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1.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6195-6211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in China. We report the end-of-study results of a phase II/III trial to assess the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the AS04-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in Chinese women aged 18-25 years followed for up to 72 months after first vaccination. Results of approximately 57 months following first vaccination have been previously reported. METHODS: Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at Months 0-1-6. Vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18 infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cross-protective vaccine efficacy against infections and lesions associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. Efficacy was assessed in the according-to-protocol efficacy (ATP-E) cohort (vaccine N = 2888; control N = 2892), total vaccinated cohort for efficacy (TVC-E; vaccine N = 2987; control N = 2985) and TVC-naïve (vaccine N = 1660; control N = 1587). RESULTS: In initially HPV-16/18 seronegative/DNA-negative women, vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated CIN grade 2 or worse was 87.3% (95% CI: 5.5, 99.7) in the ATP-E, 88.7% (95% CI: 18.5, 99.7) in the TVC-E, and 100% (95% CI: 17.9, 100) in the TVC-naïve. Cross-protective efficacy against incident infection with HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-45 was 59.6% (95% CI: 39.4, 73.5), 42.7% (95% CI: 15.6, 61.6), and 54.8% (95% CI: 19.3, 75.6), respectively (ATP-E). At Month 72, >95% of initially seronegative women who received HPV vaccine in the ATP cohort for immunogenicity (N = 664) remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 geometric mean titers were 678.1 EU/mL (95% CI: 552.9, 831.5) and 343.7 EU/mL (95% CI: 291.9, 404.8), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.9% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.7% control group [N = 3025]). Three and zero women died in the control group and the vaccine group respectively. New onset autoimmune disease was reported in two women in the vaccine group and two in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale randomized clinical trial of HPV vaccination in China. High and sustained vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated infection and cervical lesions was demonstrated up to Month 72. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile. Combined with screening, prophylactic HPV vaccination could potentially reduce the high burden of HPV infection and cervical cancer in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00779766.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118633

RESUMO

We evaluated antibody persistence against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in adolescents previously vaccinated with a hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-HBV-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), as part of the national newborn immunization program in Germany. We also assessed the anamnestic response to a challenge dose of a monovalent HBV vaccine. In this phase 4, open-label, non-randomized study (NCT02798952), 302 adolescents aged 14-15 years, primed in their first 2 years of life with 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses, received one challenge dose of monovalent HBV vaccine. Blood samples were taken before and one month post-vaccination and used to determine antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs). Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed post-challenge dose. Pre-challenge dose, 53.7% of 268 participants included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10 mIU/mL (seroprotection cut-off) and 16.8% had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥100 mIU/mL. One month post-challenge dose, 93.3% of adolescents had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10 mIU/mL and 87.3% had antibody concentrations ≥100 mIU/mL. An anamnestic response was mounted in 92.5% of adolescents. Injection site pain (in 33.6% of participants) and fatigue (30.2%) were the most frequently reported solicited local and general symptoms, respectively. Six of the 55 unsolicited adverse events reported were considered vaccination-related. Two vaccination-unrelated serious adverse events were reported during the study. Long-term antibody persistence against hepatitis B was observed in 14-15 years old adolescents previously primed in infancy with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib. A challenge dose of monovalent HBV vaccine induced strong anamnestic response, with no safety concerns.

3.
Vaccine ; 36(1): 98-106, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174109

RESUMO

This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of two doses (2D) of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (2D of AS04-HPV-16/18) vs. two or three doses of the 4vHPV vaccine [2D or 3D of 4vHPV] in 1075 healthy girls aged 9-14 years. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 at months (M) 0, 6 (N = 359), 2D of 4vHPV at M0, 6 (N = 358) or 3D of 4vHPV at M0, 2, 6 (N = 358). 351, 339 and 346 girls, respectively, returned for the concluding visit at M36. Superiority was demonstrated at M7 and M12; comparison of the immune response to both vaccine antigens was made between 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 and 2D or 3D of 4vHPV at subsequent time points in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I; N = 958 at M36) and the total vaccinated cohort (TVC: N = 1036 at M36). HPV-16/18-specific T-cell- and B-cell-mediated immune responses and safety were also investigated. At M36, anti-HPV-16/18 ELISA responses in the 2D AS04-HPV-16/18 group remained superior to those of the 2D and 3D 4vHPV groups. In the M36 TVC, geometric mean titers were 2.78-fold (HPV-16) and 6.84-fold (HPV-18) higher for 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 vs. 2D of 4vHPV and 2.3-fold (HPV-16) and 4.14-fold (HPV-18) higher vs. 3D of 4vHPV. Results were confirmed by vaccine pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay. Numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells and B cells appeared similar across groups. Safety was in line with the known safety profiles of both vaccines. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2D of the AS04-HPV-16/18 compared with 2D or 3D of the 4vHPV vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT0146235.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Neutralização , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem
4.
Cancer Med ; 6(11): 2723-2731, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984053

RESUMO

Women remain at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection for most of their lives. The duration of protection against HPV-16/18 from prophylactic vaccination remains unknown. We investigated the 10-year immune response and long-term safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine) in females aged between 15 and 55 years at first vaccination. Females who received primary vaccination with three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in the primary phase-III study (NCT00196937) were invited to attend annual evaluations for long-term immunogenicity and safety. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervico-vaginal secretions (CVS) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the follow-up period. Seropositivity rates for anti-HPV-16 remained high (≥96.3%) in all age groups 10 years after first vaccination. It was found that 99.2% of 15-25-year olds remained seropositive for anti-HPV-18 compared to 93.7% and 83.8% of 26-45-year olds and 45-55-year olds, respectively. Geometric mean titers (GMT) remained above natural infection levels in all age groups. Anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 titers were at least 5.3-fold and 3.1-fold higher than titers observed after natural infection, respectively, and were predicted to persist above natural infection levels for ≥30 years in all age groups. At Year 10, anti-HPV-16/18 antibody titers in subjects aged 15-25 years remained above plateau levels observed in previous studies. Correlation coefficients for antibody titers in serum and CVS were 0.64 (anti-HPV-16) and 0.38 (anti-HPV-18). This study concluded that vaccinated females aged 15-55 years elicited sustained immunogenicity with an acceptable safety profile up to 10 years after primary vaccination, suggesting long-term protection against HPV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Secreções Corporais/imunologia , Colo do Útero/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vagina/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer Med ; 6(1): 12-25, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998015

RESUMO

We previously reported the results of a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized controlled study in Chinese women (NCT00779766) showing a 94.2% (95% confidence interval: 62.7-99.9) HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) and/or 6-month (M) persistent infection (PI) with a mean follow-up of <2 years, and immunogenicity until 7 months post-dose 1. Here, we report efficacy and safety results from an event-triggered analysis with ~3 years longer follow-up, and immunogenicity until M24. Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at M0, 1, 6. VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+, and cross-protective VE against infections with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. In the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort, in initially seronegative/DNA-negative women (vaccine group: N = 2524; control group: N = 2535), VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was 87.3% (5.3-99.7); VE against incident infection or against 6-month persistent infection associated with HPV-31/33/45 was 50.1% (34.3-62.3) or 52.6% (24.5-70.9), respectively. At least, 99.6% of HPV-16/18-vaccines remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean titers were 1271.1 EU/mL (1135.8-1422.6) and 710.0 EU/ml (628.6-801.9), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.7% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.5% control group [N = 3026]). Of the 1595 reported pregnancies, nine had congenital anomalies (five live infants, three elective terminations, one stillbirth) that were unlikely vaccination-related (blinded data). VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was demonstrated and evidence of cross-protective VE against oncogenic HPV types was shown. The vaccine was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 16(10): 1154-1168, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27373900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years remain at risk. We present data from the VIVIANE study of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women after 7 years of follow-up. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, healthy women older than 25 years were enrolled (age stratified: 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and ≥46 years). Up to 15% in each age stratum had a history of HPV infection or disease. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive HPV 16/18 vaccine or aluminium hydroxide control, with an internet-based system. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. We did analyses in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy and total vaccinated cohort. Data for the combined primary endpoint in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI around the point estimate was greater than 30%. For all other endpoints and cohorts, data were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI was greater than 0%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047. FINDINGS: The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit took place on Jan 29, 2014. 4407 women were in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2209 vaccine, n=2198 control) and 5747 women in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2877 vaccine, n=2870 control). At month 84, in women seronegative for the corresponding HPV type in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ associated with HPV 16/18 was significant in all age groups combined (90·5%, 96·2% CI 78·6-96·5). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and CIN1+ was also significant. We also noted significant cross-protective efficacy against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 31 (65·8%, 96·2% CI 24·9-85·8) and HPV 45 (70·7%, 96·2% CI 34·2-88·4). In the total vaccinated cohort, vaccine efficacy against CIN1+ irrespective of HPV was significant (22·9%, 96·2% CI 4·8-37·7). Serious adverse events related to vaccination occurred in five (0·2%) of 2877 women in the vaccine group and eight (0·3%) of 2870 women in the control group. INTERPRETATION: In women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine continues to protect against infections, cytological abnormalities, and lesions associated with HPV 16/18 and CIN1+ irrespective of HPV type, and infection with non-vaccine types HPV 31 and HPV 45 over 7 years of follow-up. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adulto , DNA Viral , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
7.
Ann Acad Med Singapore ; 45(2): 44-50, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125345

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This was the first study conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 2 oral doses of the human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 in Singaporean infants during the first 3 years of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy infants, 11 to 17 weeks of age were enrolled in this randomised (1:1), double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to receive 2 oral doses of RIX4414 vaccine/placebo following a 0-, 1-month schedule. Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis (Vesikari score ≥11) caused by wild-type RV strains from a period starting from 2 weeks post-Dose 2 until 2 and 3 years of age was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). Immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine were also assessed. RESULTS: Of 6542 infants enrolled, 6466 were included in the efficacy analysis and a subset of 100 infants was included in the immunogenicity analysis. Fewer severe RV gastroenteritis episodes were reported in the RIX4414 group when compared to placebo at both 2 and 3 year follow-up periods. Vaccine efficacy against severe RV gastroenteritis at the respective time points were 93.8% (95% CI, 59.9 to 99.9) and 95.2% (95% CI, 70.5 to 99.9). One to 2 months post-Dose 2 of RIX4414, 97.5% (95% CI, 86.8 to 99.9) of infants seroconverted for anti-RV IgA antibodies. The number of serious adverse events recorded from Dose 1 until 3 years of age was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Two oral doses of RIX4414 vaccine was immunogenic and provided high level of protection against severe RV gastroenteritis in Singaporean children, during the first 3 years of life when the disease burden is highest.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Singapura , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
8.
J Infect Dis ; 214(4): 525-36, 2016 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This randomized, open trial compared regimens including 2 doses (2D) of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years with one including 3 doses (3D) in women aged 15-25 years. METHODS: Girls aged 9-14 years were randomized to receive 2D at months 0 and 6 (M0,6; (n = 550) or months 0 and 12 (M0,12; n = 415), and women aged 15-25 years received 3D at months 0, 1, and 6 (n = 482). End points included noninferiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D (primary), 2D (M0,12) versus 3D, and 2D (M0,6) versus 2D (M0,12); neutralizing antibodies; cell-mediated immunity; reactogenicity; and safety. Limits of noninferiority were predefined as <5% difference in seroconversion rate and <2-fold difference in geometric mean antibody titer ratio. RESULTS: One month after the last dose, both 2D regimens in girls aged 9-14 years were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15-25 years and 2D (M0,12) was noninferior to 2D (M0,6). Geometric mean antibody titer ratios (3D/2D) for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, .97-1.22) and 0.85 (.76-.95) for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D and 0.89 (.79-1.01) and 0.75 (.67-.85) for 2D (M0,12) versus 3D. The safety profile was clinically acceptable in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 2D regimens for the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years (M0,6 or M0,12) elicited HPV-16/18 immune responses that were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15-25 years. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01381575.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Esquemas de Imunização , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 12(1): 20-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26176261

RESUMO

In this randomized, partially-blind study ( clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT00541970), the licensed formulation of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (20 µg each of HPV-16/18 antigens) was found highly immunogenic up to 4 y after first vaccination, whether administered as a 2-dose (2D) schedule in girls 9-14 y or 3-dose (3D) schedule in women 15-25 y. This end-of-study analysis extends immunogenicity and safety data until Month (M) 60, and presents antibody persistence predictions estimated by piecewise and modified power law models. Healthy females (age stratified: 9-14, 15-19, 20-25 y) were randomized to receive 2D at M0,6 (N = 240 ) or 3D at M0,1,6 (N = 239). Here, results are reported for girls 9-14 y (2D) and women 15-25 y (3D). Seropositivity rates, geometric mean titers (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and geometric mean titer ratios (GMRs; 3D/2D; post-hoc exploratory analysis) were calculated. All subjects seronegative pre-vaccination in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort were seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and -18 at M60. Antibody responses elicited by the 2D and 3D schedules were comparable at M60, with GMRs close to 1 (anti-HPV-16: 1.13 [95% confidence interval: 0.82-1.54]; anti-HPV-18: 1.06 [0.74-1.51]). Statistical modeling predicted that in 95% of subjects, antibodies induced by 2D and 3D schedules could persist above natural infection levels for ≥ 21 y post-vaccination. The vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile in both groups. In conclusion, a 2D M0,6 schedule of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was immunogenic for up to 5 y in 9-14 y-old girls. Statistical modeling predicted that 2D-induced antibodies could persist for longer than 20 y.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Esquemas de Imunização , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Hidróxido de Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Lipídeo A/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 11(7): 1689-702, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26062002

RESUMO

This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18(2D)) vs. 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D)) in healthy girls aged 9-14 y. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive HPV-16/18(2D) at months (M) 0,6 (N = 359), HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M0,6 (N = 358) or HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M0,2,6 (N = 358). The primary objective was non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by ELISA for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M7 in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I) and total vaccinated cohort, respectively. Secondary objectives included non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7, non-inferiority/superiority at M12, HPV-16/18 neutralizing antibodies, frequencies of T-cells/B-cells, reactogenicity and safety. Antibody responses at M7 for HPV-16/18(2D) were superior to those for HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) (lower limit of 95% confidence interval for geometric mean titer ratio (GMR) was >1): HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) GMRs were 1.69 [1.49-1.91] for anti-HPV-16 and 4.52 [3.97-5.13] for anti-HPV-18; HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) GMRs were 1.72 [1.54-1.93] for anti-HPV-16 and 3.22 [2.82-3.68] for anti-HPV-18; p = 0.0001 for all comparisons. Non-inferiority/superiority was also demonstrated at M12. Among initially seronegative girls in the ATP-I, neutralizing antibody titers were at least 1.8-fold higher for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7 and M12. Frequencies of HPV-16/18-specific T-cells and B-cells were in similar ranges between groups. Reactogenicity and safety were in line with the known profile of each vaccine. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine compared with 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in girls (9-14 years).


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/administração & dosagem , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Potência de Vacina
11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 10(7): 1781-94, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424783

RESUMO

In this open, extended follow-up study (NCT00929526, Clinicaltrials.gov), we evaluated the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety up to 4 years after first vaccination in Japanese women aged 20-25 years. In the initial randomized, double-blind study (NCT00316693), 1040 women received the study vaccine or hepatitis A control vaccine; 752 women were included in the follow-up study. In women from the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort (ATP-E), who were initially seronegative for the HPV type analyzed, no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) cases associated with HPV-16/18 were reported in the HPV group, while in the control group, 5 cases were identified in extended follow-up analyses (vaccine efficacy [VE] 100% [95% CI: -3.7-100]) and 8 cases in combined initial and follow-up studies analyses (VE 100% [42.2-100]). In the ATP-E, VE against CIN1+ and CIN2+ associated with high-risk HPV types reached 66.4% (21.6-87.1) and 83.0% (22.1-98.2) in extended follow-up analyses, and 63.4% (28.8-82.3) and 77.3% (30.4-94.4) in analyses of combined studies, respectively. During the 4-year period, protection against CIN1+ and CIN2+, irrespective of the HPV type, was 56.7% (32.8-72.6) and 54.9% (20.5-75.3) in women receiving ≥1 vaccine dose, regardless of baseline serostatus (total vaccinated cohort [TVC]) and 61.0% (11.8-84.2) and 73.9% (1.1-95.3) in women naïve to HPV infection at baseline (TVC-naïve), respectively. The high VE observed in Japanese women, accompanied by a sustained immune response and a clinically acceptable safety profile, support findings of large, international trials.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Humanos , Japão , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 10(7): 1795-806, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424785

RESUMO

Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9-17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26-45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18-25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9-17 years) vs. young women (18-25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26-45 year-old women vs. 18-25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18-25 minus 26-45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [-1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [-1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9-17 years) as compared with young women (18-25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/imunologia , Criança , China , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Humanos , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Lipídeo A/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 33(12): 1255-61, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24978856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated up to 6 years postvaccination (month 72) in preteen/adolescent girls. METHODS: Participants, who had received 3 HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine doses at 10-14 years of age in an initial controlled, observer-blinded, randomized study (NCT00196924) and participated in the open 3-year follow-up (NCT00316706), were invited to continue the follow-up for up to 10 years postvaccination (NCT00877877). Anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at yearly visits and were used to fit the modified power-law and piecewise models, predicting long-term immunogenicity. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy information were recorded. RESULTS: In the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort, all participants (N = 505) with data available remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies at month 72. In initially seronegative participants, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody geometric mean titers were 65.8- and 33.0-fold higher than those associated with natural infection (NCT00122681) and 5.0- and 2.5-fold higher than those measured at month 69-74 in a study demonstrating vaccine efficacy in women aged 15-25 years (NCT00120848). Exploratory antibody modeling, based on the 6-year data, predicted that vaccine-induced population anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody geometric mean titers would remain above those associated with natural infection for at least 20 years postvaccination. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine safety profile was clinically acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: In preteen/adolescent girls, the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine induced high anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels up to 6 years postvaccination, which were predicted to remain above those induced by natural infection for at least 20 years.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Lipídeo A/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 10(5): 1155-65, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24576907

RESUMO

This randomized, partially-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00541970) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 2-dose (2D) schedules of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Results to month (M) 24 have been reported previously and we now report data to M48 focusing on the licensed vaccine formulation (20 µg each of HPV-16 and -18 antigens) administered at M0,6 compared with the standard 3-dose (3D) schedule (M0,1,6). Healthy females (age stratified: 9-14, 15-19, 20-25 years) were randomized to receive 2D at M0,6 (n = 240) or 3D at M0,1,6 (n = 239). In the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort, all initially seronegative subjects seroconverted for HPV-16 and -18 antibodies and remained seropositive up to M48. For both HPV-16 and -18, geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratios (3D schedule in women aged 15-25 years divided by 2D schedule in girls aged 9-14 years) at M36 and M48 were close to 1, as they were at M7 when non-inferiority was demonstrated. The kinetics of HPV-16, -18, -31, and -45 antibody responses were similar for both groups and HPV-16 and -18 GMTs were substantially higher than natural infection titers. The vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile in both groups. In summary, antibody responses to a 2D M0,6 schedule of the licensed vaccine formulation in girls aged 9-14 years appeared comparable to the standard 3D schedule in women aged 15-25 years up to 4 years after first vaccination. A 2D schedule could facilitate implementation of HPV vaccination programs and improve vaccine coverage and series completion rates.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomavirus Humano 18/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 112(9): 574-7, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24079716

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: This Phase-IV study evaluated the human rotavirus (RV) vaccine Rotarix (RIX4414) to provide additional local clinical data to the Taiwan Food and Drug Association (NCT01198769). Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks who were given a hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) dose after birth, received two doses of RIX4414 (0, 2-month schedule). Anti-RV IgA antibody concentrations were measured using ELISA. A total of 15 infants were enrolled, and included in the according-to-protocol cohort. The anti-RV IgA antibody seroconversion rate 2 months post-Dose 2 was 100% (95% confidence interval = 78.2-100) and the geometric mean concentration was 254.7 U/ml (95% confidence interval = 145.0-447.7). Two episodes of gastroenteritis were reported, and one stool sample was tested for RV, which was negative. No fatal serious adverse events were reported during the study period between November 2010 and April 2011. The two-dose regimen of RIX4414 was highly immunogenic and safe when administered to healthy Taiwanese infants who received a HBIg dose after birth. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01198769.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 12: 213, 2012 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22974466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses are the most important cause of severe acute gastroenteritis worldwide in children <5 years of age. The human, G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in a Phase III clinical trial conducted in infants in South Africa and Malawi. This paper examines rotavirus vaccine efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, during infancy, caused by the various G and P rotavirus types encountered during the first rotavirus-season. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 5-10 weeks were enrolled and randomized into three groups to receive either two (10 and 14 weeks) or three doses of Rotarix™ (together forming the pooled Rotarix™ group) or three doses of placebo at a 6,10,14-week schedule. Weekly home visits were conducted to identify gastroenteritis episodes. Rotaviruses were detected by ELISA and genotyped by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The percentage of infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating G and P types from 2 weeks post-last dose until one year of age and the corresponding vaccine efficacy was calculated with 95% CI. RESULTS: Overall, 4939 infants were vaccinated and 4417 (pooled Rotarix™ = 2974; placebo = 1443) were included in the per protocol efficacy cohort. G1 wild-type was detected in 23 (1.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes from the placebo group. This was followed in order of detection by G12 (15 [1%] in placebo) and G8 types (15 [1%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against G1 wild-type, G12 and G8 types were 64.1% (95% CI: 29.9%; 82%), 51.5% (95% CI:-6.5%; 77.9%) and 64.4% (95% CI: 17.1%; 85.2%), respectively. Genotype P[8] was the predominant circulating P type and was detected in 38 (2.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis cases in placebo group. The remaining circulating P types comprised of P[4] (20 [1.4%] in placebo) and P[6] (13 [0.9%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against P[8] was 59.1% (95% CI: 32.8%; 75.3%), P[4] was 70.9% (95% CI: 37.5%; 87.0%) and P[6] was 55.2% (95% CI: -6.5%; 81.3%) CONCLUSIONS: Rotarix™ vaccine demonstrated efficacy against severe gastroenteritis caused by diverse circulating rotavirus types. These data add to a growing body of evidence supporting heterotypic protection provided by Rotarix™. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00241644.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 31(5): 487-93, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22228231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus disease is more severe in preterm infants than in full-term infants. This study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414, in European preterm infants. METHODS: A total of 1009 preterm infants were randomized (2:1, vaccine:placebo) and stratified into 2 groups: 20% of early (27-30 weeks, group 1) and 80% of late (31-36 weeks, group 2) gestational age preterm infants in each group. Two doses of RIX4414/placebo were administered to these preterm infants according to the recommended chronologic age for full-term infants with an interval of 30-83 days between doses. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study period. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded for 15 and 31 days post-each dose. Antirotavirus IgA concentrations (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cutoff = 20 U/mL) and geometric mean concentration were determined pre-dose 1 and 30-83 days post-dose 2 in a subset of 300 infants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00420745 (eTrack106481). RESULTS: Serious adverse events were reported at a similar frequency in both groups (P = 0.266). Fifty-seven infants reported at least 1 serious adverse event (5.1% [3.5-7.0] in the RIX4414 group and 6.8% [4.3-10.0] in the placebo group). During the 15-day postvaccination follow-up period, diarrhea, vomiting and fever occurred at a similar frequency in both groups; fever could have been due to concomitant vaccines. Five cases (RIX4414 = 3, Placebo = 2) of rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported. The onset of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the RIX4414 group was 1-5 days after vaccination (vaccine strain identified in all cases) and in the placebo group it was 3-4 days after receiving placebo (wild-type rotavirus identified from both cases). Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rates at 30-83 days post-dose 2 were 85.7% (79.0-90.9) in the RIX4414 group and 16.0% (8.8-25.9) in the placebo group. Geometric mean concentrations were 202.2 U/mL (153.1-267.1) in the RIX4414 group and <20 U/mL in the placebo group. Seroconversion rate in groups 1 and 2 in RIX4414 recipients were 75.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.5-89.7%) and 88.1% (95% CI: 80.9-93.4%), respectively; the geometric mean concentrations in the respective groups were 110.2 U/mL (95% CI: 56.1-216.5) and 234.8 U/mL (95% CI: 173.4-318.0; exploratory analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of RIX4414 were immunogenic and well-tolerated in European preterm infants.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/imunologia , Doenças do Prematuro/virologia , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 30(6): e103-8, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21378594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when coadministered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines including oral polio vaccine (OPV) was evaluated in this study. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study conducted across 6 Latin American countries. Healthy infants (N = 6568) 6 to 12 weeks of age received 2 doses of RIX4414 vaccine or placebo following a 0, 1- to 2-month schedule. Routine vaccines including OPV were coadministered according to local EPI schedule. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by circulating wild-type rotavirus from 2 weeks post-Dose 2 until 1 year of age was calculated with 95% confidence interval [CI]. Safety was assessed during the entire study period. Immunogenicity of RIX4414 and OPV was also assessed. RESULTS: During the efficacy follow-up period (mean duration = 7.4 months), 7 and 19 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in the vaccine and placebo groups, respectively, with a VE of 81.6% (95% CI: 54.4-93.5). VE against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1 type was 100% (95% CI: <0-100) and 80.6% (95% CI: 51.4-93.2) against the pooled non-G1 rotavirus types, respectively. There was no difference (P = 0.514) in the incidence of serious adverse events reported in the 2 groups. Antirotavirus IgA seropositivity rate at 1 to 2 months post-Dose 2 was 61.4% (95% CI: 53.7-68.6) in the RIX4414 group; similar seroprotection rates (≥96.0%) against the 3 antipoliovirus types was observed 1 month post-Dose 3 of OPV in both groups. CONCLUSION: RIX4414 was highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating wild-type rotavirus (G1 and non-G1) when coadministered with routine EPI vaccines including OPV.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Lactente , América Latina , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
19.
J Infect Dis ; 202 Suppl: S80-6, 2010 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20684722

RESUMO

Rotavirus gastroenteritis causes more than half a million deaths annually among children aged <5 years, the great majority of which occur in Africa and Asia. Vaccination is considered to be the most effective public health strategy to prevent rotavirus disease and to reduce the significant global burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) is an oral, live attenuated rotavirus vaccine derived from a human G1P[8] rotavirus strain. Results of phase III studies in Europe, Latin America, and Asia have shown that Rotarix offers sustained high protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life, when disease burden is highest, with broad protection demonstrated against each of the 5 main rotavirus types that circulate globally (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G9). Coupled with the availability of local burden of disease data and promising interim efficacy data from an ongoing study in Malawi and South Africa, this further reinforces the case for introduction of this rotavirus vaccine in national childhood immunization programs in Africa, where rotavirus-related mortality is significant.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Administração Oral , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , América Latina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
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