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Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(4): 855-861, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108251


As demonstrated in preclinical animal models, the disruption of PI3Kδ expression or its activity leads to a decrease in inflammatory and immune responses. Therefore, inhibition of PI3Kδ may provide an alternative treatment for autoimmune diseases, such as RA, SLE, and respiratory ailments. Herein, we disclose the identification of 7-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-amine derivatives as highly potent, selective and orally bioavailable PI3Kδ inhibitors. The lead compound demonstrated efficacy in an in vivo mouse KLH model.

Aminas/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Aminas/metabolismo , Aminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Piperazina , Piperazinas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazinas/química
J Immunol ; 192(9): 4083-92, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24670803


CD40-CD40L interactions play a critical role in regulating immune responses. Blockade of CD40L by Abs, such as the anti-CD40L Ab 5c8, demonstrated positive clinical effects in patients with autoimmune diseases; however, incidents of thromboembolism (TE) precluded further development of these molecules. In this study, we examined the role of the Fc domain interaction with FcγRs in modulating platelet activation and potential for TE. Our results show that the interaction of the 5c8 wild-type IgG1 Fc domain with FcγRs is responsible for platelet activation, as measured by induction of PAC-1 and CD62P. A version of 5c8 with a mutated IgG1 tail was identified that showed minimal FcγR binding and platelet activation while maintaining full binding to CD40L. To address whether Fc effector function is required for immunosuppression, a potent Ab fragment, termed a "domain Ab" (dAb), against murine CD40L was identified and fused to a murine IgG1 Fc domain containing a D265A mutation that lacks Fc effector function. In vitro, this dAb-Fc demonstrated comparable potency to the benchmark mAb MR-1 in inhibiting B cell and dendritic cell activation. Furthermore, the anti-CD40L dAb-Fc exhibited a notable efficacy comparable to MR-1 in various preclinical models, such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin-induced Ab responses, alloantigen-induced T cell proliferation, "heart-to-ear" transplantation, and NZB × NZW F1 spontaneous lupus. Thus, our data show that immunosuppression and TE can be uncoupled and that a CD40L dAb with an inert Fc tail is expected to be efficacious for treating autoimmune diseases, with reduced risk for TE.

Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/imunologia , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Ativação Plaquetária/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Transfecção
J Immunol ; 184(7): 3917-26, 2010 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20190141


LFA-1 appears to play a central role in normal immune responses to foreign Ags. In autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, there is increased expression of LFA-1 and/or its counterligand, ICAM-1. Others have demonstrated that the targeted disruption of LFA-1:ICAM interactions, either by gene deletion or Ab treatment in mice, results in reduced leukocyte trafficking, inflammatory responses, and inhibition of inflammatory arthritis in the K/BxN serum transfer model. However, there has been little success in finding a small-molecule LFA-1 antagonist that can similarly impact rodent models of arthritis. In this paper, we present the first reported example of an LFA-1 small-molecule antagonist, BMS-587101, that is efficacious in preclinical disease models. In vitro, BMS-587101 inhibited LFA-1-mediated adhesion of T cells to endothelial cells, T cell proliferation, and Th1 cytokine production. Because BMS-587101 exhibits in vitro potency, cross-reactivity, and oral bioavailability in rodents, we evaluated the impact of oral administration of this compound in two different models of arthritis: Ab-induced arthritis and collagen-induced arthritis. Significant impact of BMS-587101 on clinical score in both models was observed, with inhibition comparable or better than anti-mouse LFA-1 Ab. In addition, BMS-587101 significantly reduced cytokine mRNA levels in the joints of Ab-induced arthritis animals as compared with those receiving vehicle alone. In paws taken from the collagen-induced arthritis study, the bones of vehicle-treated mice had extensive inflammation and bone destruction, whereas treatment with BMS-587101 resulted in marked protection. These findings support the potential use of an LFA-1 small-molecule antagonist in rheumatoid arthritis, with the capacity for disease modification.

Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Teste de Cultura Mista de Linfócitos , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 331(2): 349-60, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19652024


We have previously shown that inhibitors of IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), including 4(2'-aminoethyl)amino-1,8-dimethylimidazo(1,2-a)quinoxaline (BMS-345541), are efficacious against experimental arthritis in rodents. In our efforts to identify an analog as a clinical candidate for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, we have discovered the potent and highly selective IKKbeta inhibitor 2-methoxy-N-((6-(1-methyl-4-(methylamino)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-7-yl)pyridin-2-yl)methyl)acetamide (BMS-066). Investigations of its pharmacology in rodent models of experimental arthritis showed that BMS-066 at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg once daily was effective at protecting rats against adjuvant-induced arthritis, despite showing only weak inhibition at 10 mg/kg against a pharmacodymanic model of tumor necrosis factor alpha production in rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide. The duration of exposure in rats indicated that just 6 to 9 h of coverage per day of the concentration necessary to inhibit IKKbeta by 50% in vivo was necessary for protection against arthritis. Similar findings were observed in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, with efficacy observed at a dose providing only 6 h of coverage per day of the concentration necessary to inhibit IKKbeta by 50%. This finding probably results from the cumulative effect on multiple cellular mechanisms that contribute to autoimmunity and joint destruction, because BMS-066 was shown to inhibit a broad spectrum of activities such as T cell proliferation, B cell function, cytokine and interleukin secretion from monocytes, T(H)17 cell function and regulation, and osteoclastogenesis. Thus, only partial and transient inhibition of IKKbeta is sufficient to yield dramatic benefit in vivo, and this understanding will be important in the clinical development of IKKbeta inhibitors.

Acetamidas/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Quinase I-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetamidas/farmacocinética , Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Técnicas In Vitro , Articulações/patologia , Células Jurkat , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
Blood ; 111(3): 1366-77, 2008 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17962511


Dasatinib is an oral small molecule inhibitor of Abl and Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), including p56(Lck) (Lck). Given the central importance of Lck in transmitting signals from the T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling complex and the potent ability of dasatinib to inhibit Lck activity, we hypothesized this agent could provide a novel route of immunomodulation via targeted inhibition of antigen-induced signaling. Herein, we show that dasatinib inhibits TCR-mediated signal transduction, cellular proliferation, cytokine production, and in vivo T-cell responses. However, dasatinib-mediated inhibition does not induce apoptosis because the effect is reversible or may be overcome by signals bypassing the TCR, such as phorbol ester. Signal transduction and proliferative responses via IL-2 remain essentially unperturbed, suggesting that dasatinib displays specificity for TCR signaling. In addition, dasatinib combined with cyclosporine A or rapamycin led to a much more potent inhibition of T-cell activation, suggesting that targeted inhibition of Lck could be a useful adjunct for enhanced immunomodulation. In combination with currently available immunomodulatory agents, SFK inhibition could potentially increase immunomodulatory efficacy while minimizing toxicity of individual agents.

Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Dasatinibe , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/enzimologia
Transplantation ; 77(7): 1090-4, 2004 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15087776


BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that an IkappaB kinase (IKK) inhibitor blocks cytokine production and suppresses immune responses. These results indicate that a potent IKK inhibitor may have the potential of being a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of graft rejection. METHODS: The IKK inhibitor BMS-345541 was tested in mice for its ability to inhibit anti-CD3-induced interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and T-cell proliferation in an in vivo mixed lymphocyte reaction. BMS-345541 was further tested for its ability to suppress graft rejection in a murine nonvascularized heterotopic cardiac allograft model. BMS-345541 was tested as a single agent and in combination with other immunomodulators for inhibition of T-cell proliferation and graft rejection in vivo. RESULTS: BMS-345541 suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, the production of both IL-2 and TNF-alpha in mice stimulated with an injection of anti-CD3 antibody. Approximately 70% inhibition of both IL-2 and TNF were observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. When BMS-345541 was administered at 100 mg/kg as a single agent, in vivo T-cell proliferation was not inhibited. However, when combined with a suboptimal dose of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 immunoglobulin (200 microg), a synergistic antiproliferative effect was observed, resulting in 77% inhibition of CD4+ T-cell proliferation. In the murine heterotopic heart transplant model, BMS-345541 did not prolong graft survival when administered at 50 mg/kg as a single agent. However, when administered with a suboptimal dose of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 immunoglobulin or cyclosporine A (15 mg/kg), graft survival was significantly increased compared with either agent alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that inhibition of IKK may serve as novel adjunctive therapy for the prevention of graft rejection.

Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Animais , Ligante de CD40/fisiologia , Cadáver , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto , Quinase I-kappa B , Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia