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1.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A recent study reported on high, longer lasting and finally reversible cerebral uptake of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET) induced by epileptic activity. Therefore, we examined cerebral [18F]FET uptake in two chemically induced rat epilepsy models and in patients with focal epilepsy to further investigate whether this phenomenon represents a major pitfall in brain tumor diagnostics and whether [18F]FET may be a potential marker to localize epileptic foci. PROCEDURES: Five rats underwent kainic acid titration to exhibit 3 to 3.5 h of class IV-V motor seizures (status epilepticus, SE). Rats underwent 4× [18F]FET PET and 4× MRI on the following 25 days. Six rats underwent kindling with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) 3 to 8×/week over 10 weeks, and hence, seizures increased from class I to class IV. [18F]FET PET and MRI were performed regularly on days with and without seizures. Four rats served as healthy controls. Additionally, five patients with focal epilepsy underwent [18F]FET PET within 12 days after the last documented seizure. RESULTS: No abnormalities in [18F]FET PET or MRI were detected in the kindling model. The SE model showed significantly decreased [18F]FET uptake 3 days after SE in all examined brain regions, and especially in the amygdala region, which normalized within 2 weeks. Corresponding signal alterations in T2-weighted MRI were noted in the amygdala and hippocampus, which recovered 24 days post-SE. No abnormality of cerebral [18F]FET uptake was noted in the epilepsy patients. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for increased cerebral [18F]FET uptake after epileptic seizures neither in the rat models nor in patients. The SE model even showed decreased [18F]FET uptake throughout the brain. We conclude that epileptic seizures per se do not cause a longer lasting increased [18F]FET accumulation and are unlikely to be a major cause of pitfall for brain tumor diagnostics.

2.
Seizure ; 79: 56-60, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416569

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epilepsy patients consider driving issues to be one of their most serious concerns. Ideally, decisions regarding fitness to drive should be based upon thorough evaluations by specialists in epilepsy care. In 2009, an EU directive was published aiming to harmonize evaluation practices within European countries, but, despite these recommendations, whether all epileptologists use the same criteria is unclear. We therefore conducted this study to investigate routine practices on how epileptologists at European epilepsy centers evaluate fitness to drive. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 63 contact persons identified through the European Epi-Care and the E-pilepsy network. The questionnaire addressed how fitness-to-drive evaluations were conducted, the involvement of different professionals, the use and interpretation of EEG, and opinions on existing regulations and guidelines. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 35 participants (56 % response rate). Results showed considerable variation regarding test routines and the emphasis placed on the occurrence and extent of epileptiform discharges revealed by EEG. 82 % of the responders agreed that there was a need for more research on how to better evaluate fitness-to-drive in people with epilepsy, and 89 % agreed that regulations on fitness to drive evaluations should be internationally coordinated. CONCLUSION: Our survey showed considerable variations among European epileptologists regarding use of EEG and how findings of EEG pathology should be assessed in fitness-to-drive evaluations. There is a clear need for more research on this issue and international guidelines on how such evaluations should be carried out would be of value.

3.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 20(5): 497-508, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270723

RESUMO

Introduction: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) affects about 1 in 1000 people with epilepsy, and even more in medically refractory epilepsy. As most people are between 20 and 40 years when dying suddenly, SUDEP leads to a considerable loss of potential life years. The most important risk factors are nocturnal and tonic-clonic seizures, underscoring that supervision and effective seizure control are key elements for SUDEP prevention. The question of whether specific antiepileptic drugs are linked to SUDEP is still controversially discussed. Knowledge and education about SUDEP among health-care professionals, patients, and relatives are of outstanding importance for preventive measures to be taken, but still poor and widely neglected.Areas covered: This article reviews epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, assessment of individual SUDEP risk and available measures for SUDEP prevention. Literature search was done using Medline and Pubmed in October 2019.Expert opinion: Significant advances in the understanding of SUDEP were made in the last decade which allow testing of novel strategies to prevent SUDEP. Promising current strategies target neuronal mechanisms of brain stem dysfunction, cardiac susceptibility for fatal arrhythmias, and reliable detection of tonic-clonic seizures using mobile health technologies.Abbreviations: AED, antiepileptic drug; CBZ, carbamazepine; cLQTS, congenital long QT syndrome; EMU, epilepsy monitoring unit; FBTCS, focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures; GTCS, generalized tonic-clonic seizures; ICA, ictal central apnea; LTG, lamotrigine; PCCA, postconvulsive central apnea; PGES, postictal generalized EEG suppression; SRI, serotonin reuptake inhibitor; SUDEP, sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; TCS, tonic-clonic seizures.

4.
Neurosurg Focus ; 48(4): E6, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cavernoma-related epilepsy (CRE) is a frequent symptom in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Reports on surgical management and seizure outcome of epileptogenic CCM often focus on intracranial cavernoma in general. Therefore, data on CCMs within the temporal lobe are scarce. The authors therefore analyzed their institutional data. METHODS: From 2003 to 2018, 52 patients suffering from CCMs located within the temporal lobe underwent surgery for CRE at University Hospital Bonn. Information on patient characteristics, preoperative seizure history, preoperative evaluation, surgical strategies, postoperative complications, and seizure outcome was assessed and further analyzed. Seizure outcome was assessed 12 months after surgery according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and stratified into favorable (ILAE class I) versus unfavorable (ILAE classes II-VI). RESULTS: Overall, 47 (90%) of 52 patients with CCMs located in the temporal lobe and CRE achieved favorable seizure outcome. Pure lesionectomy was performed in 5 patients, extended lesionectomy with resection of the hemosiderin rim in 38 patients, and anterior temporal lobectomy in 9 patients with temporal lobe CCM. Specifically, 36 patients (69%) suffered from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), 3 patients (6%) from chronic CRE, and 13 patients (25%) sustained sporadic CRE. In patients with DRE, favorable seizure outcome was achieved in 32 (89%) of 36 patients. Patients with DRE were significantly older than patients with CCM-associated chronic or sporadic seizures (p = 0.02). Furthermore, patients with DRE more often underwent additional amygdalohippocampectomy following the recommendation of presurgical epileptological evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Favorable seizure outcome is achievable in a substantial number of patients with epileptogenic CCM located in the temporal lobe, even if patients suffered from drug-resistant CRE. For adequate counseling and monitoring, patients with CRE should undergo a thorough pre- and postsurgical evaluation in dedicated epilepsy surgery programs.

5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 106: 107016, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199348

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Flow cytometry helps to elucidate the cellular immune repertoire's mechanisms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to limbic encephalitis (LE) subcategories and carries potential significance for subtype-specific treatment. METHODS: We enrolled 62 patients with TLE due to LE associated with no autoantibodies (n = 40), neural autoantibodies (n = 22), as well as autoantibodies against intracellular antigens (n = 15/22). All patients underwent neuropsychological testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, and peripheral blood (PB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations including flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD19+ B-cells were increased in the PB and CSF of patients with antibody-negative LE compared with those associated with antibodies against intracellular antigens (Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks with Dunn's test, p < 0.05). There were no differences in CD138+ B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, human leukocyte antigen - DR isotype (HLA-DR+) CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, and HLA-DR+ CD8+ T-cells in the CSF between groups with LE. The blood-brain barrier is more often impaired in patients with antibody-negative LE than in LE with antibodies against intracellular antigens (chi-square test, p < 0.05). In addition, we detected no correlations between immune cell subsets and clinical or paraclinical parameters in patients with antibody-negative and intracellular antibody-positive LE. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of CD19+ B-cells in the CSF and frequent signs of dysfunctional blood-brain barrier in patients with antibody-negative rather than intracellular antibody-positive LE suggest that CD19+ B-cells play a role in antibody-negative encephalitis although their pathogenic role in the central nervous system (CNS) immunity because of missing correlations between immune cells and clinical and paraclinical parameters remains unknown. Further studies are required to evaluate the usefulness of these B-cells as a biomarker for the stratification of treatment strategies.

6.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(4): 462-473, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We ascertained the prevalence of ictal arrhythmias to explain the high rate of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: We selected cases with clinical DS, ≥6 years, SCN1A mutation, and ≥1 seizure/week. Home-based ECG recordings were performed for 20 days continuously. Cases were matched for age and sex to two epilepsy controls with no DS and ≥1 major motor seizure during video-EEG. We determined the prevalence of peri-ictal asystole, bradycardia, QTc changes, and effects of convulsive seizures (CS) on heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and PR/QRS. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for multiple seizures within subjects, seizure type, and sleep/wakefulness. RESULTS: We included 59 cases. Ictal recordings were obtained in 45 cases and compared to 90 controls. We analyzed 547 seizures in DS (300 CS) and 169 in controls (120 CS). No asystole occurred. Postictal bradycardia was more common in controls (n = 11, 6.5%) than cases (n = 4, 0.7%; P = 0.002). Peri-ictal QTc-lengthening (≥60ms) occurred more frequently in DS (n = 64, 12%) than controls (n = 8, 4.7%, P = 0.048); pathologically prolonged QTc was rare (once in each group). In DS, interictal HRV was lower compared to controls (RMSSD P = 0.029); peri-ictal values did not differ between the groups. Prolonged QRS/PR was rare and more common in controls (QRS: one vs. none; PR: three vs. one). INTERPRETATION: We did not identify major arrhythmias in DS which can directly explain high SUDEP rates. Peri-ictal QTc-lengthening was, however, more common in DS. This may reflect unstable repolarization and an increased propensity for arrhythmias.

7.
Ann Neurol ; 87(6): 869-884, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess occurrence of the dendritic spine scaffolding protein Drebrin as a pathophysiologically relevant autoantibody target in patients with recurrent seizures and suspected encephalitis as leading symptoms. METHODS: Sera of 4 patients with adult onset epilepsy and suspected encephalitis of unresolved etiology and equivalent results in autoantibody screening were subjected to epitope identification. We combined a wide array of approaches, ranging from immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, subcellular binding pattern analyses in primary neuronal cultures, and immunohistochemistry in brains of wild-type and Drebrin knockout mice to in vitro analyses of impaired synapse formation, morphology, and aberrant neuronal excitability by antibody exposure. RESULTS: In the serum of a patient with adult onset epilepsy and suspected encephalitis, a strong signal at ∼70kDa was detected by immunoblotting, for which mass spectrometry revealed Drebrin as the putative antigen. Three other patients whose sera also showed strong immunoreactivity around 70kDa on Western blotting were also anti-Drebrin-positive. Seizures, memory impairment, and increased protein content in cerebrospinal fluid occurred in anti-Drebrin-seropositive patients. Alterations in cerebral magnetic resonance imaging comprised amygdalohippocampal T2-signal increase and hippocampal sclerosis. Diagnostic biopsy revealed T-lymphocytic encephalitis in an anti-Drebrin-seropositive patient. Exposure of primary hippocampal neurons to anti-Drebrin autoantibodies resulted in aberrant synapse composition and Drebrin distribution as well as increased spike rates and the emergence of burst discharges reflecting network hyperexcitability. INTERPRETATION: Anti-Drebrin autoantibodies define a chronic syndrome of recurrent seizures and neuropsychiatric impairment as well as inflammation of limbic and occasionally cortical structures. Immunosuppressant therapies should be considered in this disorder. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:869-884.

8.
Epilepsy Res ; 162: 106301, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neuroinflammation and disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) are important players in epileptogenesis, ictogenesis and pharmacoresistance. In this context, we investigated blood levels of HMGB1 and other inflammatory and BBB markers after generalized and focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures in serum, summarized under the term generalized convulsive seizures (GCS). METHODS: We included consenting adults who were admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and immediately after a GCS as well as after 2, 6 and 24 h. We measured leukocytes, c-reactive protein (CRP), the danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and S100, receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) alongside the BBB markers intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Noradrenaline and lactate measurements were available from a previous study. P-levels <0.05 were regarded as significant. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with 28 GCS were included. Leukocytosis occurred immediately after GCS and normalized within two hours (p < 0.001). S100 and HMGB1 both increased by ∼80 % (p < 0.001). MMP9 peaked after six hours with levels at 48.6 % above baseline. RAGE decreased by 17.6 % with a nadir at 24 h. CRP increased by 118 % with a peak at 24 h. ICAM1 remained stable (p = 0.068). Postictal HMGB1 correlated with postictal leukocytosis (r = 0.42; p = 0.025) and with MMP9 levels six hours later (r = 0.374; p = 0.05). Postictal lactate levels correlated with MMP9 at 6 h (r = 0.48; p = 0.01) and CRP at 24 h (r = 0.39; p = 0.04). Postictal noradrenaline correlated with lactate (r = 0.57; p = 0.02) and leukocytes (r = 0.39; p = 0.047). DISCUSSION: The serum level of the DAMPs HMGB1 and S100 increase immediately after GCS. The hypothetical mechanism includes central nervous processes, such as glutamate toxicity and ROS release from seizing neurons but also muscular tissues. BBB breakdown is marked by the release of MMP9. Further research is needed to understand the complex interactions between electrical and metabolic stress, neuroinflammation and BBB mechanics in seizures and epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals signs of inflammation, neuronal damage and transitory disruption of BBB following single GCS, underscoring the widespread and possibily detrimental effects of recurrent seizures on brain properties. The long term impact on the disease course, however, is unclear.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Headache disorders are frequently associated with epilepsy. Some neuromodulation techniques for refractory epilepsy have been reported to positively influence the associated chronic headache. However, the exact mechanism of action of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and anterior thalamic nuclei-deep brain stimulation (ANT-DBS) on pain perception is unclear. METHOD: We report a structured assessment of pain perception in a patient who experienced headache relief after ANT-DBS for refractory focal epilepsy and compare it with pain perception of epilepsy patients with chronic headache who were treated with and without VNS. RESULTS: The pain-associated symptoms in the ANT-DBS case were on the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-40) subscore "physiological anxiety" closer to the control collective, whereas in patients with VNS, this was more likely for the PASS-40 subscores "cognitive anxiety" or "escape and avoidance." CONCLUSION: ANT-DBS and VNS may influence epilepsy-associated chronic headache in different ways.

10.
Epilepsia ; 61(3): 489-497, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS) during video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM). METHODS: All adult patients undergoing presurgical VEM from 2014 to 2015 in the department of epileptology were eligible (N = 229). Those with refractory focal epilepsy and epileptic seizures recorded during VEM were analyzed (N = 188, Group 1). To assess the effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) taper, the total AED load was calculated as the sum of the ratios of prescribed daily dose and defined daily dose of all AEDs per VEM day and was correlated with the occurrence of focal seizures without bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FwoBTCS) and FBTCS. To validate the findings, data of patients undergoing VEM in 2004 and 2005 (Group 2, eligible N = 243, analyzed N = 203) were also investigated. RESULTS: In Group 1, 53 patients had FBTCS and 135 patients had exclusively FwoBTCS during VEM. Reduced AED load at seizure onset was the most important modifiable risk factor for FBTCS (receiver-operating characteristic [ROC]: area under the curve [AUC] = 0.78). Furthermore, the risk of FBTCS varied with the history and frequency of FBTCS prior to VEM. For instance, patients had a 50% risk of FBTCS by reducing the AED load to ~20% when no information about history of FBTCS was taken into account, to ~30% when a positive history of FBTCS was taken into account, and to ~50% when a high frequency of FBTCS prior to VEM was taken into account. These findings were largely replicated in Group 2 (59 patients with FBTCS and 144 exclusively with FwoBTCS). SIGNIFICANCE: The risk of FTBCS during VEM depends on the history and frequency of FTBCS prior to VEM and is particularly associated with the extent of AED reduction. Our data underscore the need for appropriate tapering regimens in VEM units.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1010, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974395

RESUMO

Motor function after hemispheric lesions has been associated with the structural integrity of either the pyramidal tract (PT) or alternate motor fibers (aMF). In this study, we aimed to differentially characterize the roles of PT and aMF in motor compensation by relating diffusion-tensor-imaging-derived parameters of white matter microstructure to measures of proximal and distal motor function in patients after hemispherotomy. Twenty-five patients (13 women; mean age: 21.1 years) after hemispherotomy (at mean age: 12.4 years) underwent Diffusion Tensor Imaging and evaluation of motor function using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and the index finger tapping test. Regression analyses revealed that fractional anisotropy of the PT explained (p = 0.050) distal motor function including finger tapping rate (p = 0.027), whereas fractional anisotropy of aMF originating in the contralesional cortex and crossing to the ipsilesional hemisphere in the pons explained proximal motor function (p = 0.001). Age at surgery was found to be the only clinical variable to explain motor function (p < 0.001). Our results are indicative of complementary roles of the PT and of aMF in motor compensation of hemispherotomy mediating distal and proximal motor compensation of the upper limb, respectively.

12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 103(Pt A): 106507, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645318

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a core element in the diagnosis of epilepsy syndromes and can help to monitor antiseizure treatment. Mobile EEG (mEEG) devices are increasingly available on the consumer market and may offer easier access to EEG recordings especially in rural or resource-poor areas. The usefulness of consumer-grade devices for clinical purposes is still underinvestigated. Here, we compared EEG traces of a commercially available mEEG device (Emotiv EPOC) to a simultaneously recorded clinical video EEG (vEEG). Twenty-two adult patients (11 female, mean age 40.2 years) undergoing noninvasive vEEG monitoring for clinical purposes were prospectively enrolled. The EEG recordings were evaluated by 10 independent raters with unmodifiable view settings. The individual evaluations were compared with respect to the presence of abnormal EEG findings (regional slowing, epileptiform potentials, seizure pattern). Video EEG yielded a sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 88% for abnormal EEG findings, whereas mEEG reached 39% and 85%, respectively. Interrater reliability coefficients were better in vEEG as compared to mEEG (ϰ = 0.50 vs. 0.30), corresponding to a moderate and fair agreement. Intrarater reliability between mEEG and vEEG evaluations of simultaneous recordings of a given participant was moderate (ϰ = 0.48). Given the limitations of our exploratory pilot study, our results suggest that vEEG is superior to mEEG, but that mEEG can be helpful for diagnostic purposes. We present the first quantitative comparison of simultaneously acquired clinical and mobile consumer-grade EEG for a clinical use-case.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106682, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigating immune cells in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE) will contribute to our understanding of its pathophysiology and may help to develop appropriate therapies. The aim of the present study was to analyze immune cells to reveal underlying immune signatures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with LE. METHODS: We investigated 68 patients with TLE with LE compared with 7 control patients with TLE with no signs of LE screened from 154 patients with suspected LE. From the patients with TLE-LE, we differentiated early seizure onset (<20 years, n = 9) and late seizure onset group (≥20 years, n = 59) of patients. Patients underwent neuropsychological assessment, electroencephalography (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and peripheral blood (PB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis including flow cytometry. RESULTS: We identified a higher CD4/8+ T-cell ratio in the PB in all patients with TLE-LE and in patients with late-onset TLE-LE each compared with controls (Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) with Dunn's test, p < 0.05). Moreover, a lower CD4/CD8+ T-cell ratio is detected in all patients with TLE-LE with blood-CSF barrier dysfunction, unlike in those with none (Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's test, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the CSF of patients with LE associated with blood-CSF barrier dysfunction plays a potential role in CNS (central nervous system) inflammation in these patients. Thus, flow cytometry as a methodology reveals novel insights into LE's genesis and symptomatology. The CD4/8+ T-cell ratio in PB as a biomarker for LE requires further investigation.

14.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(4): 599-608, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819916

RESUMO

Objective: Tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) lead to metabolic stress and changes in related blood markers. Such markers may indicate harmful conditions but can also help to identify TCS as a cause of transient loss of consciousness. In this study, we hypothesized that the alterations of circulating markers of metabolic stress depend on the clinical features of TCS. Methods: Ninety-one adults undergoing video-EEG monitoring participated in this prospective study. Electrolytes, renal parameters, creatine kinase (CK), prolactin (PRL), lactate, ammonia, glucose, and other parameters were measured at inclusion and different time points after TCS. Results: A total of 39 TCS were recorded in 32 patients (six generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures in 6 and 33 focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures in 26 patients). Shortly after TCS, mean lactate, ammonia, and PRL levels were significantly increased 8.7-fold, 2.6-fold, and 5.1-fold, respectively, with levels of more than twofold above the upper limits of the normal (ULN) in 90%, 71%, and 70% of the TCS and returned to baseline levels within 2 hours. Only postictal lactate levels were significantly correlated with the total duration of the tonic-clonic phase. In contrast, CK elevations above the ULN were found in three TCS (~10%) only with a peak after 48 hours. Immediately after the TCS, hyperphosphatemia occurred in one third of the patients, whereas hypophosphatemia was observed in one third 2 hours later. TCS led to subtle but significant alterations of other electrolytes, creatinine, and uric acid, whereas glucose levels were moderately increased. Significance: Lactate is a robust metabolic marker of TCS with elevations found in ~90% of cases within 30 minutes after seizure termination, whereas ammonia rises in ~ 70%, similarly to PRL. Phosphate levels show an early increase and a decrease 2 hours after TCS in a third of patients. CK elevations are rare after video-EEG-documented TCS, challenging its value as a diagnostic marker.

15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 101(Pt A): 106565, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675603

RESUMO

AIM: Knowledge about cardiac stress related to seizures in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and spontaneously occurring generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) is limited. The aim of the present study was to analyze cardiac function and circulating markers of cardiac stress in the early postictal period after ECT and GCS. METHODS: Patients undergoing ECT in the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics and patients undergoing diagnostic video-EEG monitoring (VEM) in the Department of Neurology were prospectively enrolled between November 2017 and November 2018. Cardiac function was examined twice using transthoracic echocardiography within 60 min and >4 h after ECT or GCS. Established blood markers (troponin T high-sensitive, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide) of cardiac stress or injury were collected within 30 min, 4 to 6 h, and 24 h after ECT or GCS. In the ECT group, the troponin T values were also correlated with periprocedural heart rate and blood pressure values. Because of organizational or technical reasons, the measurement was not performed in all patients. RESULTS: Twenty patients undergoing ECT and 6 patients with epilepsy with a GCS during VEM were included. Postictal echocardiography showed no wall motion disorders and no change in left ventricular and right ventricular functions. Four of 17 patients displayed a transient increase in high-sensitive cardiac troponin T 4-6 h after the seizure (3 patients with ECT-induced seizure). None of these 4 patients had signs of an acute cardiac event, and periprocedural blood pressure or heart rate peaks during ECT did not significantly differ in patients with and without troponin T elevation. CONCLUSIONS: Signs of mild cardiac stress can occur in some patients following ECT or GCS without clinical complications, probably related to excessive catecholamine release during the seizure.

16.
Epilepsy Res ; 157: 106187, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Seizure-related modulation of heart rate (HR) was examined extensively in previous studies. However, the overall effect on HR attributable to epileptic seizures is difficult to determine, given the considerable fluctuations of HR before and during seizures. Here, we developed a semi-automatic procedure allowing quantification of the total impact of seizures on HR and determination of temporal relationships between seizure onset assessed by intracranial EEG (iEEG) and ECG. METHODS: ECG and iEEG data of epilepsy patients undergoing video-EEG telemetry for epilepsy surgery with bilateral hippocampal depth electrodes were analysed retrospectively. Consecutive RR intervals and HR profiles were determined using R detection algorithms. Novel features including the normalized ictal area under the curve (niAUC), as well as the time point of ECG onset (HR breakpoint) were calculated. Selected HR features were compared to widely-used manually acquired measures. Data are given as median ±â€¯SD. RESULTS: Fifteen patients had a total of 34 seizures with left-hippocampal and 37 seizures with right-hippocampal onset. HR increased by 9 ±â€¯19% during seizures. Latency between iEEG seizure-onset to the HR breakpoint was 23 ±â€¯22 s. No significant difference between left- and right-hippocampal seizures was observed with respect to HR increases, latencies and niAUC. A comparison between results of the semi-automatic and manual approach revealed that ictal HR changes showed a higher correlation (r = 0.6) than niAUC (r = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed semi-automatic approach to analyze continuous HR data provides useful tools for estimating the overall effect of seizures on HR in greater detail. Our results suggest that the side of hippocampal seizure onset has no significant effect on the latency and extent of ictal HR changes. The algorithms may be of further use in clinical research and the development of seizure detection devices.

17.
Seizure ; 70: 59-62, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of expert estimations of achieving seizure freedom after epilepsy surgery in the context of presurgical patient counseling. METHOD: The retrospective study comprised a random sample of 200 patients who underwent any type of resective epilepsy surgery at the University of Bonn Epilepsy Center and the routine 1-year postoperative control visit in the years from 2008-2016. The prediction by a team of epileptologists and the actual seizure outcome were extracted from the pre- and postsurgical medical files, respectively. A deviation of >10% was a priori defined as a relevant discrepancy. RESULTS: Estimated chances of achieving seizure freedom ranged from 30 to 90% (mean: 67%). The actual seizure freedom rate was 66% (Engel Ia/ ILAE 1a). Nine of 12 estimation categories showed a tolerable deviation of ≤10%, none of these with a worse than expected outcome. Two estimation categories (40-50%, and 80%) showed a worse actual seizure outcome with deviations of -40% (n = 3); and -17% (n = 30), respectively. All in all, for 83% of the patients a correct prediction was provided. CONCLUSIONS: For the vast majority of surgical patients, the expert prediction of postsurgical seizure freedom at the 1-year follow-up was accurate despite the heterogeneity of patients and surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(12): 835-841, 2019 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212327

RESUMO

Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is a frequent cause of referral to an emergency room. In view of the impact on treatment and the patients' daily life activities (e. g. profession, driving license), an accurate and timely diagnosis is of uttermost importance. This article provides key features and suggests a practical step-by-step approach of how to differentiate syncope, epileptic and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures as the commonest causes of nontraumatic TLOC.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Convulsões , Síncope , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Epilepsia/classificação , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Convulsões/classificação , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Síncope/classificação , Síncope/diagnóstico
20.
Front Neurol ; 10: 501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139142

RESUMO

In this narrative review, we summarize the current knowledge of neurally mediated blood pressure (BP) control and discuss how recently described epilepsy- and seizure-related BP alterations may contribute to premature mortality and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Although people with epilepsy display disturbed interictal autonomic function with a shift toward predominant sympathetic activity, prevalence of arterial hypertension is similar in people with and without epilepsy. BP is transiently increased in association with most types of epileptic seizures but may also decrease in some, illustrating that seizure activity can cause both a decrease and increase of BP, probably because of stimulation or inhibition of distinct central autonomic function by epileptic activity that propagates into different neuronal networks of the central autonomic nervous system. The principal regulatory neural loop for short-term BP control is termed baroreflex, mainly involving peripheral sensors and brain stem nuclei. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, expressed as change of interbeat interval per change in BP) is intact after focal seizures, whereas BRS is markedly impaired in the early postictal period following generalized convulsive seizures (GCS), possibly due to metabolically mediated muscular hyperemia in skeletal muscles, a massive release of catecholamines and compromised brain stem function. Whilst most SUDEP cases are probably caused by a cardiorespiratory failure during the early postictal period following GCS, a profoundly disturbed BRS may allow a life-threatening drop of systemic BP in the aftermath of GCS, as recently reported in a patient as a plausible cause of SUDEP in a few patients.

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