease. The genetic architecture and contribution of rare Mendelian and common variants to FCH susceptibility is unknown. In 53 Finnish FCH families, we genotyped and imputed nine million variants in 715 family members with DNA available. We studied the enrichment of variants previously implicated with monogenic dyslipidemias and/or lipid levels in the general population by comparing allele frequencies between the FCH families and population samples. We also constructed weighted polygenic scores using 212 lipid-associated SNPs and estimated the relative contributions of Mendelian variants and polygenic scores to the risk of FCH in the families. We identified, across the whole allele frequency spectrum, an enrichment of variants known to elevate, and a deficiency of variants known to lower LDL-C and/or TG levels among both probands and affected FCH individuals. The score based on TG associated SNPs was particularly high among affected individuals compared to non-affected family members. Out of 234 affected FCH individuals across the families, seven (3%) carried Mendelian variants and 83 (35%) showed high accumulation of either known LDL-C or TG elevating variants by having either polygenic score over the 90th percentile in the population. The positive predictive value of high score was much higher for affected FCH individuals than for similar sporadic cases in the population. FCH is highly polygenic, supporting the hypothesis that variants across the whole allele frequency spectrum contribute to this complex familial trait. Polygenic SNP panels improve identification of individuals affected with FCH, but their clinical utility remains to be defined.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Dislipidemias/genética , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/genética , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/sangue , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/patologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética
20.
J Med Genet ; 53(7): 441-9, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27036123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: So far, more than 170 loci have been associated with circulating lipid levels through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These associations are largely driven by common variants, their function is often not known, and many are likely to be markers for the causal variants. In this study we aimed to identify more new rare and low-frequency functional variants associated with circulating lipid levels. METHODS: We used the 1000 Genomes Project as a reference panel for the imputations of GWAS data from ∼60 000 individuals in the discovery stage and ∼90 000 samples in the replication stage. RESULTS: Our study resulted in the identification of five new associations with circulating lipid levels at four loci. All four loci are within genes that can be linked biologically to lipid metabolism. One of the variants, rs116843064, is a damaging missense variant within the ANGPTL4 gene. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that GWAS with high-scale imputation may still help us unravel the biological mechanism behind circulating lipid levels.


Assuntos
Angiopoietinas/genética , Éxons/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA