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Indian J Med Ethics ; 4 (NS)(4): 318-325, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791930


Forum for Medical Ethics Society (FMES), Mumbai; St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences (SJNAHS), Bengaluru; Society for Community Health Awareness Research and Action (SOCHARA,) Bengaluru and SAMA Resource Group for Women and Health, New Delhi co-hosted the joint 14th World Congress of Bioethics (WCB) and the 7th National Bioethics Conference (NBC) in Bengaluru. The theme of the Congress was, "Health for all in an unequal world: Obligations of Global Bioethics". The conference was held at an opportune time when we also commemorate 70 years of the Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and 40 years of the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Both declarations affirmed Health as a fundamental Human Right. We have discussed earlier the significance of the congress theme in the year 2018.

BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 89, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277634


BACKGROUND: Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) practices may affect the growth and nutritional status among adolescents. Therefore, this paper assesses WASH practices and its association with nutritional status among adolescent girls. METHODS: As a part of an intervention programme, this study is based on baseline cross-sectional data. It was conducted between May 2016-April 2017 in three Indian states (Bihar, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh). From a sample of 6352 adolescent girls, information on WASH practices, accessibility to health services and anthropometric measurements (height, weight and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC)) was collected. Descriptive statistics were used to examine WASH practices, and nutritional status among adolescent girls. Determinants of open defecation and menstrual hygiene were assessed using logistic regression. Association between WASH and nutritional status of adolescent girls was determined using linear regression. RESULTS: Findings showed 82% of the adolescent girls were practicing open defecation and 76% were not using sanitary napkins. Significant predictors of open defecation and non use of sanitary napkin during menstruation were non Hindu households, households with poorer wealth, non availability of water within household premise, non visit to Anganwadi Centre, and non attendance in Kishori group meetings. One-third of adolescent girls were stunted, 17% were thin and 20% had MUAC < 19 cm. Poor WASH practices like water facility outside the household premise, unimproved sanitation facility, non use of soap after defecation had significant association with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls. CONCLUSIONS: Concerted convergent actions focusing on the provision of clean water within the household premise, measures to stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, accessibility of sanitary napkins, poverty alleviation and behavior change are needed. Health, nutrition and livelihood programmes must be interspersed, and adolescents must be encouraged to take part in these programmes.

Higiene , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Logísticos , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010408, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546869


Background: Lack of menstrual knowledge, poor access to sanitary products and a non-facilitating school environment can make it difficult for girls to attend school. In India, interventions have been developed to reduce the burden of menstruation for school girls by government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We sought to identify challenges related to menstruation, and facilitators of menstrual management in schools in three states in India. Methods: Surveys were conducted among menstruating school girls in class 8-10 (above 12 years of age) of 43 government schools selected through stratified random sampling in three Indian states (Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu) in 2015. For comparison, ten model schools supported by NGOs or UNICEF with a focussed menstrual hygiene education program were selected purposely in the same states to represent the better-case scenario. We examined awareness about menarche, items used for menstruation, and facilitators on girls' experience of menstruation in regular schools and compared with model schools. Factors associated with school absence during menstruation were explored using multivariate analysis. Findings: More girls (mean age 14.1 years) were informed about menstruation before menarche in model schools (56%, n = 492) than in regular schools (36%, n = 2072, P < 0.001). Girls reported menstruation affected school attendance (6% vs 11% in model vs regular schools respectively, P = 0.003) and concentration (40% vs 45%, P = 0.1) and was associated with pain (31% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and fear of stain or smell (11% vs 16%, P = 0.002). About 45% of girls reported using disposable pads in both model and regular schools, but only 55% and 29% of pad-users reported good disposal facilities, respectively (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, reported absenteeism during menstruation was significantly lower in Tamil Nadu (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24, 0.14-0.40) and Maharashtra (APR 0.56, CI = 0.40-0.77) compared to Chhattisgarh, and halved in model compared to regular schools (APR 0.50, CI = 0.34-0.73). Pain medication in school (APR 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.97) and use of disposable pads (APR 0.57, CI = 0.42-0.77) were associated with lower absenteeism and inadequate sanitary facilities with higher absenteeism during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene education, accessible sanitary products, pain relief, and adequate sanitary facilities at school would improve the schooling-experience of adolescent girls in India.

Higiene , Menstruação , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribução , Setor Público , Inquéritos e Questionários
Indian J Public Health ; 56(2): 159-62, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22910627


The objectives of this study were to explore differences in exposure to media messages (pro- and antitobacco messages, marketing and promotions) between students consuming tobacco, areca nut, nonconsumers, and those intending to quit and to examine differences between municipal and private school students. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by secondary school students (N = 534) from municipal and private schools in Mumbai. Overall, the number of students who reported ever use of tobacco was quite low (5.1%). There was no significant difference in exposure to media messages between users of tobacco, areca nut, and nonusers. There were significantly higher numbers of ever users of tobacco in private compared to municipal schools. There was a significant association between exposure to marketing and promotions and intention to quit, but not with the other exposure variables. Media exposure may be related to intention to quit but not to quitting behavior.

Publicidade , Areca , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino