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1.
Clin Chem ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is the study of small molecules to simultaneously identify multiple low molecular weight molecules in a system. Broadly speaking, metabolomics can be subdivided into targeted and untargeted types of analysis, each type having advantages and drawbacks. Targeted metabolomics can quantify analytes but only looks for known or expected analytes related to particular disease(s), whereas untargeted metabolomics is typically nonquantitative but can detect thousands of analytes from an agnostic or nonhypothesis driven perspective, allowing for novel discoveries. CONTENT: One application of metabolomics is the study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). The biochemical hallmark of IEMs is decreased concentrations of analytes distal to the enzymatic defect and buildup of analytes proximal to the defect. Metabolomics can detect these changes with one test and is effective in screening for and diagnosis of IEMs. Metabolomics has also been used to study many nonmetabolic diseases such as autism spectrum disorder, various cancers, and multiple congenital anomalies syndromes. Metabolomics has led to the discovery of many novel biomarkers of disease. Recent publications demonstrate how metabolomics can be useful clinically in the diagnosis and management of patients, as well as for research and clinical discovery. SUMMARY: Metabolomics has proved to be a useful tool clinically for screening and diagnostic purposes and from a research perspective for the detection of novel biomarkers. In the future, metabolomics will likely become a routine part of the evaluation for many diseases as either a supplementary test or it may simply replace historical analyses that require several individual tests and sample types.

2.
Brain ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605855

RESUMO

The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily encompasses >400 transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, nutrients, ions, metals, neurotransmitters and metabolites across biological membranes. SLCs are highly expressed in the mammalian brain; defects in nearly 100 unique SLC-encoding genes (OMIM: https://www.omim.org) are associated with rare Mendelian disorders including developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) and severe neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Exome sequencing and family-based rare variant analyses on a cohort with NDD identified two siblings with DEE and a shared deleterious homozygous splicing variant in SLC38A3. The gene encodes SNAT3, a sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter and a principal transporter of the amino acids asparagine, histidine, and glutamine, the latter being the precursor for the neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate. Additional subjects with a similar DEE phenotype and biallelic predicted-damaging SLC38A3 variants were ascertained through GeneMatcher and collaborations with research and clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories. Untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed to identify novel metabolic biomarkers. Ten individuals from seven unrelated families from six different countries with deleterious biallelic variants in SLC38A3 were identified. Global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and absent speech were common features while microcephaly, epilepsy, and visual impairment were present in the majority. Epilepsy was drug-resistant in half. Metabolomic analysis revealed perturbations of glutamate, histidine, and nitrogen metabolism in plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid of selected subjects, potentially representing biomarkers of disease. Our data support the contention that SLC38A3 is a novel disease gene for DEE and illuminate the likely pathophysiology of the disease as perturbations in glutamine homeostasis.

3.
Science ; 373(6555): 662-673, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353949

RESUMO

The functional role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in inherited metabolic disorders, including phenylketonuria (PKU), is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the mouse lncRNA Pair and human HULC associate with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Pair-knockout mice exhibited excessive blood phenylalanine (Phe), musty odor, hypopigmentation, growth retardation, and progressive neurological symptoms including seizures, which faithfully models human PKU. HULC depletion led to reduced PAH enzymatic activities in human induced pluripotent stem cell-differentiated hepatocytes. Mechanistically, HULC modulated the enzymatic activities of PAH by facilitating PAH-substrate and PAH-cofactor interactions. To develop a therapeutic strategy for restoring liver lncRNAs, we designed GalNAc-tagged lncRNA mimics that exhibit liver enrichment. Treatment with GalNAc-HULC mimics reduced excessive Phe in Pair -/- and Pah R408W/R408W mice and improved the Phe tolerance of these mice.


Assuntos
Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilcetonúrias/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Acetilgalactosamina , Animais , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Biopterina/metabolismo , Biopterina/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/deficiência , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/genética , Fenilcetonúrias/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilcetonúrias/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/química , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/uso terapêutico
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1710-1724, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450031

RESUMO

Coatomer complexes function in the sorting and trafficking of proteins between subcellular organelles. Pathogenic variants in coatomer subunits or associated factors have been reported in multi-systemic disorders, i.e., coatopathies, that can affect the skeletal and central nervous systems. We have identified loss-of-function variants in COPB2, a component of the coatomer complex I (COPI), in individuals presenting with osteoporosis, fractures, and developmental delay of variable severity. Electron microscopy of COPB2-deficient subjects' fibroblasts showed dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with granular material, prominent rough ER, and vacuoles, consistent with an intracellular trafficking defect. We studied the effect of COPB2 deficiency on collagen trafficking because of the critical role of collagen secretion in bone biology. COPB2 siRNA-treated fibroblasts showed delayed collagen secretion with retention of type I collagen in the ER and Golgi and altered distribution of Golgi markers. copb2-null zebrafish embryos showed retention of type II collagen, disorganization of the ER and Golgi, and early larval lethality. Copb2+/- mice exhibited low bone mass, and consistent with the findings in human cells and zebrafish, studies in Copb2+/- mouse fibroblasts suggest ER stress and a Golgi defect. Interestingly, ascorbic acid treatment partially rescued the zebrafish developmental phenotype and the cellular phenotype in Copb2+/- mouse fibroblasts. This work identifies a form of coatopathy due to COPB2 haploinsufficiency, explores a potential therapeutic approach for this disorder, and highlights the role of the COPI complex as a regulator of skeletal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/genética , Proteína Coatomer/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/deficiência , Proteína Coatomer/química , Proteína Coatomer/deficiência , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Complexo de Golgi , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Peixe-Zebra
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2114155, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251446

RESUMO

Importance: Recent advances in newborn screening (NBS) have improved the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs); however, many potentially treatable IEMs are not included on NBS panels, nor are they covered in standard, first-line biochemical testing. Objective: To examine the utility of untargeted metabolomics as a primary screening tool for IEMs by comparing the diagnostic rate of clinical metabolomics with the recommended traditional metabolic screening approach. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study compares data from 4464 clinical samples received from 1483 unrelated families referred for trio testing of plasma amino acids, plasma acylcarnitine profiling, and urine organic acids (June 2014 to October 2018) and 2000 consecutive plasma samples from 1807 unrelated families (July 2014 to February 2019) received for clinical metabolomic screening at a College of American Pathologists and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified biochemical genetics laboratory. Data analysis was performed from September 2019 to August 2020. Exposures: Metabolic and molecular tests performed at a genetic testing reference laboratory in the US and available clinical information for each patient were assessed to determine diagnostic rate. Main Outcomes and Measures: The diagnostic rate of traditional metabolic screening compared with clinical metabolomic profiling was assessed in the context of expanded NBS. Results: Of 1483 cases screened by the traditional approach, 912 patients (61.5%) were male and 1465 (98.8%) were pediatric (mean [SD] age, 4.1 [6.0] years; range, 0-65 years). A total of 19 families were identified with IEMs, resulting in a 1.3% diagnostic rate. A total of 14 IEMs were detected, including 3 conditions not included in the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for NBS. Of the 1807 unrelated families undergoing plasma metabolomic profiling, 1059 patients (58.6%) were male, and 1665 (92.1%) were pediatric (mean [SD] age, 8.1 [10.4] years; range, 0-80 years). Screening identified 128 unique cases with IEMs, giving an overall diagnostic rate of 7.1%. In total, 70 different metabolic conditions were identified, including 49 conditions not presently included on the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for NBS. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that untargeted metabolomics provided a 6-fold higher diagnostic yield compared with the conventional screening approach and identified a broader spectrum of IEMs. Notably, with the expansion of NBS programs, traditional metabolic testing approaches identify few disorders beyond those covered on the NBS. These data support the capability of clinical untargeted metabolomics in screening for IEMs and suggest that broader screening approaches should be considered in the initial evaluation for metabolic disorders.

7.
Clin Genet ; 99(6): 772-779, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580568

RESUMO

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly utilized as endpoints in clinical trials. The Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12v2) is a generic PROM for adults. We sought to evaluate the validity of SF-12v2 in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed in a large cohort of adults in a multicenter, observational, natural history study. Physical HRQoL scores were correlated with the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire (GFAQ). We calculated sample sizes required in clinical trials with crossover and parallel-group designs to detect clinically meaningful changes in physical HRQoL. Three hundred and two adults with OI types I, III, and IV were enrolled. Physical HRQoL scores in the study population were lower than population norms. Physical HRQoL scores moderately correlated with GFAQ for OI types I and IV. We found no correlations between mental and physical HRQoL. From a clinical trial readiness perspective, we show that SF-12v2 reliably measures physical function in adults with OI and can be utilized in crossover trials to detect meaningful physical HRQoL changes with small sample sizes. This study shows that SF-12v2 can be used to measure changes in physical HRQoL in response to interventions in OI.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237614

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome is characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae, and genital hypoplasia. Due to low prevalence and considerable phenotypic variability, it has been challenging to definitively characterize features of Robinow syndrome. While craniofacial abnormalities associated with Robinow syndrome have been broadly described, there is a lack of detailed descriptions of genotype-specific phenotypic craniofacial features. Patients with Robinow syndrome were invited for a multidisciplinary evaluation conducted by specialist physicians at our institution. A focused assessment of the craniofacial manifestations was performed by a single expert examiner using clinical examination and standard photographic images. A total of 13 patients with clinical and molecular diagnoses consistent with either dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) or recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS) were evaluated. On craniofacial examination, gingival hyperplasia was nearly ubiquitous in all patients. Orbital hypertelorism, a short nose with anteverted and flared nares, a triangular mouth with a long philtrum, cleft palate, macrocephaly, and frontal bossing were not observed in all individuals but affected individuals with both DRS and RRS. Other anomalies were more selective in their distribution in this patient cohort. We present a comprehensive analysis of the craniofacial findings in patients with Robinow Syndrome, describing associated morphological features and correlating phenotypic manifestations to underlying genotype in a manner relevant for early recognition and focused evaluation of these patients.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048444

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia and a distinctive facial appearance. Previous studies have revealed locus heterogeneity with rare variants in DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A underlying the etiology of RS. The aforementioned "Robinow-associated genes" and their gene products all play a role in the WNT/planar cell polarity signaling pathway. We performed gene-targeted Sanger sequencing, exome sequencing, genome sequencing, and array comparative genomic hybridization on four subjects with a clinical diagnosis of RS who had not had prior DNA testing. Individuals in our cohort were found to carry pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in three RS related genes: DVL1, ROR2, and NXN. One subject was found to have a nonsense variant (c.817C > T [p.Gln273*]) in NXN in trans with an ~1 Mb telomeric deletion on chromosome 17p containing NXN, which supports our contention that biallelic NXN variant alleles are responsible for a novel autosomal recessive RS locus. These findings provide increased understanding of the role of WNT signaling in skeletal development and maintenance. These data further support the hypothesis that dysregulation of the noncanonical WNT pathway in humans gives rise to RS.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2632-2640, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888393

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia with recent reports suggesting an osteosclerotic form of the disease. We endeavored to investigate the full spectrum of skeletal anomalies in a genetically diverse cohort of RS patients with a focus on the bone micro-architecture. Seven individuals with molecularly confirmed RS, including four with DVL1 variants and single individuals with variants in WNT5A, ROR2, and GPC4 underwent a musculoskeletal focused physical examination, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Skeletal examination revealed variability in limb shortening anomalies consistent with recent reports. DEXA scan measures revealed increased total body bone mineral density (BMD) (3/7), cranial BMD (5/7), and non-cranial BMD (1/7). Cranial osteosclerosis was only observed in DVL1-RS (4/4) and GPC4-RS (1/1) subjects and in one case was complicated by choanal atresia, bilateral conductive hearing loss, and cranial nerve III, VI, and VII palsy. HR-pQCT revealed a unique pattern of low cortical BMD, increased trabecular BMD, decreased number of trabeculations, and increased thickness of the trabeculations for the DVL1-RS subjects. The spectrum of skeletal anomalies including the micro-architecture of the bones observed in RS has considerable variability with some osteosclerosis genotype-phenotype correlations more frequent with DVL1 variants.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Nanismo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Osteosclerose/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/genética , Nanismo/patologia , Feminino , Fêmur , Variação Genética , Glipicanas/genética , Humanos , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteosclerose/patologia , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Anormalidades Urogenitais/patologia , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974972

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with, among other anomalies, extremity and hand anomalies. There is locus heterogeneity and both dominant and recessive inheritance. A detailed description of associated extremity and hand anomalies does not currently exist due to the rarity of this syndrome. This study seeks to document the hand anomalies present in Robinow syndrome to allow for improved rates of timely and accurate diagnosis. A focused assessment of the extremities and stature was performed using clinical examination and standard photographic images. A total of 13 patients with clinical and molecular diagnosis consistent with dominant Robinow syndrome or recessive Robinow syndrome were evaluated. All patients had limb shortening, the most common of which was mesomelia; however, rhizomelia and micromelia were also seen. These findings are relevant to clinical characterization, particularly as Robinow syndrome has classically been defined as a "mesomelic disorder." A total of eight distinct hand anomalies were identified in 12 patients with both autosomal recessive and dominant forms of Robinow syndrome. One patient did not present with any hand differences. The most common hand findings included brachydactyly, broad thumbs, and clinodactyly. A thorough understanding of the breadth of Robinow syndrome-associated extremity and hand anomalies can aid in early patient identification, improving rates of timely diagnosis and allowing for proactive management of sequelae.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954672

RESUMO

It has been estimated that 10-15% of people with Robinow syndrome (RS) show delayed development, but no studies have formally assessed developmental domains. The objective of this study is to provide the first description of cognitive, adaptive, and psychological functioning in RS. Thirteen participants (10 males) aged 4-51 years were seen for neuropsychological screening. Eight had autosomal-dominant RS (DVL1, n = 5; WNT5A, n = 3), four had autosomal-recessive RS (NXN, n = 2; ROR2, n = 2), and one had a mutation on an RS candidate gene (GPC4). Participants completed measures of intellectual, fine-motor, adaptive, executive, and psychological functioning. Findings indicated generally average intellectual functioning and low-average visuomotor skills. Adaptive functioning was average in autosomal-recessive RS (RRS) but low average in autosomal-dominant RS (DRS). Parent-report indicated executive dysfunction and attention problems in 4/8 children, 3/4 of whom had a DVL1 variant; adult self-report did not indicate similar difficulties. Learning disabilities were also reported in 4/8 individuals with DRS, 3/4 of whom had a DVL1 variant. Peer problems were reported for a majority of participants, many of whom also reported emotional concerns. Altogether, the findings indicate average neurocognitive functioning in RRS. In contrast, DRS, especially DVL1 pathogenic alleles, may confer specific risk for neurodevelopmental disability.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2781-2787, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909658

RESUMO

Riboflavin transporter deficiency (RTD) (MIM #614707) is a neurogenetic disorder with its most common manifestations including sensorineural hearing loss, peripheral neuropathy, respiratory insufficiency, and bulbar palsy. Here, we present a 2-year-old boy whose initial presentation was severe macrocytic anemia necessitating multiple blood transfusions and intermittent neutropenia; he subsequently developed ataxia and dysarthria. Trio-exome sequencing detected compound heterozygous variants in SLC52A2 that were classified as pathogenic and a variant of uncertain significance. Bone marrow evaluation demonstrated megaloblastic changes. Notably, his anemia and neutropenia resolved after treatment with oral riboflavin, thus expanding the clinical phenotype of this disorder. We reiterate the importance of starting riboflavin supplementation in a young child who presents with macrocytic anemia and neurological features while awaiting biochemical and genetic work up. We detected multiple biochemical abnormalities with the help of untargeted metabolomics analysis associated with abnormal flavin adenine nucleotide function which normalized after treatment, emphasizing the reversible pathomechanisms involved in this disorder. The utility of untargeted metabolomics analysis to monitor the effects of riboflavin supplementation in RTD has not been previously reported.


Assuntos
Anemia Macrocítica/patologia , Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/patologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Metaboloma , Deficiência de Riboflavina/patologia , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Adulto , Anemia Macrocítica/genética , Anemia Macrocítica/metabolismo , Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/genética , Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/metabolismo , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Deficiência de Riboflavina/genética , Deficiência de Riboflavina/metabolismo
14.
Mol Genet Metab ; 131(1-2): 147-154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828637

RESUMO

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) involving the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) include the two relatively rare conditions, transketolase deficiency and transaldolase deficiency, both of which can be difficult to diagnosis given their non-specific clinical presentations. Current biochemical testing approaches require an index of suspicion to consider targeted urine polyol testing. To determine whether a broad-spectrum biochemical test could accurately identify a specific metabolic pattern defining IEMs of the non-oxidative PPP, we employed the use of clinical metabolomic profiling as an unbiased novel approach to diagnosis. Subjects with molecularly confirmed IEMs of the PPP were included in this study. Targeted quantitative analysis of polyols in urine and plasma samples was accomplished with chromatography and mass spectrometry. Semi-quantitative unbiased metabolomic analysis of urine and plasma samples was achieved by assessing small molecules via liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results from untargeted and targeted analyses were then compared and analyzed for diagnostic acuity. Two siblings with transketolase (TKT) deficiency and three unrelated individuals with transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency were identified for inclusion in the study. For both IEMs, targeted polyol testing and untargeted metabolomic testing on urine and/or plasma samples identified typical perturbations of the respective disorder. Additionally, untargeted metabolomic testing revealed elevations in other PPP metabolites not typically measured with targeted polyol testing, including ribonate, ribose, and erythronate for TKT deficiency and ribonate, erythronate, and sedoheptulose 7-phosphate in TALDO deficiency. Non-PPP alternations were also noted involving tryptophan, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism for both TKT and TALDO deficient patients. Targeted polyol testing and untargeted metabolomic testing methods were both able to identify specific biochemical patterns indicative of TKT and TALDO deficiency in both plasma and urine samples. In addition, untargeted metabolomics was able to identify novel biomarkers, thereby expanding the current knowledge of both conditions and providing further insight into potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomic testing offers the advantage of having a single effective biochemical screening test for identification of rare IEMs, like TKT and TALDO deficiencies, that may otherwise go undiagnosed due to their generally non-specific clinical presentations.

15.
Bone ; 140: 115547, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is commonly associated with short stature, but it is unclear whether this is exclusively secondary to fractures and bone deformities or whether there is a primary defect in longitudinal bone growth. As metacarpal and phalangeal bones are rarely affected by fractures and deformities, any length deficits in these bones should reflect a direct disease effect on longitudinal growth. This study therefore assessed the relationship of hand bone length with clinical OI type and genotype. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. RESULTS: The length of all 19 tubular hand bones were measured in 144 individuals (age 6 to 57 years; 68 female) who had OI caused by COL1A1 or COL1A2 variants. Measurements of bone length were converted to z-scores using published reference data. Bone length was mostly normal in OI type I but was significantly decreased in OI types III and IV. Mean hand bone length z-score (i.e., the average length z-score of all 19 bones of a hand) was -0.2 for OI type I, -2.9 for OI type III and -1.2 for OI type IV. Mean hand bone length z-score was positively associated with height z-score (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.001). Regarding genotype-phenotype correlations, mean hand bone length z-score was close to 0 in individuals with COL1A1 mutations leading to haploinsufficiency but were significantly lower in the presence of mutations leading to triple-helical glycine substitutions in either the alpha 1 or alpha 2 chain of collagen type I. CONCLUSION: COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutations affect bone growth not only by inducing fractures and bone deformities, but also through longitudinal growth deficits in bones that do not fracture or deform.


Assuntos
Osteogênese Imperfeita , Adolescente , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Criança , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(7): 480-490.e2, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of malocclusion is higher among people with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) than the general population, and treatment options are limited due to the weak structure of bones and teeth. Focusing on those malocclusion traits that might have a high impact on a patient's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is warranted. METHODS: A total of 138 children and adolescents with OI were examined for malocclusion traits. OHRQoL was measured using age-specific versions (8 through 10 years and 11 through 14 years) of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), considering the following domains: oral symptoms, functional limitation, emotional well-being, and social well-being. Higher scores implied worse OHRQoL. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the association between malocclusion traits and OHRQoL. RESULTS: Among children aged 8 through 10 years (n = 56), the CPQ and its constituent domain scores were relatively similar between those with malocclusion (higher scores) and those without. In the adolescent (n = 82) group aged 11 through 14 years; however, those with posterior crossbite (odds ratio, 5.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 12.41) or open bite (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 10.23) experienced statistically significantly higher degrees of functional limitations (a higher functional limitation score) than those without. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with OI and posterior open bites or crossbites have substantial self-reported functional limitations and worse oral symptoms, which warrants additional investigation and therapeutic trials in an attempt to improve the malocclusion. In addition, the authors found that the CPQ can be a useful tool in a clinical trial of orthodontic interventions in OI.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(8): 1960-1966, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449285

RESUMO

The mitochondrial aconitase gene (ACO2) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Biallelic variants in ACO2 are purported to cause two distinct disorders: infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration (ICRD) which is characterized by CNS abnormalities, neurodevelopmental phenotypes, optic atrophy and retinal degeneration; and optic atrophy 9 (OPA9), characterized by isolated ophthalmologic phenotypes including optic atrophy and low vision. However, some doubt remains as to whether biallelic ACO2 variants can cause isolated ophthalmologic phenotypes. A review of the literature revealed five individuals from three families who carry biallelic ACO2 variants whose phenotypes are consistent with OPA9. Here, we describe a brother and sister with OPA9 who are compound heterozygous for novel missense variants in ACO2; c.[487G>T];[1894G>A], p.[(Val163Leu)];[(Val632Met)]. A review of pathogenic ACO2 variants revealed that those associated with OPA9 are distinct from those associated with ICRD. Missense variants associated with either OPA9 or ICRD do not cluster in distinct ACO2 domains, making it difficult to predict the severity of a variant based on position alone. We conclude that biallelic variants in ACO2 can cause the milder OPA9 phenotype, and that the OPA9-related ACO2 variants identified to date are distinct from those that cause ICRD.


Assuntos
Aconitato Hidratase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Adolescente , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Atrofia Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia Óptica/patologia , Fenótipo
18.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1598-1605, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461667

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic autosomal recessive variants in CAD, encoding the multienzymatic protein initiating pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis, cause a severe inborn metabolic disorder treatable with a dietary supplement of uridine. This condition is difficult to diagnose given the large size of CAD with over 1000 missense variants and the nonspecific clinical presentation. We aimed to develop a reliable and discerning assay to assess the pathogenicity of CAD variants and to select affected individuals that might benefit from uridine therapy. METHODS: Using CRISPR/Cas9, we generated a human CAD-knockout cell line that requires uridine supplements for survival. Transient transfection of the knockout cells with recombinant CAD restores growth in absence of uridine. This system determines missense variants that inactivate CAD and do not rescue the growth phenotype. RESULTS: We identified 25 individuals with biallelic variants in CAD and a phenotype consistent with a CAD deficit. We used the CAD-knockout complementation assay to test a total of 34 variants, identifying 16 as deleterious for CAD activity. Combination of these pathogenic variants confirmed 11 subjects with a CAD deficit, for whom we describe the clinical phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: We designed a cell-based assay to test the pathogenicity of CAD variants, identifying 11 CAD-deficient individuals who could benefit from uridine therapy.


Assuntos
Aspartato Carbamoiltransferase , Carbamoil Fosfato Sintase (Glutamina-Hidrolizante) , Linhagem Celular , Di-Hidro-Orotase , Humanos , Uridina
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(9): 1243-1264, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376988

RESUMO

Previously we reported the identification of a homozygous COL27A1 (c.2089G>C; p.Gly697Arg) missense variant and proposed it as a founder allele in Puerto Rico segregating with Steel syndrome (STLS, MIM #615155); a rare osteochondrodysplasia characterized by short stature, congenital bilateral hip dysplasia, carpal coalitions, and scoliosis. We now report segregation of this variant in five probands from the initial clinical report defining the syndrome and an additional family of Puerto Rican descent with multiple affected adult individuals. We modeled the orthologous variant in murine Col27a1 and found it recapitulates some of the major Steel syndrome associated skeletal features including reduced body length, scoliosis, and a more rounded skull shape. Characterization of the in vivo murine model shows abnormal collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix and disorganization of the proliferative zone of the growth plate. We report additional COL27A1 pathogenic variant alleles identified in unrelated consanguineous Turkish kindreds suggesting Clan Genomics and identity-by-descent homozygosity contributing to disease in this population. The hypothesis that carrier states for this autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia may contribute to common complex traits is further explored in a large clinical population cohort. Our findings augment our understanding of COL27A1 biology and its role in skeletal development; and expand the functional allelic architecture in this gene underlying both rare and common disease phenotypes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Colágenos Fibrilares/genética , Efeito Fundador , Luxação do Quadril/genética , Escoliose/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Colágenos Fibrilares/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Luxação do Quadril/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Linhagem , Escoliose/patologia , Síndrome
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