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1.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(2): 1692-1717, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468709

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is an emerging public health problem in Asia. Although ethnic specific mtDNA polymorphisms have been shown to contribute to T2D risk, the functional effects of the mtDNA polymorphisms and the therapeutic potential of mitochondrial-derived peptides at the mtDNA polymorphisms are underexplored. Here, we showed an Asian-specific mitochondrial DNA variation m.1382A>C (rs111033358) leads to a K14Q amino acid replacement in MOTS-c, an insulin sensitizing mitochondrial-derived peptide. Meta-analysis of three cohorts (n = 27,527, J-MICC, MEC, and TMM) show that males but not females with the C-allele exhibit a higher prevalence of T2D. In J-MICC, only males with the C-allele in the lowest tertile of physical activity increased their prevalence of T2D, demonstrating a kinesio-genomic interaction. High-fat fed, male mice injected with MOTS-c showed reduced weight and improved glucose tolerance, but not K14Q-MOTS-c treated mice. Like the human data, female mice were unaffected. Mechanistically, K14Q-MOTS-c leads to diminished insulin-sensitization in vitro. Thus, the m.1382A>C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to T2D in men, possibly interacting with exercise, and contributing to the risk of T2D in sedentary males by reducing the activity of MOTS-c.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 329: 186-191, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is released into the bloodstream due to cardiomyocyte damage and is associated with a high CVD risk. This study aimed to investigate hs-cTnT-related genetic variation and to examine whether this is an associated risk factor for CVD in the Japanese general population. METHODS: This was a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on a cohort from the 2013 Tohoku Medical Megabank Project community study. The GWAS was performed using a HumanOmniExpressExome BeadChip array with 914,035 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The Framingham Risk Score and the Suita score were used to evaluate the future risk of CVD. RESULTS: The GWAS identified 10 loci reaching suggestive significance in the discovery cohort. A replication analysis confirmed that one of the 10 loci, rs7798496, is associated with elevated hs-cTnT levels. The combined P value in the discovery and replication cohorts for the association between the rs7798496 and hs-cTnT levels was 3.4 × 10-8, which indicates that the novel variant reached genome-wide significance. The rs7798496 loci was located at an intergenic region between the retinoblastoma gene product (RB)-associated Krüppell-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger, zinc finger protein 890, and pseudogene (ZNF890P). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of the rs7798496 T allele was strongly associated with a high risk for CVD. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into a link between a novel genetic variant, T allele of rs7798269, and elevated hs-cTnT levels as a future risk for CVD in the general Japanese population.

4.
Pathol Int ; 71(2): 135-140, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333623

RESUMO

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are promising biological resources for genetic research. Recent improvements in DNA extraction from FFPE samples allowed the use of these tissues for multiple sequencing methods. However, fundamental research addressing the application of FFPE-derived DNA for targeted-bisulfite sequencing (TB-seq) is lacking. Here, we evaluated the suitability of FFPE-derived DNA for TB-seq. We conducted TB-seq using FFPE-derived DNA and corresponding fresh frozen (FF) tissues of patients with kidney cancer and compared the quality of DNA, libraries, and TB-seq statistics between the two preservation methods. The approximately 600-bp average fragment size of the FFPE-derived DNA was significantly shorter than that of the FF-derived DNA. The sequencing libraries constructed using FFPE-derived DNA and the mapping ratio were approximately 10 times and 10% lower, respectively, than those constructed using FF-derived DNA. In the mapped data of FFPE-derived DNA, duplicated reads accounted for > 60% of the obtained sequence reads, with lower mean on-target coverage. Therefore, the standard TB-seq protocol is inadequate for obtaining high-quality data for epigenetic analysis from FFPE-derived DNA, and technical improvements are necessary for enabling the use of archived FFPE resources.

5.
Immunogenetics ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159554

RESUMO

Jawless vertebrates diverged from an ancestor of jawed vertebrates approximately 550 million years ago. They mount adaptive immune responses to repetitive antigenic challenges, despite lacking major histocompatibility complex molecules, immunoglobulins, T cell receptors, and recombination-activating genes. Instead of B cell and T cell receptors, agnathan lymphocytes express unique antigen receptors named variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), which generate diversity through a gene conversion-like mechanism. Although gnathostome antigen receptors and VLRs are structurally unrelated, jawed and jawless vertebrates share essential features of lymphocyte-based adaptive immunity, including the expression of a single type of receptor on each lymphocyte, clonal expansion of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes, and the dichotomy of cellular and humoral immunity, indicating that the backbone of the adaptive immune system was established in a common ancestor of all vertebrates. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that, unlike previously thought, agnathans have a unique classical pathway of complement activation where VLRB molecules act as antibodies instead of immunoglobulins. It seems likely that the last common ancestor of all vertebrates had an adaptive immune system resembling that of jawless vertebrates, suggesting that, as opposed to jawed vertebrates, agnathans have retained the prototype of vertebrate adaptive immunity.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16227, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004991

RESUMO

Liver tests (LT), especially to measure AST, ALT and GGT levels, are widely used to evaluate the risk of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). In this study, we investigated the potential genetic factors that modulate the association between LTs and alcohol consumption. We conducted a genome-wide interaction meta-analysis in 7856 Japanese subjects from Tohoku Medical Megabank Community-Based Cohort (TMM CommCohort) study recruited in 2013, and identified 2 loci (12q24 and 2p16) with genome-wide significance (P > 5 × 10-8). The significant variants in the 12q24 included rs671, a variant associated with alcohol intolerance and located at a coding exon of ALDH2. We found that the amount of alcohol consumption was associated with increased level AST/ALT ratio among the subjects with the rs671 GA genotype. The elevated AST/ALT ratio among subjects with moderate-to-high levels of drinking behavior and the rs671 GA genotype was due to decreased levels of ALT, which was not accompanied with significant differences in AST levels. Although the interaction effect was significant in both men and women, the effect was much larger in men. Our results suggest that the impact of alcohol consumption on LT varies according to the ALDH2 genotype, providing an insight for the accurate screening of ALD in drinkers with the rs671 GA genotype.

8.
Ecol Evol ; 10(17): 9466-9473, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953075

RESUMO

"Hot spring frog" is an informal name used for the Japanese stream tree frog (Buergeria japonica), which is widely distributed in Taiwan and the Ryukyu Archipelago in Japan. Some populations of the species are known to inhabit hot springs. However, water temperature can be extremely high around the sources of hot springs. Thus, it is questionable whether B. japonica selectively inhabits such dangerous environments. To address this question, we conducted a series of observations of water temperature preferences of a hot spring population of B. japonica in Kuchinoshima Island in Japan: (a) a field observation of tadpole density in water pools of different temperatures, (b) a field observation of water temperatures where adult males appear for breeding, and (c) an indoor observation of water temperatures selected by adult females for oviposition. As a result, tadpoles showed a higher density in cooler water. Adult males avoided water pools hotter than 37°C, and adult females selected cooler pools for oviposition. Camera records also showed that adult individuals tend to appear around cooler pools. Thus, we did not find any support for the hypothesis that hot spring frogs prefer hot water. Conversely, they apparently tended to prefer cooler water if it was available. Water temperatures around the sources of the hot spring exceed thermal tolerances of the species and could be a strong selective pressure on the population. Thus, the ability to sense and avoid lethal temperatures may be a key ecological and physiological characteristic for the species that inhabit hot springs.

9.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 86-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only one interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction [P-interaction = 0.001 (α = 0.05/21 = 0.002)]. The per-major-allele (C allele) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

10.
J Immunol ; 203(11): 2909-2916, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666307

RESUMO

The TNF superfamily ligands BAFF and APRIL interact with three receptors, BAFFR, BCMA, and TACI, to play discrete and crucial roles in regulating B cell selection and homeostasis in mammals. The interactions between these ligands and receptors are both specific and redundant: BAFFR binds BAFF, whereas BCMA and TACI bind to either BAFF or APRIL. In a previous phylogenetic inquiry, we identified and characterized a BAFF-like gene in lampreys, which, with hagfish, are the only extant jawless vertebrates, both of which have B-like and T-like lymphocytes. To gain insight into lymphocyte regulation in jawless vertebrates, in this study we identified two BCMA-like genes in lampreys, BCMAL1 and BCMAL2, which were found to be preferentially expressed by B-like lymphocytes. In vitro analyses indicated that the lamprey BAFF-like protein can bind to a BCMA-like receptor Ig fusion protein and to both BCMAL1- and BCMAL2-transfected cells. Discriminating regulatory roles for the two BCMA-like molecules are suggested by their differential expression before and after activation of the B-like lymphocytes in lampreys. Our composite results imply that BAFF-based mechanisms for B cell regulation evolved before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates.


Assuntos
Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/genética , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Lampreias/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
11.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Sono/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Café/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Autorrelato
12.
J Biochem ; 165(2): 139-158, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452759

RESUMO

Personalized healthcare (PHC) based on an individual's genetic make-up is one of the most advanced, yet feasible, forms of medical care. The Tohoku Medical Megabank (TMM) Project aims to combine population genomics, medical genetics and prospective cohort studies to develop a critical infrastructure for the establishment of PHC. To date, a TMM CommCohort (adult general population) and a TMM BirThree Cohort (birth+three-generation families) have conducted recruitments and baseline surveys. Genome analyses as part of the TMM Project will aid in the development of a high-fidelity whole-genome Japanese reference panel, in designing custom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays specific to Japanese, and in estimation of the biological significance of genetic variations through linked investigations of the cohorts. Whole-genome sequencing from >3,500 unrelated Japanese and establishment of a Japanese reference genome sequence from long-read data have been done. We next aim to obtain genotype data for all TMM cohort participants (>150,000) using our custom SNP arrays. These data will help identify disease-associated genomic signatures in the Japanese population, while genomic data from TMM BirThree Cohort participants will be used to improve the reference genome panel. Follow-up of the cohort participants will allow us to test the genetic markers and, consequently, contribute to the realization of PHC.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genética Médica/tendências , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Padrões de Referência
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14162, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242241

RESUMO

Excessive sodium intake is a global risk factor for hypertension. Sodium effects on blood pressure vary from person to person; hence, high-risk group targeting based on personal genetic information can play a complementary role to ongoing population preventive approaches to reduce sodium consumption. To identify genetic factors that modulate sodium effects on blood pressure, we conducted a population-based genome-wide interaction analysis in 8,768 Japanese subjects, which was >3 times larger than a similar previous study. We tested 7,135,436 polymorphisms in the discovery cohort, and loci that met suggestive significance were further examined in an independent replication cohort. We found that an interaction between a novel 3'-BCL11B gene desert locus and daily sodium consumption was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure in both discovery and replication cohorts under the recessive model. Further statistical analysis of rs8022678, the sentinel variant of the 3'-BCL11B gene desert locus, showed that differences in mean systolic blood pressure between high and low sodium consumption subgroups were 5.9 mm Hg (P = 8.8 × 10-12) in rs8022678 A carriers and -0.3 mm Hg (P = 0.27) in rs8022678 A non-carriers, suggesting that the rs8022678 genotype can classify persons into sodium-sensitive (A carriers) and sodium-insensitive (A non-carriers) subgroups. Our results implied that rs8022678 A carriers may receive a greater benefit from sodium-lowering interventions than non-carriers.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(12): 2433-2441, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although several genetic factors may play a role in leisure-time exercise behavior, there is currently no evidence of a significant genomewide association, and candidate gene replication studies have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage genomewide association study and candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) association study on leisure-time exercise behavior using 13,980 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study, and 2036 replication samples from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center-2 study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a self-administered questionnaire that inquired about the type, frequency and duration of exercise. Participants with ≥4 MET·h·wk of leisure-time physical activity were defined as exhibiting leisure-time exercise behavior. Association testing using mixed linear regression models was performed on the discovery and replication samples, after which the results were combined in a meta-analysis. In addition, we tested six candidate genetic variants derived from previous genomewide association study. RESULTS: We found that one novel SNP (rs10252228) located in the intergenic region between NPSR1 and DPY19L1 was significantly associated with leisure-time exercise behavior in discovery samples. This association was also significant in replication samples (combined P value by meta-analysis = 2.2 × 10). Several SNP linked with rs10252228 were significantly associated with gene expression of DPY19L1 and DP19L2P1 in skeletal muscle, heart, whole blood, and the nervous system. Among the candidate SNP, rs12612420 in DNAPTP6 demonstrated nominal significance in discovery samples but not in replication samples. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic variant associated with regular leisure-time exercise behavior. Further functional studies are required to validate the role of these variants in exercise behavior.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1059, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868019

RESUMO

Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) expressing invariant Vγ5Vδ1 T-cell receptors (TCRs) play a crucial role in maintaining skin homeostasis in mice. When activated, they secrete cytokines, which recruit various immune cells to sites of infection and promote wound healing. Recently, a member of the butyrophilin family, Skint1, expressed specifically in the skin and thymus was identified as a gene required for DETC development in mice. Skint1 is a gene that arose by rodent-specific gene duplication. Consequently, a gene orthologs to mouse Skint1 exists only in rodents, indicating that Skint1-dependent DETCs are unique to rodents. However, dendritic-shaped epidermal γδ T cells with limited antigen receptor diversity appear to occur in other mammals. Even lampreys, a member of the most primitive class of vertebrates that even lacks TCRs, have γδ T-like lymphocytes that resemble DETCs. This indicates that species as divergent as mice and lampreys share the needs to have innate-like T cells at their body surface, and that the origin of DETC-like cells is as ancient as that of lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Butirofilinas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Células de Langerhans/citologia , Mamíferos , Família Multigênica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia
16.
J Immunol ; 197(7): 2695-703, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543613

RESUMO

BAFF (TNF superfamily [TNFSF] 13B/Blys) and APRIL (TNFSF13) are important regulatory factors for lymphocyte activation and survival in mammals. A BAFF/APRIL-like relative called BAFF- and APRIL-like molecule (BALM) has also been identified in cartilaginous and bony fishes, and we report in this study a BAFF-like gene in lampreys. Our phylogenetic analysis of these genes and a related TNFSF12 gene called TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) suggest that, whereas an ancestral homolog of BAFF and APRIL was already present in a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates, TWEAK evolved early on in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Like mammalian BAFF and APRIL, the lamprey BAFF-like gene is expressed in T-like, B-like, and innate immune cells. The predicted protein encoded by this BAFF-like gene in lampreys exhibits higher sequence similarity with mammalian BAFF than APRIL. Correspondingly, we find BAFF orthologs in all of the jawed vertebrate representatives that we examined, although APRIL and/or BALM orthologs are not identifiable in certain jawed vertebrates. For example, BALM is not identifiable in tetrapods, and APRIL is not identifiable in several bony fishes or in birds, the latter of which also lack a TWEAK-like gene. Our analysis further suggests that a hybrid molecule called TWE-PRIL, which is a product of an in-genomic fusion between APRIL and TWEAK genes evolved early in mammalian evolution.


Assuntos
Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Evolução Molecular , Lampreias/genética , Animais , Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B/química , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Mutantes Quiméricas/química , Proteínas Mutantes Quiméricas/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Filogenia , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/química , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptor de TWEAK , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/química , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética
17.
Immunol Rev ; 267(1): 72-87, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26284472

RESUMO

NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are a group of stress-inducible major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecules that act as a danger signal alerting the immune system to the presence of abnormal cells. In mammals, two families of NKG2DL genes have been identified: the MIC gene family encoded in the MHC region and the ULBP gene family encoded outside the MHC region in most species. Some mammals have a third family of NKG2DL-like class I genes which we named MILL (MHC class I-like located near the leukocyte receptor complex). Despite the fact that MILL genes are more closely related to MIC genes than ULBP genes are to MIC genes, MILL molecules do not function as NKG2DLs, and their function remains unknown. With the progress of mammalian genome projects, information on the MIC, ULBP, and MILL gene families became available in many mammalian species. Here, we summarize such information and discuss the origin and evolution of the NKG2DL gene family from the viewpoint of host-pathogen coevolution.


Assuntos
Genômica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/classificação , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Imunológicos , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética
18.
Cell Immunol ; 296(1): 87-94, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25958271

RESUMO

Jawless vertebrates, which occupy a unique position in chordate phylogeny, employ leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-based variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) for antigen recognition. During the assembly of the VLR genes (VLRA, VLRB and VLRC), donor LRR-encoding sequences are copied in a step-wise manner into the incomplete germ-line genes. The assembled VLR genes are differentially expressed by discrete lymphocyte lineages: VLRA- and VLRC-producing cells are T-cell like, whereas VLRB-producing cells are B-cell like. VLRA(+) and VLRC(+) lymphocytes resemble the two principal T-cell lineages of jawed vertebrates that express the αß or γδ T-cell receptors (TCR). Reminiscent of the interspersed nature of the TCRα/TCRδ locus in jawed vertebrates, the close proximity of the VLRA and VLRC loci facilitates sharing of donor LRR sequences during VLRA and VLRC assembly. Here we discuss the insight these findings provide into vertebrate T- and B-cell evolution, and the alternative types of anticipatory receptors they use for adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Feiticeiras (Peixe)/imunologia , Lampreias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Feiticeiras (Peixe)/classificação , Feiticeiras (Peixe)/genética , Lampreias/classificação , Lampreias/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Filogenia
19.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0123258, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830554

RESUMO

Dendritic epidermal T cells, which express an invariant Vγ5Vδ1 T-cell receptor and account for 95% of all resident T cells in the mouse epidermis, play a critical role in skin immune surveillance. These γδ T cells are generated by positive selection in the fetal thymus, after which they migrate to the skin. The development of dendritic epidermal T cells is critically dependent on the Skint1 gene expressed specifically in keratinocytes and thymic epithelial cells, suggesting an indispensable role for Skint1 in the selection machinery for specific intraepithelial lymphocytes. Phylogenetically, rodents have functional SKINT1 molecules, but humans and chimpanzees have a SKINT1-like (SKINT1L) gene with multiple inactivating mutations. In the present study, we analyzed SKINT1L sequences in representative primate species and found that all hominoid species have a common inactivating mutation, but that Old World monkeys such as olive baboons, green monkeys, cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques have apparently functional SKINT1L sequences, indicating that SKINT1L was inactivated in a common ancestor of hominoids. Interestingly, the epidermis of cynomolgus macaques contained a population of dendritic-shaped γδ T cells expressing a semi-invariant Vγ10/Vδ1 T-cell receptor. However, this population of macaque T cells differed from rodent dendritic epidermal T cells in that their Vγ10/Vδ1 T-cell receptors displayed junctional diversity and expression of Vγ10 was not epidermis-specific. Therefore, macaques do not appear to have rodent-type dendritic epidermal T cells despite having apparently functional SKINT1L. Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis indicates that SKINT1L emerged in an ancestor of placental mammals but was inactivated or lost multiple times in mammalian evolution and that Skint1 arose by gene duplication in a rodent lineage, suggesting that authentic dendritic epidermal T cells are presumably unique to rodents.


Assuntos
Células de Langerhans/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pan troglodytes/genética , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ativação Transcricional
20.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 63(3): 217-27, 2015 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25473094

RESUMO

The MHC class I-chain-related proteins (MICs) and the UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) are inducible stress response molecules that work as activators of a specific receptor, NKG2D, which is expressed on effector cells, such as NK cells and subsets of T cells. In this study, we sought to explore the biological significance of NKG2D ligands in human neoplasms by comprehensively examining the immunohistochemical expression profile of NKG2D ligands in a variety of human epithelial neoplasms. Following careful validation of the immunohistochemical specificity and availability of anti-human ULBP antibodies for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials, the expression of NKG2D ligands was analyzed in FFPE tissue microarrays comprising 22 types of epithelial neoplastic tissue with their non-neoplastic counterpart from various organs. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated a positive relationship among ULBP2/6, ULBP3, ULBP1, and ULBP5, whose expression patterns were similar across all of the neoplastic tissues examined. In contrast, MICA/B, as well as ULBP4, did not appear to be related to any other ligand. These expression profiles of NKG2D ligands in human neoplasms based on well-validated specific antibodies, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis, should help to clarify some functional aspects of these molecules in cancer biology, and also provide a path to the development of novel tumor-type-specific treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Animais , Células COS , Proteínas de Transporte/análise , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/análise , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/análise , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/análise , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/análise , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
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