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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(11): 113504, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461486

RESUMO

Advancements in computer-controlled polishing, metrology, and replication have led to an x-ray mirror fabrication process that is capable of producing high-resolution Wolter microscopes. We present the fabrication and test of a nickel-cobalt replicated full-shell x-ray mirror that was electroformed from a finely figured and polished mandrel. This mandrel was designed for an 8-m source-to-detector-distance microscope, with 10× magnification, and was optimized to reduce shell distortions that occur within 20 mm of the shell ends. This, in combination with an improved replication tooling design and refined bath parameters informed by a detailed COMSOL Multiphysics® model, has led to reductions in replication errors in the mirrors. Mandrel surface fabrication was improved by implementing a computer-controlled polishing process that corrected the low-frequency mandrel figure error and achieved <2.0 nm RMS convergence error. X-ray tests performed on a pair of mirror shells replicated from the mandrel have demonstrated <10 µm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) spatial resolution. Here, we discuss the development process, highlight results from metrology and x-ray testing, and define a path for achieving a program goal of 5 µm FWHM resolution.

2.
Appl Opt ; 61(18): 5392-5400, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256106

RESUMO

To fabricate high-precision and accurate optics relative to the optical design surface, a high level of deterministic control of material removal (i.e., the tool influence function, TIF) during subaperture tool polishing is required. In this study, a detailed analysis of the pressure distribution, which is a key component of the TIF, has been performed using finite element analysis to couple together solid mechanics and fluid dynamics. Modeling experimental parameters of recently published work reveals that, when considering tool deformation, which in turn influences the fluid film thickness between the tool and workpiece, the effective pressure profile has a flat-top distribution. This flat-top pressure profile differs from the parabolic pressure distributions predicted by Hertzian mechanics. Moreover, the shear contribution is shown here to be a key contributor to material removal, inducing the removal at the periphery of the contact edge and even outside the generally accepted contact area. Finally, the simulated fluid velocities provide evidence of mixed-mode contact polishing, supporting recent experimental findings that also suggest that onset of hydroplaning contributions lead to material removal drop-off.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6736-6741, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934741

RESUMO

Direct ink writing (DIW) three-dimensional (3D) printing provides a revolutionary approach to fabricating components with gradients in material properties. Herein, we report a method for generating colloidal germania feedstock and germania-silica inks for the production of optical quality germania-silica (GeO2-SiO2) glasses by DIW, making available a new material composition for the development of multimaterial and functionally graded optical quality glasses and ceramics by additive manufacturing. Colloidal germania and silica particles are prepared by a base-catalyzed sol-gel method and converted to printable shear-thinning suspensions with desired viscoelastic properties for DIW. The volatile solvents are then evaporated, and the green bodies are calcined and sintered to produce transparent, crack-free glasses. Chemical and structural evolution of GeO2-SiO2 glasses is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. UV-vis transmission and optical homogeneity measurements reveal comparable performance of the 3D printed GeO2-SiO2 glasses to glasses produced using conventional approaches and improved performance over 3D printed TiO2-SiO2 inks. Moreover, because GeO2-SiO2 inks are compatible with DIW technology, they offer exciting options for forming new materials with patterned compositions such as gradients in the refractive index that cannot be achieved with conventional manufacturing approaches.

4.
Appl Opt ; 58(10): 2490-2499, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045043

RESUMO

A series of controlled grinding experiments, utilizing loose or fixed abrasives of either alumina or diamond at various particle sizes, were performed on a wide range of optical workpiece materials [single crystals of Al2O3 (sapphire), SiC, Y3Al5O12 (YAG), CaF2, and LiB3O5 (LBO); a SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-Li2O glass ceramic (Zerodur); and glasses of SiO2:TiO2 (ULE), SiO2 (fused silica), and P2O5-Al2O3-K2O-BaO (phosphate)]. The material removal rate, surface roughness, and morphology of surface fractures were measured. Separately, Vickers indentation was performed on the workpieces, and the depths of various crack types as a function of applied load was measured. Single pass grinding experiments showed distinct differences in the spatial pattern of surface fracturing between the loose alumina abrasive (isolated indent-type lateral cracking) and the loose or fixed diamond abrasive (scratch-type elongated lateral cracking). Each of the grinding methods had a removal rate and roughness that scaled with the lateral crack slope, s ℓ (i.e., the rate of increase in lateral crack depth with the applied load) of the workpiece material. A grinding model (based on the volumetric removal of lateral cracks accounting for neighboring lateral crack removal efficiency and the fraction of abrasive particles leading to fracture initiation) and a roughness model (based on the depth of lateral cracks or the interface gap between the workpiece and lap) are shown to quantitatively describe the material removal rate and roughness as a function of workpiece material, abrasive size, applied pressure, and relative velocity. This broad, multiprocess variable grinding model can serve as a predictive tool for estimating grinding rates and surface roughness for various grinding processes on different workpiece materials.

5.
Adv Mater ; 29(26)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452163

RESUMO

Silica inks are developed, which may be 3D printed and thermally processed to produce optically transparent glass structures with sub-millimeter features in forms ranging from scaffolds to monoliths. The inks are composed of silica powder suspended in a liquid and are printed using direct ink writing. The printed structures are then dried and sintered at temperatures well below the silica melting point to form amorphous, solid, transparent glass structures. This technique enables the mold-free formation of transparent glass structures previously inaccessible using conventional glass fabrication processes.

6.
J Vis Exp ; (100): e52832, 2015 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26066738

RESUMO

This procedure describes a method for the fabrication of large-area and ultrathin free-standing polymer films. Typically, ultrathin films are prepared using either sacrificial layers, which may damage the film or affect its mechanical properties, or they are made on freshly cleaved mica, a substrate that is difficult to scale. Further, the size of ultrathin film is typically limited to a few square millimeters. In this method, we modify a surface with a polyelectrolyte that alters the strength of adhesion between polymer and deposition substrate. The polyelectrolyte can be shown to remain on the wafer using spectroscopy, and a treated wafer can be used to produce multiple films, indicating that at best minimal amounts of the polyelectrolyte are added to the film. The process has thus far been shown to be limited in scalability only by the size of the coating equipment, and is expected to be readily scalable to industrial processes. In this study, the protocol for making the solutions, preparing the deposition surface, and producing the films is described.


Assuntos
Eletrólitos/química , Polímeros/química
7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(29): 18913-23, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26059193

RESUMO

Many transition metal complexes exhibit infrared or visible optical absorption arising from d-d transitions that are the key to functionality in technological applications and biological processes. The observed spectral characteristics of the absorption spectra depend on several underlying physical parameters whose relative contributions are still not fully understood. Although conventional arguments based on ligand-field theory can be invoked to rationalize the peak absorption energy, they cannot describe the detailed features of the observed spectral profile such as the spectral width and shape, or unexpected correlations between the oscillator strength and absorption peak position. Here, we combine experimental observations with first-principles simulations to investigate origins of the absorption spectral profile in model systems of aqueous Cu(2+) ions with Cl(-), Br(-), NO2(-) and CH3CO2(-) ligands. The ligand identity and concentration, fine structure in the electronic d-orbitals of Cu(2+), complex geometry, and solvation environment are all found to play key roles in determining the spectral profile. Moreover, similar physiochemical origins of these factors lead to interesting and unexpected correlations in spectral features. The results provide important insights into the underlying mechanisms of the observed spectral features and offer a framework for advancing the ability of theoretical models to predict and interpret the behavior of such systems.

8.
Appl Opt ; 54(10): 2762-8, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967187

RESUMO

Fe-doped lithium sodium silicate glasses codoped with Sn and C to promote the Fe²âº redox state are investigated under simultaneous excitation at the first and third harmonics of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser. The aim is to evaluate critical parameters associated with the potential use of this material as an optical filter that transmits the third harmonic but blocks the fundamental frequency. Estimations of the excited-state absorption coefficient and photobleaching (reduction of absorption at the fundamental) are provided. The results provide insight on the design and expected operational parameters of this type of Fe-doped materials.

9.
J Vis Exp ; (94)2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25489745

RESUMO

Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher.


Assuntos
Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Vidro/química , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Reologia/instrumentação , Reologia/métodos
10.
Opt Express ; 22(23): 28798-809, 2014 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402119

RESUMO

We investigate defects forming in Ce³âº-doped fused silica samples following exposure to nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses and their relaxation as a function of time and exposure to low intensity light at different wavelengths. A subset of these defects are responsible for inducing absorption in the visible and near infrared spectral range, which is of critical importance for the use of this material as ultraviolet light absorbing filter in high power laser systems. The dependence of the induced absorption as a function of laser fluence and methods to most efficiently mitigate this effect are presented. Experiments simulating the operation of the material as a UV protection filter for high power laser systems were performed in order to determine limitations and practical operational conditions.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Lasers , Dióxido de Silício/química , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
Langmuir ; 30(18): 5126-32, 2014 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24784173

RESUMO

Free-standing polymer thin films are typically fabricated using a sacrificial underlayer (between the film and its deposition substrate) or overlayer (on top of the film to assist peeling) in order to facilitate removal of the thin film from its deposition substrate. We show the direct delamination of extraordinarily thin (as thin as 8 nm) films of poly(vinyl formal) (PVF), polystyrene, and poly(methyl methacrylate). Large (up to 13 cm diameter) films of PVF could be captured on wire supports to produce free-standing films. By modifying the substrate to lower the interfacial energy resisting film-substrate separation, the conditions for spontaneous delamination are satisfied even for very thin films. The substrate modification is based on the electrostatic adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte. Eliminating the use of sacrificial materials and instead relying on naturally self-limiting adsorption makes this method suitable for large areas. We have observed delamination of films with aspect ratios (ratio of lateral dimension between supports to thickness) of 10(7) and have captured dry, free-standing films with aspect ratios >10(6). Films with an aspect ratio of 10(5) can bear loads up to 10(6) times the mass of the film itself. The presence of the adsorbed layer can be observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and this layer is persistent through multiple uses. In the system studied, elimination of sacrificial materials leads to an enhancement in the failure strength of the free-standing thin film. The robustness, persistence, and the self-optimizing nature distinguish this method from various fabrication methods utilizing sacrificial materials and make it a potentially scalable process for the fabrication of ultrathin free-standing or transferrable films for filtration, MEMS, or tissue engineering applications.

12.
Appl Opt ; 51(35): 8350-9, 2012 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23262529

RESUMO

Pitch button blocking (PBB), involving attaching small pitch buttons between the back of a thin workpiece (i.e., optic) and a blocking plate, enables noncompliant convergent polishing in which the workpiece stiffness and block interface strength are maintained. This process has been optimized, and practical design criteria (number, size, and spacing of pitch buttons) have been determined both experimentally and theoretically using a thermoelastic model. The optimized PBB process has been successfully implemented on 100-265 mm sized workpieces with aspect ratios up to 45, resulting in maximum peak-to-valley heights of <|0.1| µm after blocking and polishing.

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