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1.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206375

RESUMO

This research aimed to enhance the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using aloe vera extract. It was performed by means of incorporating AgNPs on an activated carbon nanoparticle (ACNPs) under ultrasonic agitation (40 kHz, 2 × 50 watt) for 30 min in an aqueous colloidal medium. The successful AgNPs synthesis was clarified with both Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometers. The successful AgNPs-ACNPs incorporation and its particle size analysis was performed using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The brown color suspension generation and UV-Vis's spectra maximum wavelength at around 480 nm confirmed the existence of AgNPs. The particle sizes of the produced AgNPs were about 5 to 10 nm in the majority number, which collectively surrounded the aloe vera extract secondary metabolites formed core-shell like nanostructure of 8.20 ± 2.05 nm in average size, while ACNPs themselves were about 20.10 ± 1.52 nm in average size formed particles cluster, and 48.00 ± 8.37 nm in average size as stacking of other particles. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized AgNPs and AgNPs-immobilized ACNPs was 57.58% and 63.64%, respectively (for E. coli); 61.25%, and 93.49%, respectively (for S. aureus). In addition, when the AgNPs-immobilized ACNPs material was coated on the cotton and polyester fabrics, the antibacterial activity of the materials changed, becoming 19.23% (cotton; E. coli), 31.73% (polyester; E. coli), 13.36% (cotton; S. aureus), 21.15% (polyester; S. aureus).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Carvão Vegetal , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Têxteis , Aloe/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/química , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia
2.
Environ Technol ; 42(1): 100-113, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107636

RESUMO

The aim of this study is tracing seasonal variability of total organic carbon (TOC), trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) as disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water sources and the distribution system in the north of Iran. The results showed that the concentrations of TOC were within the range of 0.013-1.42 mg/L. In addition, the results showed that most of the water sources had nearly the same concentration level (i.e. <1 mg/L), with the exception of one peak for groundwater source and middle drinking water distribution system in the city of Sari (1.42 mg/L) and Babol (1.37 mg/L). It was demonstrated that brominated HAA (MBAA) presented the highest concentration in the Sari City (17.3 µg/L) followed by the City of Behshahr (8.9-11.19 µg/L). The Babol City showed the highest concentration of chlorinated HAA (22.403 and 22.503 µg/L for DCAA and TCAA, respectively). Among the different compounds of THMs, the concentration of CHBr3 was nearly in the same order of magnitude in the cities of Sari, Babol and Behshahr for both spring and summer seasons. The brominated THM (BDCM) concentrations were also high (14.7 µg/L) in the Behshahr City. The results of independent t-test indicated that the seasonal (spring and summer) difference was statistically significant in the case of temperature and TTHM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, total HAA5 ≤ 60 µg/L and THM ≤100 µg/L in all the considered cities over the period of the study. The TTHMs concentration was 56 µg/L in treating surface water (TSW) source in the summer season at the Sari city.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cidades , Desinfecção , Secas , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Membranes (Basel) ; 8(3)2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966396

RESUMO

In this paper, we present the characteristics and performance of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The membranes were prepared via a phase-inversion method (non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS)). As separators for lithium battery systems, additive modified montmorillonite (MMT) nano-clay served as a filler and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was used as a pore-forming agent. The membranes modified with an additive (8 wt % nano-clay and 7 wt % PVP) showed an increased porosity (87%) and an uptake of a large amount of electrolyte (801.69%), which generated a high level of ionic conductivity (5.61 mS cm−1) at room temperature. A graphite/PEMs/LiFePO4 coin cell CR2032 showed excellent stability in cycling performance (average discharge capacity 127 mA h g−minus;1). Based on these results, PEMs are promising materials to be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in lithium-ion batteries.

4.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 52(6-7): 386-92, 2013 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23608508

RESUMO

The glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized on chitosan-based porous composite membranes using a covalent bond between GOx and the chitosan membrane. The chitosan-based porous membranes were prepared by the combination of the evaporation- and non-solvent-induced phase separation methods. To increase the membrane conductivity, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to the chitosan solution. The resulting membranes were characterized in terms of water permeability, surface morphology and surface chemistry. Enzyme immobilization was performed on the chitosan membranes with and without activation using glutaraldehyde (GA). Three different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The results show that enzyme immobilization capacity was greater for membranes that had been activated than for membranes that had not been activated. In addition, activation increased the stability of the enzyme immobilization. The immobilization of GOx on chitosan-based membranes was influenced by both pH and the concentration of the enzyme solution. The presence of CNTs significantly increased the electrical conductivity of the chitosan membranes. The evaluation of three different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the third configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(chitosan and carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Quitosana/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Glucose Oxidase , Membranas Artificiais , Eletrodos , Transporte de Elétrons , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Glucose Oxidase/química , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo , Nanotubos de Carbono , Porosidade
5.
Water Res ; 43(13): 3270-80, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19520413

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the removal efficiency and the permeate flux behavior during cross-flow nanofiltration (NF) of aqueous solutions of five pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). Cephalexin, tetracycline, acetaminophen, indomethacin and amoxicillin were used as models of PhACs, and alginate was selected as model of natural organic matter (NOM). Two commercial composite NF membranes (SR2 and SR3) with different characteristics were used. The highest rejection was observed for tetracycline, i.e., 75-95% for membrane SR 2 and 95-100% for membrane SR 3, while the rejection was least for acetaminophen (32-36% for SR2 and 52-59% for SR3). As the pH of acetaminophen solution was increased (from 6 to 9) the rejection would increase. Changes of ionic content (from 10 to 20mM) lead to increase (from 89 to 93% for SR 3) or decrease (from 100 to 91% for SR2) of cephalexin rejection depending on the membrane used. The permeate flux would decrease with decreasing the pH solution and increasing ionic strength. The addition of alginate in the feed stream decreased the permeate flux, with lower reduction for SR3, and increased the PhAC rejection except for acetaminophen and amoxicillin. Both size and Donnan exclusions seemed to occur, and the effect of Donnan exclusion was more pronounced for the NF membrane having larger effective pore size (SR2).


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/química , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Acetaminofen/análise , Acetaminofen/química , Alginatos/química , Amoxicilina/análise , Amoxicilina/química , Cefalexina/análise , Cefalexina/química , Resíduos de Drogas/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Cinética , Permeabilidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Ultrafiltração/instrumentação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água
6.
Water Res ; 42(10-11): 2827-35, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18342907

RESUMO

Thin-layer hydrogel composite (TLHC) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were synthesized by photo-grafting of either poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) or N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium betaine (SPE) onto commercial polyethersulfone (PES) UF membranes. The performance of TLHC UF membranes was evaluated for natural organic matter (NOM) filtration and compared to commercial PES UF membranes. The fouling evaluation was done by investigation of membrane-solute interactions (adsorptive fouling) and membrane-solute-solute interactions (UF). The results suggest that the TLHC membranes convincingly displayed a higher adsorptive fouling resistance than unmodified PES UF membranes. In long-term stirred dead-end UF, a much lower fouling was observed for TLHC membranes than for commercial membranes with the same flux and rejection. Further, water flux recovery was also much higher. An analysis using an existing blocking model was performed in order to elucidate the effect of a polymer hydrogel layer on fouling mechanism as well as cake layer characteristics. The TLHC membranes synthesized by photo-grafting of PEGMA (40 g/L) and PEGMA with a low concentration of cross-linker monomer in the reaction mixture (ratio: 40/0.4 (g/L)/(g/L)) showed a much better performance than the other composite membranes. Those membranes could reduce the cake resistance on the membrane surface. This work has relevance for the design of high-performance UF membranes for applications in water treatment.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Membranas Artificiais , Ultrafiltração/instrumentação , Adsorção , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Polímeros/química , Pressão , Água
7.
Langmuir ; 23(14): 7818-30, 2007 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17547431

RESUMO

Highly fouling-resistant ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were synthesized by heterogeneous photograft copolymerization of two water-soluble monomers, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) and N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium betaine (SPE), with and without cross-linker monomer N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA), onto a polyethersulfone (PES) UF membrane. The characteristics, the stability, and the UF separation performance of the resulting composite membranes were evaluated in detail. The membranes were characterized with respect to membrane chemistry (by ATR-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis), surface wettability (by contact angle), surface charge (by zeta potential), surface morphology (by scanning electron microscopy), and pure water permeability and rejection of macromolecular test substances (including the "cutoff" value). The surface chemistry and wettability of the composite membranes did not change after incubating in sodium hypochlorite solution (typically used for cleaning UF membranes) for a period of 8 days. Changes in water permeability after static contact with solutions of a model protein (myoglobin) were used as a measure of fouling resistance, and the results suggest that PEGMA- and SPE-based composite membranes at a sufficient degree of graft modification showed much higher adsorptive fouling resistance than unmodified PES membranes of similar or larger nominal cutoff. This was confirmed in UF experiments with myoglobin solutions. Similar results, namely, a very much improved fouling resistance due to the grafted thin polymer hydrogel layer, were also obtained in the UF evaluation using humic acid as another strong foulant. In some cases, the addition of the cross-linker during modification could improve both permeate flux and solute rejection during UF. Overall, composite membranes prepared with an "old generation" nonfouling material, PEGMA, showed better performance than composite membranes prepared with a "new generation" one, the zwitterionic SPE.

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