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1.
J Cyst Fibros ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation in the airways. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a neutrophil chemoattractant and has been implicated in CF pathogenesis. Acebilustat, a novel, synthetic, small-molecule leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor, reduces LTB4 production. We report findings from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of acebilustat in adult subjects with mild-to-moderate lung disease. METHODS: Subjects were randomized (1:1:1) to once-daily acebilustat 50 mg, 100 mg or placebo for 48 weeks, concomitantly with their current therapeutic regimen. Subjects were stratified by use of concomitant CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators, baseline percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (ppFEV1) 50-75 and >75, and number of pulmonary exacerbations in the past year (1 or >1). Primary endpoints were the change from baseline in ppFEV1 and safety. Secondary endpoints included the rate of pulmonary exacerbations. RESULTS: Overall, 199 subjects were randomized and dosed (acebilustat 50 mg, n=67; acebilustat 100 mg, n=66; placebo, n=66). Baseline demographics and disease profile were well balanced among treatment groups. Acebilustat had no statistically significant effect on the primary endpoint of change in ppFEV1 at week 48 or the secondary endpoint pulmonary exacerbations. There was a trend towards reduced pulmonary exacerbations in subjects receiving acebilustat in pre-specified populations with ppFEV1>75 (35% rate reduction) and those on concomitant CFTR modulator therapy (20% rate reduction). Acebilustat was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Acebilustat did not improve lung function. A trend towards reduced pulmonary exacerbations in subjects with an earlier stage of lung disease suggests a potential effect in this population.

2.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(5): 2097-2116, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338055

RESUMO

Little is known about motor competence and the longitudinal development of motor performance among youth with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we assessed aspects of motor performance in different age groups of young patients with CF and compared them with a healthy reference group of same aged children. We also examined the development of motor performance among different age groups of these children with CF, using The Deutscher Motorik Test (DMT) to assess attributes of health-related and motor performance-related fitness. We used an incremental ergometer cycle test to determine maximal exercise capacity (expressed as peak workload). We evaluated and recorded habitual physical activity (PA) as measured by the number of steps per day and the time spent in different PA intensities (expressed in metabolic equivalents). In total, 31 children and adolescents with CF agreed to participate (13 girls,18 boys) aged 6-17 years (M = 11.3, SD =3.3 years); they had a mean one second forced expiratory volume (expressed as a percentage of predicted value [% pred]) of 87.2% (SD = 22.3%). We found their values of health-related and motor performance-related fitness to be significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of their healthy peer participants. In contrast to the reference group, participants with CF up to 14 years of age showed a linear improvement in these values and in their PA, followed by a plateau or even a nonsignificant decrease after age 14. These findings have important implications for the development and prescription of exercise programs for children with CF. Besides aerobic and strength exercises, we recommend that neuromuscular training be integrated into exercise programs to improve the coordinative abilities of youth with CF. More attention should be paid to vulnerable older adolescents to ensure their long-term motivation to maintain exercise participation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física
3.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways provides a mutation-agnostic approach that could improve mucociliary clearance in all CF patients. BI 1265162 is an ENaC inhibitor with demonstrated preclinical efficacy and safety already demonstrated in humans. OBJECTIVE: We present results from BALANCE-CF™ 1, a Phase II, placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind study of four dose levels of BI 1265162 versus placebo for 4 weeks on top of standard of care in adults and adolescents with CF. RESULTS: Initially, 28 randomised subjects (n=14 each BI 1265162 200 µg BID, placebo BID) were assessed at an interim futility analysis. Compared with placebo, numerical changes of -0.8% (95%CI -6.6, 4.9) in ppFEV1 and +2.1 units (95%CI -2.4, 6.5) in LCI were observed in the active group, meeting a predefined stopping rule; accordingly, the study was terminated. Recruitment had continued during the interim analysis and pending results; 24 patients were added across three dose levels and placebo. The final results including these patients (+1.5% ppFEV1, 200 µg BID dose versus placebo) were not supportive of relevant clinical effect. LCI change was also not supportive, although interpretation was limited due to insufficient traces meeting quality criteria. A 9.4-point improvement in CFQ-R Respiratory Domain was observed in the 200 µg BID dose group versus placebo. BI 1265162 up to 200 µg BID was safe and well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetics were similar to those in healthy volunteers. CONCLUSION: BI 1265162 was safe, but did not demonstrate a potential for clinical benefit. Development has been terminated.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 815-825, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor is a small-molecule cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator regimen shown to be efficacious in patients with at least one Phe508del allele, which indicates that this combination can modulate a single Phe508del allele. In patients whose other CFTR allele contains a gating or residual function mutation that is already effectively treated with previous CFTR modulators (ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor), the potential for additional benefit from restoring Phe508del CFTR protein function is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial involving patients 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes. After a 4-week run-in period with ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor, patients were randomly assigned to receive elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or active control for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline through week 8 in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group. RESULTS: After the run-in period, 132 patients received elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor and 126 received active control. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor resulted in a percentage of predicted FEV1 that was higher by 3.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 4.6) relative to baseline and higher by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 2.2 to 4.7) relative to active control and a sweat chloride concentration that was lower by 22.3 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.2 to 24.5) relative to baseline and lower by 23.1 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.1 to 26.1) relative to active control (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The change from baseline in the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better quality of life) with elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was 10.3 points (95% CI, 8.0 to 12.7) and with active control was 1.6 points (95% CI, -0.8 to 4.1). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups; adverse events led to treatment discontinuation in one patient (elevated aminotransferase level) in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group and in two patients (anxiety or depression and pulmonary exacerbation) in the active control group. CONCLUSIONS: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was efficacious and safe in patients with Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes and conferred additional benefit relative to previous CFTR modulators. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX18-445-104 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04058353.).


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminofenóis/efeitos adversos , Benzodioxóis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/efeitos adversos , Cloretos/análise , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Suor/química
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385150

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Massive haemoptysis is a life-threatening event in advanced cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease with bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) as standard of care treatment. The aim of our study was to scrutinise short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with CF and haemoptysis after BAE using coils. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 34 adult patients treated for massive haemoptysis with super selective bronchial artery coil embolisation (ssBACE) between January 2008 and February 2015. Embolisation protocol was restricted to the culprit vessel(s) and three lobes maximum. Demographic data, functional end-expiratory volume in 1 s in % predicted (FEV1% pred.) and body mass index before and after ssBACE, sputum colonisation, procedural data, time to transplant and time to death were documented. RESULTS: Patients treated with ssBACE showed significant improvement of FEV1% pred. after embolisation (p=0.004) with 72.8% alive 5 years post-ssBACE. Mean age of the patients was 29.9 years (±7.7). Mean FEV1% pred. was 45.7% (±20.1). Median survival to follow-up was 75 months (0-125). Severe complication rate was 0%, recanalisation rate 8.8% and 5-year-reintervention rate 58.8%. Chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 79.4%, Staphylococcus areus in 50% and Aspergillus fumigatus in 47.1%. DISCUSSION: ssBACE is a safe and effective treatment for massive haemoptysis in patients with CF with good results for controlling haemostasis and excellent short-term and long-term survival, especially in severely affected patients with FEV<40% pred. We think the data of our study support the use of coils and a protocol of careful and prudent embolisation.

6.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 31(8): 165-171, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The RNA virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cell entry is mediated by the human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). ACE2 and its close homolog angiotensin-converting enzyme I (ACE) are currently discussed candidate genes, in which single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could alter binding or entry of SARS-CoV-2 and enhance tissue damage in the lung or other organs. This could increase the susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed genotyping of SNPs in the genes ACE2 and ACE in 297 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 253 SARS-CoV-2-negative tested patients. We analyzed the association of the SNPs with susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients did not differ regarding demographics and clinical characteristics. For ACE2 rs2285666, the GG genotype or G-allele was significantly associated with an almost two-fold increased SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and a three-fold increased risk to develop serious disease or COVID-19 fatality. In contrast, the ACE polymorphism was not related to infection risk or severity of disease. In a multivariable analysis, the ACE2 rs2285666 G-allele remained as an independent risk factor for serious disease besides the known risk factors male gender and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our report appears to be the first showing that a common ACE2 polymorphism impacts the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 independently from previously described risk factors.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Cyst Fibros ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic infection and an exaggerated inflammatory response are key drivers of the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF), especially CF lung disease. An imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including dysregulated Th2/Th17 cells and impairment of regulatory T cells (Tregs), maintain CF inflammation. CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapy might influence these immune cell abnormalities. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum samples were collected from 108 patients with CF (PWCF) and 40 patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Samples were analysed for peripheral blood lymphocytes subsets (Tregs; Th1-, Th1/17-, Th17- and Th2-effector cells) and systemic T helper cell-associated cytokines (interleukin [IL]-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-4, IL-22, interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α) using flow cytometry. RESULTS: 51% of PWCF received CFTR modulators (ivacaftor, ivacaftor/ lumacaftor or tezacaftor/ ivacaftor). There were no differences in proportions of analysed T cell subsets or cytokines between PWCF who were versus were not receiving CFTR modulators. Additional analysis revealed lower percentages of Tregs in PWCF and chronic pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection; this difference was also present in PWCF treated with CFTR modulators. Patients with non-CF bronchiectasis tended to have higher percentages of Th2- and Th17-cells and higher levels of peripheral cytokines versus PWCF. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection appears to impair Tregs in PWCF (independent of CFTR modulator therapy) but not those with non-CF bronchiectasis. Moreover, our data showed no statistically significant differences in major subsets of peripheral lymphocytes and cytokines among PWCF who were versus were not receiving CFTR modulators.

8.
Sleep Med ; 83: 21-25, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In our study we aimed to analyze sleep variability and activity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) during their hospital stay. METHODS: Forty-three CF patients were recruited and have been divided into two subgroups: exacerbated (n = 18) and non-exacerbated (n = 25). During the course of their hospital stay we used VitaLog, a minimal-impact biomotion device, in order to determine total sleep time (TST), time in bed (TIB), sleep efficiency (SE) and intra patient standard deviation (IPSD) of TST. RESULTS: TST was 5.1 h ± 1.5 h and ranged from 0.6h to 7.9 h.TIB was 17.7 h ± 3.8 h and ranged from 5.6h to 23.9 h. SE was 70.0% ± 17.0% and ranged from 13.6% to 98.5%. TST was higher in non-exacerbated patients (5.3 h ± 1.4 h vs. 4.8 h ± 1.6 h, p = 0.008) whereas TIB was lower in non-exacerbated patients (17.0 h ± 3.7 h vs. 18.5 h ± 3.8 h, p = 0.002). We also found that SE was better in non-exacerbated patients (73.1% ± 14.6% vs. 66.6% ± 18.8%, p = 0.002). Furthermore, we observed that IPSD of TST was higher in exacerbated patients (1.3 h ± 0.5 h vs. 0.9 h ± 0.4 h, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: In general, in CF patients TST was short and SE poor during the night. Furthermore, in the course of their hospital stay patients showed low activity. In exacerbated patients sleep quality was lower compared to non-exacerbated patients.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sono
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 131, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extend of lung disease remains the most important prognostic factor for survival in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and lack of adherence is the main reason for treatment failure. Early detection of deterioration in lung function and optimising adherence are therefore crucial in CF care. We implement a randomized controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of telemonitoring of adherence, lung function, and health condition in combination with behavior change interventions using innovative digital technologies. METHODS: This is a multi-centre, randomized, controlled, non-blinded trial aiming to include 402 patients ≥ 12 years-of-age with CF. A standard-of-care arm is compared to an arm receiving objective, continuous monitoring of adherence to inhalation therapies, weekly home spirometry using electronic devices with data transmission to patients and caring physicians combined with video-conferencing, a self-management app and professional telephone coaching. The duration of the intervention phase is 18 months. The primary endpoint is time to the first protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbation. Secondary outcome measures include number of and time between pulmonary exacerbations, adherence to inhalation therapy, changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s from baseline, number of hospital admissions, and changes in health-related quality of life. CF-associated medical treatment and care, and health care related costs will be assessed by explorative analysis in both arms. DISCUSSION: This study offers the opportunity to evaluate the effect of adherence interventions using telemedicine capable devices on adherence and lung health, possibly paving the way for implementation of telemedicine in routine care for patients with CF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (Identifier: DRKS00024642, date of registration 01 Mar 2021, URL: https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00024642 ).

10.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 5581812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763240

RESUMO

Background: Regular physical activity plays an important role in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study is aimed at investigating the effects of a 12-month partially supervised exercise program on attributes of health-related and motor performance fitness, lung function (ppFEV1), BMI, and habitual physical activity (HPA, steps/day) in adults with CF. Methods: Attributes of health-related and motor performance fitness were examined at the beginning (T0), after 6 (T1), and 12 months (T2) on the basis of five test items: forward bend (FB), bent knee hip extension (HE), plank leg raise (PLR), standing long jump (SLJ), and standing on one leg (OLS). Additionally, we recorded HPA by accelerometry, peak exercise performance (W peak) by an incremental cycle test, ppFEV1, and BMI. During the first six months, there was close supervision by an experienced sport therapist. Results: 26 CF patients (8 female, mean age 26.5 ± 7.9 years; ppFEV1 53.7 ± 21.0) completed the exercise program. Significant improvements were recorded from T0 to T1 (FB: p ≤ 0.05; PLR, OLS: p ≤ 0.01) and from T0 to T2 (FB, PLR: p ≤ 0.01 and HE, OLS: p ≤ 0.05). W peak, ppFEV1, BMI, and HPA showed no significant improvement between the single test points and over the entire study period (all p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results show trainability of adults with CF in aspects of health-related and motor performance fitness during a partially supervised exercise program. Close supervision positively influences the results. Using a simple test setup seems to be a promising tool for evaluating the effects of exercise programs in CF and could serve as an additional outcome parameter in future clinical trials. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (retrospectively registered May 8, 2018).

11.
Cytokine ; 142: 155492, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) plays an important role in the adaptive and innate immune response by inhibiting viral membrane hemifusion between the host and viral cell cytoplasm. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene IFITM3 have been associated with susceptibility and severity of influenza or other viral infections. We aimed to analyze the role of SNPs in the gene IFITM3 in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed genotyping of the SNPs rs12252 and rs34481144 in the gene IFITM3 in 239 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 253 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. We analyzed the association of the SNPs with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients did not differ regarding demographics. Neither IFITM3 rs12252 nor rs34481144 polymorphisms were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection risk or severity of COVID-19. Interestingly, we observed the putative deleterious rs12252 CC genotype only in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (N = 2). Also, we found a non-significant higher frequency of rs34481144 A-allele carriers in the patients with 'serious' COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we could not confirm the recently reported influence of polymorphisms in the gene IFITM3 on SARS-CoV-2 infection risk or severity of COVID-19 in a German cohort. Additional studies are needed to clarify the influence of the rs12252 CC genotype on SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and the rs34481144 A-allele on course of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Sleep Breath ; 25(2): 609-615, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661789

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality are known to be present in patients with CF. Regular physical activity plays an important role in the treatment of CF patients due to its positive influence on progression of disease and quality of life. The aim of this work is to create a home-based sleep and activity profile and to investigate the influence of habitual physical activity (HPA) on sleep quality in children, adolescents, and adults with CF. METHODS: A total of 109 CF patients (64 male, mean age 22.7 ± 12.0 years; mean ppFEV1 63.0 ± 26.7) were equipped with an actigraph for a home-based collection of data on sleep and activity over 4 weeks. RESULTS: Age, FEV1, and BMI affect sleep and activity in CF patients. Especially younger age and higher FEV1 show a great influence on certain aspects of sleep (SE, TST, TIB, WASO, # of awakenings) and activity and its different intensities. General HPA does not affect sleep, but there is a strong correlation between times spent in vigorous to very vigorous intensities and better sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Besides younger age and higher FEV1, daily activity in higher intensities influences sleeping behavior of CF patients in a positive way. Patients with poor sleep quality and sleep disturbances possibly benefit from an intensification of physical activity in the home environment. TRAIL REGISTRATION: number: 14-6117-BO (University Duisburg-Essen) and NCT03518697 (clinical trials).

13.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(2): 228-233, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased rates of respiratory adverse events have been observed in people ≥12 years of age with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the Phe508del-CFTR mutation treated with lumacaftor/ivacaftor, particularly in those with percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppFEV1) of <40%. We evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of tezacaftor/ivacaftor in people with cystic fibrosis homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR who discontinued lumacaftor/ivacaftor due to treatment-related respiratory signs or symptoms. METHODS: Participants ≥12 years of age with cystic fibrosis homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR with ppFEV1 of ≥25% and ≤90% were randomized 1:1 and treated with tezacaftor/ivacaftor or placebo for 56 days. RESULTS: Of 97 participants, 94 (96.9%) completed the study. The primary endpoint was incidence of predefined respiratory adverse events of special interest (chest discomfort, dyspnea, respiration abnormal, asthma, bronchial hyperreactivity, bronchospasm, and wheezing): tezacaftor/ivacaftor, 14.0%; placebo, 21.3%. The adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. None were serious or led to treatment interruption or discontinuation. Overall, the discontinuation rate was similar between groups. The mean (SD) ppFEV1 at baseline was 44.6% (16.1%) with tezacaftor/ivacaftor and 48.0% (18.1%) with placebo. The posterior mean difference in absolute change in ppFEV1 from baseline to the average value of days 28 and 56 was 2.7 percentage points with tezacaftor/ivacaftor vs placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Tezacaftor/ivacaftor was generally safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in people ≥12 years of age with cystic fibrosis homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR with ppFEV1 of ≥25% and ≤90% who previously discontinued lumacaftor/ivacaftor due to treatment-related respiratory signs or symptoms.

14.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(2): 234-242, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tezacaftor (TEZ)/ivacaftor (IVA) is an approved CFTR modulator shown to be efficacious and generally safe and well tolerated in people ≥12 years of age with cystic fibrosis (CF) homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation or heterozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation and a residual function mutation. Although previous studies with IVA alone showed clinical benefits in people with CFTR gating mutations, TEZ/IVA has not yet been evaluated in a Phase 3 study of participants heterozygous for F508del-CFTR and a gating mutation (F/gating genotypes). Here, we present results from a randomized, double-blind, IVA-controlled, parallel-group, Phase 3 study assessing the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of TEZ/IVA in participants ≥12 years of age with F/gating genotypes. METHODS: Enrolled participants entered a 4-week IVA run-in period to create a stable IVA baseline. Participants were then randomized to receive IVA or TEZ/IVA for 8 weeks in an active comparator treatment period (ACTP). The primary endpoint was absolute change in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (ppFEV1). Key secondary endpoints were relative change in ppFEV1 and absolute change in CF Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score. Secondary endpoints included absolute change in sweat chloride (SwCl) concentration, PK parameters, and safety. All endpoints except PK parameters and safety were assessed from baseline through Week 8. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants (92.0%) in the IVA group and 75 participants (98.7%) in the TEZ/IVA group completed treatment. No improvements were seen in efficacy endpoints from baseline at the end of the IVA run-in period through the end of the ACTP in the IVA group. No significant differences in ppFEV1 or any key secondary endpoint were observed between the IVA and TEZ/IVA groups. SwCl concentrations decreased more in the TEZ/IVA versus IVA group during the ACTP. The safety profile and PK parameters of TEZ/IVA were consistent with those of previous studies in participants ≥12 years of age with CF. CONCLUSIONS: This Phase 3 study showed that the dual-combination regimen of TEZ/IVA demonstrated clinical efficacy but did not have significantly greater clinical efficacy than IVA alone in participants ≥12 years of age with F/gating genotypes. However, as reported in other studies, TEZ/IVA was generally safe and well tolerated (NCT02412111).

15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(12): 3371-3380, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine motor performance and trainability in youths with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Twenty-two children and adolescents (11 f/11 m), age range 6-17 years (11.3 ± 3.3 years), mean FEV1 91.0 ± 21.7% pred.finished the partially monitored 12-months exercise program. Patients performed the Deutsche Motorik Test (DMT) to assess flexibility, balance, strength, power and totalmotor performance. An incremental ergometer cycle test was used to assess maximal exercise capacity (Wpeak). All tests were performed before (T1), after 6 months of monitored exercise training (T3) and another 6 months without monitoring (T4). RESULTS: Motor Competence in total and test-items of the DMT (except foreward bend) improved to T3 (p < .05). No further improvement could be observed after the end of the monitoring (T3). However, the values remained stable at the improved level (T4). Girls scored lower in test items depending on strength/power but scored higher in balancing compared to boys (p > .05). Wpeak and FEV1 were not influenced by the training program. From T3 to T4 a slight decrease was observed (p ≤ .05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate benefits of an individualizedmonitored long-term exercise intervention on motor performance in CF with improvements of test-tasks to predicted normal. Monitoringseems to be a facilitator in maintaining motivation toward physical activity as no further increase in motor performance was observed after stopping supervision. The results suggest that an individually tailored monitoredregular exercise program should include all aspects of physical fitness with a variety of movement experiences.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 167, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only parameter currently recognized as a surrogate endpoint in cystic fibrosis (CF) trials. However, FEV1 is relatively insensitive to changes in the small airways of patients with milder lung disease. This pilot study aimed to explore the lung clearance index (LCI) as a marker for use in efficacy trials with inhaled antibiotics in CF. METHODS: This open-label, single-arm study enrolled CF patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, who were treated with tobramycin (28-day on/off regime). FEV1, LCI and bacterial load in sputum (CFU) were assessed at baseline, after 1, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: All patients (n = 17) showed elevated LCI of > 11 despite 3 patients having normal FEV1 (> 90% predicted) at baseline. Overall, LCI improved in 8 (47%) patients and FEV1 in 9 (53%) patients. At week 4, LCI improved by 0.88, FEV1 increased by 0.52%, and P. aeruginosa reduced by 30,481.3 CFU/mL. These changes were however statistically non-significant. Six adverse events occurred in 5/17 (29.4%) patients, most of which were mild-to-moderate in severity. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the low evaluable sample size, no specific trend was observed related to the changes between LCI, FEV1 and CFU. Based on the individual data from this study and from recently published literature, LCI has been shown to be a more sensitive parameter than FEV1 for lung function. LCI can be hypothesized to be an appropriate endpoint for efficacy trials in CF patients if the heterogeneity in lung function is limited by enrolling younger patients or patients with more milder lung disease and thus, limiting the ventilation inhomogeneities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02248922.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Cyst Fibros ; 19(2): 292-298, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple combinations of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators demonstrate enhanced clinical efficacy in CF patients with F508del mutation, compared with modest effects of dual combinations. GLPG2737 was developed as a novel corrector for triple combination therapy. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2a study evaluated GLPG2737 in F508del homozygous subjects who had been receiving lumacaftor 400mg/ivacaftor 250mg for ≥12weeks. The primary outcome was change from baseline in sweat chloride concentration. Other outcomes included assessment of pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Between November 2017 and April 2018, 22 subjects were enrolled and randomized to oral GLPG2737 (75mg; n=14) or placebo (n=8) capsules twice daily for 28days. A significant decrease from baseline in mean sweat chloride concentration occurred at day 28 for GLPG2737 versus placebo (least-squares-mean difference-19.6mmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI) -36.0, -3.2], p=.0210). The absolute improvement, as assessed by least-squares-mean difference in change from baseline, in forced expiratory volume in 1s (percent predicted) at day 28 for GLPG2737 versus placebo was 3.4% (95% CI -0.5, 7.3). Respiratory symptoms in both groups remained stable. Mild/moderate adverse events occurred in 10 (71.4%) and 8 (100%) subjects receiving GLPG2737 and placebo, respectively. Lower exposures of GLPG2737 (and active metabolite M4) were observed than would be expected if administered alone (as lumacaftor induces CYP3A4). Lumacaftor and ivacaftor exposures were as expected. CONCLUSIONS: GLPG2737 was well tolerated and yielded significant decreases in sweat chloride concentration versus placebo in subjects homozygous for F508del receiving lumacaftor/ivacaftor, demonstrating evidence of increased CFTR activity when added to a potentiator-corrector combination. FUNDING: Galapagos NV. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03474042.

18.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 62(3): 382-396, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545650

RESUMO

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous chronic destructive airway disease. PCD is traditionally diagnosed by nasal nitric oxide measurement, analysis of ciliary beating, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and/or genetic testing. In most genetic PCD variants, laterality defects can occur. However, it is difficult to establish a diagnosis in individuals with PCD and central pair (CP) defects, and alternative strategies are required because of very subtle ciliary beating abnormalities, a normal ciliary ultrastructure, and normal situs composition. Mutations in HYDIN are known to cause CP defects, but the genetic analysis of HYDIN variants is confounded by the pseudogene HYDIN2, which is almost identical in terms of intron/exon structure. We have previously shown that several types of PCD can be diagnosed via immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy analyses. Here, using IF microscopy, we demonstrated that in individuals with PCD and CP defects, the CP-associated protein SPEF2 is absent in HYDIN-mutant cells, revealing its dependence on functional HYDIN. Next, we performed IF analyses of SPEF2 in respiratory cells from 189 individuals with suspected PCD and situs solitus. Forty-one of the 189 individuals had undetectable SPEF2 and were subjected to a genetic analysis, which revealed one novel loss-of-function mutation in SPEF2 and three reported and 13 novel HYDIN mutations in 15 individuals. The remaining 25 individuals are good candidates for new, as-yet uncharacterized PCD variants that affect the CP apparatus. SPEF2 mutations have been associated with male infertility but have not previously been identified to cause PCD. We identified a mutation of SPEF2 that is causative for PCD with a CP defect. We conclude that SPEF2 IF analyses can facilitate the detection of CP defects and evaluation of the pathogenicity of HYDIN variants, thus aiding the molecular diagnosis of CP defects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Cílios/química , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Axonema/química , Axonema/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/patologia , Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Depuração Mucociliar/genética , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Cultura Primária de Células , Situs Inversus/diagnóstico , Situs Inversus/genética , Situs Inversus/patologia
19.
Respir Med ; 151: 121-127, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence and prevalence of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) appear to be increasing worldwide but supporting epidemiological data are scarce. This study assesses the incidence of NCFB patients in Germany in 2013 and analyzes comorbidities and basic patterns of resource use. METHODS: A representative sample of 3.988.648 anonymized persons covered by German public statutory health insurances was used to identify incident patients with NCFB in 2013. RESULTS: After extrapolation to the general population of the 728 patients found in the reference insurance database, we estimate that a total of 17,095 NCFB patients were newly diagnosed across the country in 2013 as having NCFB. This corresponds to an incidence of 21.23 per 100.000 inhabitants. The majority of NCFB patients (98.4%) was at least 18 years old, and 52.7% of the NCFB patients were male. Trend analysis shows a rise of NCFB incidence in Germany from 2011 through 2013. COPD (41.4%), asthma (32.8%) and gastroesophageal reflux (18.3%) were the most frequent predisposing conditions. Coronary heart disease was observed in more than one quarter of NCFB patients (28.2%). 58.4% of the NCFB outpatients received antiobstructive inhalative medication. Of the adult NCFB patients, 51.6% were prescribed antibiotics to treat NCFB by settled doctors (outpatient treatment); 51.5% of those patients were males. The peak of antibiotic treatment was observed in the 75-79 age group for males and 70-74 and 75-79 years for females. The majority of diagnosed patients (54.1%) received at least two prescriptions during 2013. Bacterial pathogens were coded for a total of 10.7% of NCFB patients, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only documented in 2.3%. Among those diagnosed in 2013, 8.0% of the adult NCFB patients who received antibiotic treatment had to be hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: Although hospital admissions due to exacerbation in the first year of diagnosing NCFB are not rare, outpatient burden and costs must also be considered a major part of care. Given the increasing recognition of NCFB, a better understanding of the economic burden of the disease is required, with a view towards improving patient management. For this, more detailed, prospective studies are needed.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquiectasia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 76, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CFTR modulator therapy with ivacaftor is a treatment option for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients with at least one copy of a R117H-7T mutation in the CFTR gene. Desirable effects of this therapy are improvement of lung function, decrease in exacerbation rate, normalization or reduction of sweat chloride and weight gain. Monogenetic CF-twins carry identical genetic information, so therapy response and side effects are expected to be nearly identical under this specific therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: In monozygotic twins, at the age of 55, two pathogenic variants in the CFTR gene (F508del and R117H-7T) were detected. Both patients presented with a borderline sweat test (30-59 mmol/L) and despite the same genetic information and similar life circumstances the disease proceeds completely different. While one patient has severe pulmonary involvement with chronic P. aeruginosa infection, her twin sister is almost unimpaired. Liver or pancreatic involvement was not seen in either patient. Due to the presence of one copy of a R117H-7T mutation, CFTR modulator therapy with ivacaftor was initiated in both. Response and side effects were significantly different. In the less affected patient, we observed an improvement in lung function and a normalization of sweat chloride. In the severely affected patient, no functional response to treatment was seen, but stabilization of the disease state with a decrease in exacerbation and hospitalization rate and weight gain as well as a normalization of sweat chloride. There was an increase in liver enzymes in the less affected patient, which normalized after halving the dose of ivacaftor, while the therapeutic effect was maintained. CONCLUSIONS: Despite nearly identical genetic information, as in monogenetic twins, therapy response and onset of side effects of CFTR modulating therapy are very different. In patients with late diagnosis and severe pulmonary involvement, ivacaftor does not seem to improve lung function, whereas in patients with late diagnosis and low disease severity a relevant therapy response was obtained. In addition to lung function, additional clinical parameters such as reduction of exacerbation and hospitalization rate and weight gain should be used to assess therapy response, especially in severely affected patients.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/uso terapêutico , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
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