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1.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 73-91, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984511

RESUMO

Resumen: Los pacientes con infección por VIH tienen una mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares en comparación con la población general; los factores que contribuyen al incremento del riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares son la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular tradicionales (FRCV), la infección por VIH que condiciona tanto un proceso de inflamación crónica como alteración de la función endotelial y la exposición a los antirretrovirales. Los factores que deben ser objeto de intervención son los FRCV tradicionales, en especial la alta tasa de fumadores entre este grupo de pacientes, la tamización y tratamiento de HTA, el síndrome metabólico y el acceso temprano a la terapia antirretroviral con medicamentos con mayor perfil de seguridad . Esta guía pretende proveer información y recomendaciones en el ámbito nacional acerca de la relación entre la infección por VIH/SIDA (Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida), uso de antirretrovirales y riesgo cardiovascular.


Abstract: Patients with VIH infection have greater risk for cardiovascular diseases compared to general population. Risk factors that increase the frequency of cardiovascular events are: presence of cardiovascular traditional risk factors, chronic inflammation by HIV that impairs endothelial function and the exposure to antiretrovirals. The factors that should be the target for intervention are the traditional know cardiovascular factors such, especially high rate of smokers, screening and treatment for hypertension, metabolic syndrome and early access to HAART. The present guidelines provides information about the use of antiretrovirals in patients with HIV and its relation with cardiovascular risk.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184165

RESUMO

Background: Doravirine (DOR), a novel non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), is active against wild-type Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 and the most common NNRTI-resistant variants, and has a favorable and unique in vitro resistance profile. Methods: DRIVE-AHEAD is a phase 3, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Antiretroviral treatment-naive adults with ≥1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL were randomized (1:1) to once-daily, fixed-dose DOR at 100 mg, lamivudine at 300 mg, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) at 300 mg (DOR/3TC/TDF) or to efavirenz at 600 mg, emtricitabine at 200 mg, and TDF at 300 mg (EFV/FTC/TDF) for 96 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants with <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at week 48 (Food and Drug Administration snapshot approach; non-inferiority margin 10%). Results: Of the 734 participants randomized, 728 were treated (364 per group) and included in the analyses. At week 48, 84.3% (307/364) of DOR/3TC/TDF recipients and 80.8% (294/364) of EFV/FTC/TDF recipients achieved <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL (difference 3.5%, 95% CI, -2.0, 9.0). DOR/3TC/TDF recipients had significantly lower rates of dizziness (8.8% vs 37.1%), sleep disorders/disturbances (12.1% vs 25.2%), and altered sensorium (4.4% vs 8.2%) than EFV/FTC/TDF recipients. Mean changes in fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (-3.83 vs +13.26 mg/dL) were significantly different between DOR/3TC/TDF and EFV/FTC/TDF (-1.6 vs +8.7 mg/dL and -3.8 vs +13.3 mg/dL, respectively). Conclusions: In HIV-1 treatment-naive adults, DOR/3TC/TDF demonstrated non-inferior efficacy to EFV/FTC/TDF at week 48 and was well tolerated, with significantly fewer neuropsychiatric events and minimal changes in LDL-C and non-HDL-C compared with EFV/FTC/TDF. Clinical Trials Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02403674.

3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 23(11): 1259-1268, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinical and demographic characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women infected by multiple HPV types. METHODS: 1399 women participated in the study (240 HIV-positive and 1159 HIV-negative women). Samples were provided for Pap tests and for HPV detection and typing by PCR. Data were collected on HPV infection, frequency of multiple infection, and HPV type distribution. Odds ratios were reported from logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women had higher frequencies of cervical abnormality (30% vs. 20.8%), higher HPV prevalence (68.3% vs. 51.3%) and were more commonly infected with multiple HPV types (78.7% vs. 44.3%). HPV-16 was the most common type detected in the study population, with other types showing variable associations with HIV status. Positive associations were observed between infection by multiple HPV types and HIV status, cervical abnormality and having had more than three pregnancies. The odds of multiple infection by HPV types were higher in HIV-positive women who used an intrauterine device, who had a history of abortions and who had HIV viral loads >100 000 copies/ml, whilst the odds were lower in women with >500 CD4 cells/mm3 . CONCLUSIONS: HIV immunosuppression favours infection by multiple high-risk HPV types, mainly in women affected by low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Antiretroviral therapy had no effect on infection by multiple HPV types. Risk factors related to progressive damage to the cervix were positively associated with infection by multiple HPV types in women living with HIV.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 451, 2014 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24942545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection leads to a decreasing immune response, thereby facilitating the appearance of other infections, one of the most important ones being HPV. However, studies are needed for determining associations between immunodeficiency caused by HIV and/or the presence of HPV during the course of cervical lesions and their degree of malignancy. This study describes the cytological findings revealed by the Papanicolaou test, laboratory characteristics and HPV molecular profile in women with and without HIV infection. METHODS: A total of 216 HIV-positive and 1,159 HIV-negative women were invited to participate in the study; PCR was used for the molecular detection of HPV in cervical samples. Statistical analysis (such as percentages, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test when applicable) determined human papillomavirus (HPV) infection frequency (single and multiple) and the distribution of six types of high-risk-HPV in women with and without HIV infection. Likewise, a logistic regression model was run to evaluate the relationship between HIV-HPV infection and different risk factors. RESULTS: An association was found between the frequency of HPV infection and infection involving 2 or more HPV types (also known as multiple HPV infection) in HIV-positive women (69.0% and 54.2%, respectively); such frequency was greater than that found in HIV-negative women (44.3% and 22.7%, respectively). Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups (p = 0.001) regarding HPV presence (both in infection and multiple HPV infection). HPV-16 was the most prevalent type in the population being studied (p = 0.001); other viral types had variable distribution in both groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative). HPV detection was associated with <500 cell/mm(3) CD4-count (p = 0.004) and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001). HPV-DNA detection, <200 cell/mm(3) CD4-count (p = 0.001), and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001) were associated with abnormal cytological findings. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV-1 positive population in this study had high multiple HPV infection prevalence. The results for this population group also suggested a greater association between HPV-DNA presence and cytological findings. HPV detection, together with low CD4 count, could represent useful tools for identifying HIV-positive women at risk of developing cervical lesions.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alphapapillomavirus/classificação , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e56509, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23418581

RESUMO

Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/virologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/urina , Coinfecção/virologia , Colômbia , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/urina , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 31/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 31/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/urina , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
6.
AIDS Rev ; 14(4): 256-67, 2012 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23258300

RESUMO

Latin America and the Caribbean countries have increased the scaling-up of antiretroviral treatment in the last years. The increase of transmitted drug resistance has been feared due to the worrisome indicators associated with the emergence of drug resistance and monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO). Consequently, our aim was to review all relevant studies on transmitted drug resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean countries, to analyze its levels, to identify the frequency of transmitted drug resistance mutations, and to put these results in the context of the local Latin American and Caribbean countries settings. A systematic search of Spanish, Portuguese, and English literature was performed in databases and international conferences for the period June 1999 to May 2011. In addition, sequences were downloaded from the Los Alamos and Stanford databases and the transmitted drug resistance was reanalyzed according to the WHO Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutation list 2009. In total, 50 articles, 27 abstracts, and 1,922 patients were included. The resistance varied geographically, but most of the countries have reached the WHO threshold of 5% of resistance. According to the sequences available in public databases, the overall prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean countries for the period 1996-2009 was 7.7% and by region it was 4.3% for the Caribbean, 3.9% for Mexico, 9.4% for Brazil, 10.5% for the Andean region and 4.9% for the Southern Cone. For the last four investigated years (2006-2009), the information was restricted to Brazilian and Venezuelan studies and revealed an overall transmitted drug resistance of 10%. Throughout the study period, limited information was available for the Caribbean and Central American countries. These findings support the need for developing comprehensive surveys of transmitted drug resistance in these regions.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Prevalência
9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 27(4): 349-56, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16622811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform active targeted prospective surveillance to measure device-associated infection (DAI) rates, attributable mortality due to DAI, and the microbiological and antibiotic resistance profiles of infecting pathogens at 10 intensive care units (ICUs) in 9 hospitals in Colombia, all of which are members of the International Infection Control Consortium. METHODS: We conducted prospective surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in 9 hospitals by using the definitions of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Nosocomial Surveillance System (NNIS). DAI rates were calculated as the number of infections per 100 ICU patients and per 1,000 device-days. RESULTS: During the 3-year study, 2,172 patients hospitalized in an ICU for an aggregate duration of 14,603 days acquired 266 DAIs, for an overall DAI rate of 12.2%, or 18.2 DAIs per 1,000 patient-days. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infection (BSI) (47.4% of DAIs; 11.3 cases per 1,000 catheter-days) was the most common DAI, followed by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (32.3% of DAIs; 10.0 cases per 1,000 ventilator-days) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) (20.3% of DAIs; 4.3 cases per 1,000 catheter-days). Overall, 65.4% of all Staphylococcus aureus infections were caused by methicillin-resistant strains; 40.0% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and 28.3% were resistant to ceftazidime; and 40.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, 50.0% were resistant to ceftazidime, 33.3% were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, and 19.0% were resistant to imipenem. The crude unadjusted attributable mortality was 16.9% among patients with VAP (relative risk [RR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-3.00; P=.002); 18.5 among those with CVC-associated BSI (RR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.42-2.87; P<.001); and 10.5% among those with CAUTI (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.78-3.18; P=.19). CONCLUSION: The rates of DAI in the Colombian ICUs were lower than those published in some reports from other Latin American countries and were higher than those reported in US ICUs by the NNIS. These data show the need for more-effective infection control interventions in Colombia.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Equipamentos e Provisões/efeitos adversos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/classificação , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Ventiladores Mecânicos/microbiologia
11.
Acta méd. colomb ; 27(6): 429-432, nov.-dic. 2002. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-363457

RESUMO

Se informa el caso de un paciente masculino de 41 años con fiebre de origen desconocido (FOD) e insuficiencia aórtica, quien recibió dos ciclos independientes de antibiótico con persistencia de su cuadro febril, y a quien luego de múltiples estudios intrahospitalarios, se le diagnosticó bacteriemia por Clostridium limosum y sífilis latente versus tardía. Los estudios realizados no evidenciaron la presencia de enfermedad del tejido conectivo ni procesos tumorales. Las bacteriemias por gérmenes del género Clostridium no son comunes y cuando se presentan, se asocian con procesos neoplásicos, especialmente de colon. Las infecciones por C. limosum son aún más raras; en la literatura sólo se ha informado en cuatro casos (tres humanos y un animal), y en ninguno se ha relacionado con FOD. Por otra parte, aunque la sífilis era una causa frecuente de FOD, actualmente es poco común por la facilidad en su diagnóstico. En este caso no fue posible determinar cuál de los dos diagnósticos fue el origen de la FOD, ya que se inició tratamiento simultáneamente para ambos con resolución clínica. En conclusión, en este caso se presenta una posible nueva causa de FOD: bacteriemia por C. limosum, y se recuerda a la sífilis como uno de los posibles diagnósticos diferenciales de FOD


Assuntos
Clostridium , Infecções por Clostridium , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico
12.
Trib. méd. (Bogotá) ; 98(3): 161-74, sept. 1998.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-294114

RESUMO

El buen uso de los medicamentos antimicrobianos es uno de los ejes principales del ejercicio médico. Fuera del ambiente hospitalario y sus controles, cada médico debe estar preparado para elegir adecuadamente esos medicamentos


Assuntos
Humanos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
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