Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 70
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9776, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278310

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men with African American men disproportionally suffering from the burden of this disease. Biomarkers that could discriminate indolent from aggressive and drug resistance disease are lacking. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that affect numerous physiological and pathological processes, including cancer development and have been suggested as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-214 on prostate cancer cell survival/migration/invasion, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. miR-214 was differentially expressed between Caucasian and African American prostate cancer cells. Importantly, miR-214 overexpression in prostate cancer cells induced apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and colony forming ability. miR-214 expression in prostate cancer cells also inhibited cell migration and 3D spheroid invasion. Mechanistically, miR-214 inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by targeting protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6). Restoration of PTK6 expression attenuated the inhibitory effect of miR-214 on cell proliferation. Moreover, simultaneous inhibition of PTK6 by ibrutinib and miR-214 significantly reduced cell proliferation/survival. Our data indicates that miR-214 could act as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer and could potentially be utilized as a biomarker and therapeutic target.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after radiation therapy plays a large role in the management of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). This is particularly true in establishing expectations regarding PSA nadir (nPSA) and PSA bounces, which can be disconcerting. As increasingly more patients are being treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for low- and intermediate-risk PCa, it is imperative to understand the PSA response to SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: PSA data from 5 institutions were retrospectively analyzed for patients with localized PCa treated definitively with SBRT alone from 2004 to 2016. Patients received 35 to 40 Gy in 5 fractions, per institutional standards. Patients who had less than 12 months of PSA data or received androgen deprivation therapy were excluded from this study. Linear and logistic multivariable analysis were performed to identify predictors of nPSA, bounce, and biochemical recurrence, and joint latent class models were developed to identify significant predictors of time to biochemical failure. RESULTS: A total of 1062 patients were included in this study. Median follow-up was 66 months (interquartile range [IQR], 36.4-89.9 months). Biochemical failure per the Phoenix criteria occurred in 4% of patients. Median nPSA was 0.2 ng/mL, median time to nPSA was 40 months, 84% of patients had an nPSA ≤0.5 ng/mL, and 54% of patients had an nPSA ≤0.2 ng/mL. On multivariable analysis, nPSA was a significant predictor of biochemical failure. Benign PSA bounce was noted in 26% of patients. The median magnitude of PSA bounce was 0.52 ng/mL (IQR, 0.3-1.0 ng/mL). Median time to PSA bounce was 18.1 months (IQR, 12.0-31.1 months). On multivariable analysis, age and radiation dose were significantly associated with a lower incidence of bounce. Joint latent class models modeling found that nPSA and radiation dose were significantly associated with longer time to biochemical failure. CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-institutional cohort of patients with long-term follow-up, we found that SBRT led to low nPSAs. In turn, lower nPSAs are associated with reduced incidence of, and longer time to, biochemical failure. Benign PSA bounces occurred in a quarter of patients, as late as several years after treatment. Further studies are needed to directly compare the PSA response of patients who receive SBRT versus other treatment modalities.

3.
OMICS ; 23(4): 214-223, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009330

RESUMO

Metabolomics offers new promise for research on prostate cancer (PCa) and its personalized treatment. Metabolomic profiling of radiation-treated PCa patients is particularly important to reveal their new metabolomic status, and evaluate the radiation effects. In addition, bioinformatics-integrated metabolomics-based approaches for disease profiling and assessment of therapy could help develop precision biomarkers in a context of PCa. We report mass spectrometry-based untargeted (global) serum metabolomics findings from patients with PCa (n = 55) before and after treatment with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with SBRT, and using parsimony phylogenetic analysis. Importantly, the radiation-treated serum metabolome of patients represented a unique robust cluster on a cladogram that was distinct from the pre-RT metabolome. The altered radiation responsive serum metabolome was defined by predominant aberrations in the metabolic pathways of nitrogen, pyrimidine, purine, porphyrin, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and glycerophospholipid. Our findings collectively suggest that global metabolomics integrated with parsimony phylogenetics offer a unique and robust systems biology analytical platform for powerful unbiased determination of radiotherapy (RT)-associated biosignatures in patients with PCa. These new observations call for future translational research for evaluation of metabolomic biomarkers in PCa prognosis specifically, and response to radiation treatment broadly. Radiation metabolomics is an emerging specialty of systems sciences and clinical medicine that warrants further research and educational initiatives.

4.
Front Oncol ; 8: 373, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254985

RESUMO

Purpose/Objective: High-grade glioma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the CNS, with death often resulting from uncontrollable intracranial disease. Radiation dose may be limited by the tolerance of critical structures, such as the brainstem and optic apparatus. In this report, long-term outcomes in patients treated with conventionally fractionated stereotactic boost for tumors in close proximity to critical structures are presented. Materials/Methods: Patients eligible for inclusion in this single institution retrospective review had a pathologically confirmed high-grade glioma status post-surgical resection. Inclusion criteria required tumor location within one centimeter of a critical structure, including the optic chiasm, optic nerve, and brainstem. Radiation therapy consisted of external beam radiation followed by a conventionally fractionated stereotactic boost. Oncologic outcomes and toxicity were assessed. Results: Thirty patients eligible for study inclusion underwent resection of a high-grade glioma. The median initial adjuvant EBRT dose was 50 Gy with a median conventionally fractionated stereotactic boost of 10 Gy. All stereotactic treatments were given in 2 Gy daily fractions. Median follow-up time for the entire cohort was 38 months with a median overall survival of 45 months and 5-year overall survival of 32.5%. The median freedom from local progression was 45 months, and the 5-year freedom from local progression was 29.7%. Two cases of radiation retinopathy were identified following treatment. No patient experienced toxicity attributable to the optic chiasm, optic nerve, or brainstem and no grade 3+ radionecrosis was observed. Conclusions: Oncologic and toxicity outcomes in high-grade glioma patients with tumors in unfavorable locations treated with conventionally fractionated stereotactic boost are comparable to those reported in the literature. This treatment strategy is appropriate for those patients with resected high-grade glioma in close proximity to critical structures.

5.
Curr Urol ; 11(4): 218-224, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997466

RESUMO

Background: Prostate cancer survivors commonly experience late-onset lower urinary tract symptoms following radiotherapy. We aimed to compare lower urinary tract symptoms in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to those treated with a combination of lower dose SBRT and supplemental intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SBRT + IMRT). Methods: Subjects with localized prostate carcinoma scheduled to receive SBRT or a combination of SBRT and IMRT were enrolled and followed for up to 2 years after treatment completion. Participants treated with SBRT received 35-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions, while those treated with SBRT + IMRT received 19.5 Gy of SBRT in 3 fractions followed by 45-50.4 Gy of IMRT in 25-28 fractions. Urinary symptoms were measured using the American Urological Association (AUA) Symptom Score. Results: Two hundred patients received SBRT (52% intermediate risk, 37.5% low risk according to D'Amico classification) and 145 patients received SBRT + IMRT (61.4% high risk, 35.2% intermediate risk). Both groups experienced a transient spike in urinary symptoms 1 month after treatment. More severe late urinary flare (increase in AUA scores ≥ 5 points from baseline to 1 year after treatment completion and an AUA score ≥ 15 at 1 year after treatment) was experienced by patients who received SBRT compared to those treated with SBRT + IMRT. Conclusion: Participants who received SBRT and supplemental IMRT experienced less severe late urinary flare 1 year after treatment compared to those who received higher dose SBRT alone. This information can be used by clinicians to provide patients with anticipatory counseling to mitigate any psychological burden that comes with unanticipated late urinary toxicities.

6.
Oncotarget ; 9(42): 26884-26899, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928491

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is a TNF-α inducible anti-apoptotic protein with multiple roles in tumor growth and survival. Mechanisms of cell survival by TNFAIP8 remain elusive. We investigated the role of TNFAIP8 in the regulation of the cell cycle, autophagy, cell survival and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells. We showed that TNFAIP8 dysregulates cell-cycle-related proteins, in PC3 cells. Oncogenic cell survival, drug resistance and dysregulation of cell cycle-related proteins are often associated with autophagy. We demonstrated that TNFAIP8 induces autophagy by increasing expression of autophagy effectors such as LC3ß I/II, Beclin1, 4EBP1, p62, and SIRT1. We also demonstrated that TNFAIP8 interacts with autophagy-related protein 3 (ATG3). TNFα treatment increased the expression of TNFAIP8, which was associated with increased autophagy and decreased apoptosis. We also observed an increase in expression of neuroendocrine differentiation markers, synaptophysin and chromogranin A, and drug resistance to anticancer drugs, docetaxel and doxorubicin, in cells transfected with TNFAIP8. Collectively, our findings reveal that by the creation of cellular autophagy events, TNFAIP8 promotes cell survival and drug resistance in prostate cancer cells.

7.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 101(2): 376-386, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report sexual health-related quality of life outcomes and utilization and efficacy of sexual aids in a contemporary cohort of patients treated for localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2013, 471 consecutive men with localized prostate cancer were treated on 2 institutional protocols (NCT01766492, NCT01618851) or on a prospective institutional registry with patient-reported health-related quality of life. All patients were treated with ultra-hypofractionated radiation therapy. Erectile function (EF) was defined as "firm enough for intercourse" with or without aids per Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (n = 222 at baseline); results apply to this cohort unless specifically noted. Sexual aid utilization and efficacy were patient reported. Multivariable analysis of EF was performed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 60 months, median age was 67 years, and 70% had intermediate- or high-risk disease per National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. At 24 and 60 months, questionnaire response rates were 86% and 67%, and EF was retained in 53% and 41%, respectively. Baseline sexual aid utilization was 37% (n = 82) and was associated with lower 24-month EF preservation on multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.92). By 60 months, 70% of men had tried aids. Of those who found aids helpful at baseline, 84% to 89% reported continued benefit at 24 to 60 months. Among aid-naïve patients, efficacy was 80% with first-time use within 12 months and 70% more than 12 months after radiation therapy (P = .02). Among men who developed erectile dysfunction but found sexual aids helpful, 25% were not current users at 60 months. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of men used sexual aids at baseline, which doubled by 5 years after radiation therapy. Self-reported efficacy was high and sustained. Despite significant declines in EF, a number of men reported helpfulness of aids but were not active users. Future study is required to understand drivers of aid utilization to optimize posttreatment sexual function.

8.
BJU Int ; 121(1): 61-68, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the functional erection rate after prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and to develop a comprehensive prognostic model of outcomes after treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2013, 373 consecutive men with localized prostate cancer were treated with SBRT at a single academic institution as part of a prospective clinical trial or prospective registry. Prospective longitudinal patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data was collected using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC)-26 instrument. Functional erections were strictly defined as 'firm enough for intercourse' according to EPIC-26. Detailed comorbidity data were also collected. Logistic regression models were used to predict 24- and 60-month functional erection rates. Observed erection rates after SBRT were compared with those after other radiation therapies (external beam radiation therapy [EBRT] and brachytherapy) using prospectively validated models. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) follow-up was 56 (37-73) months and the response rate at 2 years was 84%. For those with functional erections at baseline, 57% and 45% retained function at 24 and 60 months, respectively. On multivariable analysis for 24-month erectile function, significant variables included higher baseline sexual HRQoL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.55 per 10 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-1.74; P < 0.001) and older age (aOR 0.66 per 10 years, 95% CI 0.43-1.00; P = 0.05). At 60 months, baseline HRQoL and age remained associated with erectile function, along with body mass index (aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78; P < 0.001). The 24- and 60-month models had excellent discrimination (c-index 0.81 and 0.84, respectively). Erection rates after SBRT were not statistically different from model-predicted rates after EBRT or brachytherapy for the whole cohort and the cohort with baseline erectile function. CONCLUSIONS: Intermediate- to long-term post-SBRT erectile function results are promising and not significantly different from other radiotherapy techniques. Clinicians can use our prognostic model to counsel patients regarding expected erectile function after SBRT.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Biópsia por Agulha , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Front Oncol ; 7: 227, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085804

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Utilization of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to guide symptom management during radiation therapy is increasing. This study focuses on the use of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) as a tool to assess urinary and bowel bother during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its utility in guiding medical management. METHODS: Between September 2015 and January 2017, 107 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35-36.25 Gy via SBRT in five fractions. PROs were assessed using EPIC-CP 1 h prior to the first fraction and after each subsequent fraction. Symptom management medications were prescribed based on the physician clinical judgment or if patients reported a moderate to big problem. Clinical significance was assessed using a minimally important difference of 1/2 SD from baseline score. RESULTS: A median baseline EPIC-CP urinary symptom score of 1.5 significantly increased to 3.7 on the day of the final treatment (p < 0.0001). Prior to treatment, 9.3% of men felt that their overall urinary function was a moderate to big problem that increased to 28% by the end of the fifth treatment. A median baseline EPIC-CP bowel symptom score of 0.3 significantly increased to 1.4 on the day of the final treatment (p < 0.0001). Prior to treatment, 1.9% of men felt that their overall bowel function was a moderate to big problem that increased to 3.7% by the end of the fifth treatment. The percentage of patients requiring an increased dose of alpha-antagonist increased to 47% by the end of treatment, and an additional 28% of patients required a short steroid taper to manage moderate to big urinary problems. Similarly, the percentage of patients requiring antidiarrheals reached 12% by the fifth treatment. CONCLUSION: During the course of SBRT, an increasing percentage of patients experienced clinically significant symptoms many of which required medical management. Monitoring patient symptoms during treatment allowed for prompt detection and management of acute urinary and bowel symptoms. The usage of symptom management medications was high in this study compared to historical controls and may be due to increased physician awareness of moderate to big patient problems.

10.
Radiat Oncol ; 12(1): 162, 2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052514

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Local treatment options for patients with in-field non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recurrence following conventionally fractionated external beam radiation therapy (CF-EBRT) are limited. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a promising modality to achieve reasonable local control, although toxicity remains a concern. MATERIALS/METHODS: Patients previously treated with high-dose CF-EBRT (≥59.4 Gy, ≤3 Gy/fraction) for non-metastatic NSCLC who underwent salvage SBRT for localized ultra-central in-field recurrence were included in this analysis. Ultra-central recurrences were defined as those abutting the trachea, mainstem bronchus, or esophagus and included both parenchymal and nodal recurrences. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate local control and overall survival. Durable local control was defined as ≥12 months. Toxicity was scored per the CTC-AE v4.0. RESULTS: Twenty patients were treated with five-fraction robotic SBRT for ultra-central in-field recurrence following CF-EBRT. Fifty percent of recurrences were adenocarcinoma, while 35% of tumors were classified as squamous cell carcinoma. The median interval between the end of CF-EBRT and SBRT was 23.3 months (range: 2.6 - 93.6 months). The median CF-EBRT dose was 63 Gy (range: 59.4 - 75 Gy), the median SBRT dose was 35 Gy (range: 25 - 45 Gy), and the median total equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) was 116 Gy (range: 91.3 - 136.7 Gy). At a median follow-up of 12 months for all patients and 37.5 months in surviving patients, the majority of patients (90%) have died. High-dose SBRT was associated with improved local control (p < .01), and the one-year overall survival and local control were 77.8% and 66.7% respectively in this sub-group. No late esophageal toxicity was noted, although a patient who received an SBRT dose of 45 Gy (total EQD2: 129.7 Gy) experienced grade 5 hemoptysis 35 months following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall prognosis for patients with in-field ultra-central NSCLC recurrences following CF-EBRT remains grim, five-fraction SBRT was well tolerated with an acceptable toxicity profile. Dose escalation above 35 Gy may offer improved local control, however caution is warranted when treating high-risk recurrences with aggressive regimens.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos
11.
Front Oncol ; 7: 157, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous work on early PSA kinetics following prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) demonstrated that an initial rapid and then slow PSA decline may result in very low PSA nadirs. This retrospective study sought to evaluate the PSA nadir 5 years following SBRT for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: 65 low- and 80 intermediate-risk PCa patients were treated definitively with SBRT to 35-37.5 Gy in 5 fractions at Georgetown University Hospital between January 2008 and October 2011. Patients who received androgen deprivation therapy were excluded from this study. Biochemical relapse was defined as a PSA rise >2 ng/ml above the nadir and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The PSA nadir was defined as the lowest PSA value prior to biochemical relapse or as the lowest value recorded during follow-up. Prostate ablation was defined as a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate relevant variables on the likelihood of achieving a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml. RESULTS: The median age at the start of SBRT was 72 years. These patients had a median prostate volume of 36 cc with a median 25% of total cores involved. At a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 86 and 37% of patients achieved a PSA nadir ≤0.5 and <0.2 ng/ml, respectively. The median time to PSA nadir was 36 months. Two low and seven intermediate risk patients experienced a biochemical relapse. Regardless of the PSA outcome, the median PSA nadir for all patients was 0.2 ng/ml. The 5-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) rate for low- and intermediate-risk patients was 98.5 and 95%, respectively. Initial PSA (p = 0.024) and a lower testosterone at the time of the PSA nadir (p = 0.049) were found to be significant predictors of achieving a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml. CONCLUSION: SBRT for low- and intermediate-risk PCa is a convenient treatment option with low PSA nadirs and a high rate of early bRFS. Fewer than 40% of patients, however, achieved an ablative PSA nadir. Thus, the role of further dose escalation is an area of active investigation.

12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 91: 130-138, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343068

RESUMO

Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating side effects of cancer and cancer treatment, and yet its etiology remains elusive. The goal of this study is to understand the role of chronic inflammation in fatigue following repeated stress from radiotherapy. Fatigue and non-fatigue categories were assessed using ≥ 3-point change in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue questionnaire (FACT-F) administered to participants at baseline/before radiotherapy and one year post-radiotherapy. Whole genome microarray and cytokine multiplex panel were used to examine fatigue-related transcriptome and serum cytokine changes, respectively. The study included 86 subjects (discovery phase n = 40, validation phase n = 46). The sample in the discovery phase included men with prostate cancer scheduled to receive external-beam radiotherapy. A panel of 48 cytokines were measured and the significantly changed cytokine found in the discovery phase was validated using sera from a separate cohort of men two years after completing radiotherapy for prostate cancer at a different institution. Effects of the significantly changed cytokine on cell viability was quantified using the MTT assay. During the discovery phase, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and TRAIL decoy receptor, TNFRSF10C (TRAIL-R3), were significantly upregulated in fatigued (≥3-point decrease from baseline to 1yr-post radiotherapy) subjects (n = 15). In the validation phase, TRAIL correlated with fatigue scores 2yrs post-radiotherapy. TRAIL caused selective cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, but not in microglial and muscle cells, in vitro. Late-onset inflammation directed by TRAIL may play a role in fatigue pathogenesis post-repeated stress from irradiation.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Oncol ; 7: 5, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plus brachytherapy boost for unfavorable prostate cancer provides improved biochemical relapse-free survival over IMRT alone. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be a less invasive alternative to brachytherapy boost. Here, we report the 3-year gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities of IMRT plus SBRT boost. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2008 and September 2012, patients with prostate cancer were treated with robotic SBRT (19.5 Gy in three fractions) followed by fiducial-guided IMRT (45-50.4 Gy) on an institutional protocol. Toxicity was prospectively graded using the common terminology criteria for adverse events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4) at the start of and at 1- to 6-month intervals after therapy. Rectal telangiectasias were graded using the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS). RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 4.2 years (2.4-7.5), 108 patients (4 low-, 45 intermediate-, and 59 high-risk) with a median age of 74 years (55-92) were treated with SBRT plus IMRT, with 8% on anticoagulation and an additional 48% on antiplatelet therapy at the start of therapy. The cumulative incidence of late ≥grade 2 GI toxicity was 12%. Of these, 7% were due to late rectal bleeding, with six patients requiring up to two coagulation procedures. One patient with rectal telangiectasias was treated with hyperbaric oxygen (grade 3 toxicity). No rectal fistulas or stenoses were observed. Ten patients had multiple non-confluent telangiectasias (VRS grade 2), and three patients had multiple confluent telangiectasias (VRS grade 3). The cumulative incidence of late grade 3 GU toxicity was 6%. Most late toxicities were due to hematuria requiring bladder fulguration. There were no late ≥grade 4 GU toxicities. CONCLUSION: Rates of clinically significant GI and GU toxicities are modest following IMRT plus SBRT boost. Future studies should compare cancer control, quality of life, and toxicity with other treatment modalities for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

15.
Cancer ; 123(9): 1635-1642, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28001303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer involves high-dose-per-fraction radiation treatments. Its use is increasing, but concerns remain about treatment-related toxicity. The authors assessed the incidence and predictors of a global decline in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after prostate SBRT. METHODS: From 2008 to 2014, 713 consecutive men with localized prostate cancer received treatment with SBRT according to a prospective institutional protocol. Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) HRQOL data were collected at baseline and longitudinally for 5 years. EPIC-26 is comprised of 5 domains. The primary endpoint was defined as a decline exceeding the clinically detectable threshold in ≥4 EPIC-26 domains, termed multidomain decline. RESULTS: The median age was 69 years, 46% of patients had unfavorable intermediate-risk or high-risk disease, and 20% received androgen-deprivation therapy. During 1 to 3 months and 6 to 60 months after SBRT, 8% to 15% and 10% to 11% of patients had multidomain declines, respectively. On multivariable analysis, lower baseline bowel HRQOL (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.7; P < .01) and baseline depression (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-24.3; P = .02) independently predicted for multidomain decline. Only 3% to 4% of patients had long-term multidomain declines exceeding twice the clinical threshold, and 30% of such declines appeared to be related to prostate cancer treatment or progression of disease. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate SBRT has minimal long-term impact on multidomain decline, and the majority of more significant multidomain declines appear to be unrelated to treatment. This emphasizes the importance of focusing not only on the side effects of prostate cancer treatment but also on other comorbid illnesses that contribute to overall HRQOL. Cancer 2017;123:1635-1642. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Cistite/epidemiologia , Cistite/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
16.
Radiother Oncol ; 121(2): 294-298, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluate changes in bowel, urinary and sexual patient-reported quality of life following treatment with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy (<5Gray/fraction) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT;5-10Gray/fraction) for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a pooled multi-institutional analysis of men treated with moderate hypofractionation or SBRT, we compared minimally detectable difference in bowel, urinary and sexual quality of life at 1 and 2years using chi-squared analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: 378 men received moderate hypofractionation compared to 534 men who received SBRT. After 1year, patients receiving moderate hypofractionation were more likely to experience worsening in bowel symptoms (39.5%) compared to SBRT (32.5%; p=.06), with a larger difference at 2years (37.4% versus 25.3%, p=.002). Similarly, patients receiving moderate fractionation had worsening urinary symptom score compared to patients who underwent SBRT at 1 and 2years (34.7% versus 23.1%, p<.001; and 32.8% versus 14.0%, p<.001). There was no difference in sexual symptom score at 1 or 2years. After adjusting for age and cancer characteristics, patients receiving SBRT were less likely to experience worsening urinary symptom scores at 2years (odds ratio: 0.24[95%CI: 0.07-0.79]). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received SBRT or moderate hypofractionation have similar patient-reported change in bowel and sexual symptoms, although there was worse change in urinary symptoms for patients receiving moderate hypofractionation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/reabilitação , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Sistema Urinário/efeitos da radiação
17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 96(4): 770-777, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27663760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The new short Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tool has removed the rectal bleeding question from the previous much longer version, EPIC-26. Herein, we assess the impact of losing the dedicated rectal bleeding question in 2 independent prospective multicenter cohorts. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a prospective multicenter test cohort (n=865), EPIC-26 patient-reported HRQOL data were collected for 2 years after treatment from patients treated with prostate radiation therapy from 2003 to 2011. A second prospective multicenter cohort (n=442) was used for independent validation. A repeated-effects model was used to predict the change from baseline in bowel summary scores from longer EPIC instruments using the change in EPIC-CP bowel summary scores with and without rectal bleeding scores. RESULTS: Two years after radiation therapy, 91% of patients were free of bleeding, and only 2.6% reported bothersome bleeding problems. Correlations between EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP bowel scores were very high (r2=0.90-0.96) and were statistically improved with the addition of rectal bleeding information (r2=0.94-0.98). Considering all patients, only 0.2% of patients in the test cohort and 0.7% in the validation cohort reported bothersome bleeding and had clinically relevant HRQOL changes missed with EPIC-CP. However, of the 2.6% (n=17) of men with bothersome rectal bleeding in the test cohort, EPIC-CP failed to capture 1 patient (6%) as experiencing meaningful declines in bowel HRQOL. CONCLUSIONS: Modern prostate radiation therapy results in exceptionally low rates of bothersome rectal bleeding, and <1% of patients experience bothersome bleeding and are not captured by EPIC-CP as having meaningful HRQOL declines after radiation therapy. However, in the small subset of patients with bothersome rectal bleeding, the longer EPIC-26 should strongly be considered, given its superior performance in this patient subset.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Reto/efeitos da radiação , Idoso , Braquiterapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiocirurgia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Front Oncol ; 6: 167, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27489794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL). While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity 1 week following prostate SBRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions using robotic SBRT delivered on a prospective clinical trial. Bowel toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4). Bowel QOL was assessed using the EPIC-26 questionnaire bowel domain at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Time-dependent changes in bowel symptoms were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically significant change was assessed by the minimally important difference (MID) in EPIC score. This was defined as a change of 1/2 standard deviation (SD) from the baseline score. RESULTS: One-hundred and three patients with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was 23%. There were no acute ≥ grade 3 bowel toxicities. EPIC bowel summary scores maximally declined at 1 week after SBRT (-13.9, p < 0.0001) before returning to baseline at 3 months after SBRT (+0.03, p = 0.94). Prior to treatment, 4.9% of men reported that their bowel bother was a moderate to big problem. This increased to 28.4% (p < 0.0001) 1 week after SBRT and returned to baseline at 3 months after SBRT (0.0%, p = 0.66). Only the bowel summary and bowel bother score declines at 1 week met the MID threshold for clinically significant change. CONCLUSION: The rate and severity of acute proctitis following prostate SBRT peaked at 1 week after treatment and returned to baseline by 3 months. Toxicity assessment at 1 week can therefore minimize recall bias and should aid in the design of future clinical trials focused on accurately capturing and minimizing acute morbidity following SBRT.

19.
Front Oncol ; 6: 122, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27242962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers high doses of radiation to the prostate while minimizing radiation to the adjacent critical organs. Large fraction sizes may increase urinary morbidity due to unavoidable treatment of the prostatic urethra. This study reports rates of acute urinary morbidity following SBRT for localized prostate cancer with prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist utilization and urethral dose reduction (UDR). METHODS: From April 2013 to September 2014, 102 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with robotic SBRT to a total dose of 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. UDR was employed to limit the maximum point dose of the prostatic urethra to 40 Gy. Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated 5 days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary symptoms. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed before and after treatment using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA) and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26). Clinical significance was assessed using a minimally important difference (MID) of one half SD change from baseline. RESULTS: One hundred two patients underwent definitive prostate SBRT with UDR and were followed for 3 months. No patient experienced acute urinary retention requiring catheterization. A mean baseline AUA symptom score of 9.06 significantly increased to 11.83 1-week post-SBRT (p = 0.0024) and 11.84 1-month post-SBRT (p = 0.0023) but returned to baseline by 3 months. A mean baseline EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score of 87.7 decreased to 74.1 1-week post-SBRT (p < 0.0001) and 77.8 1-month post-SBRT (p < 0.0001) but returned to baseline at 3 months. EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score changes were clinically significant, exceeding the MID of 6.0. At baseline, 8.9% of men described their urinary function as a moderate to big problem, and that proportion increased to 37.6% 1 week following completion of SBRT before returning to baseline by 3 months. CONCLUSION: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer with utilization of prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist and UDR was well tolerated as determined by acute urinary function and bother, and symptoms were comparable to those observed following conventionally fractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Longer follow-up is required to assess long-term toxicity and efficacy following SBRT with UDR.

20.
Front Oncol ; 6: 114, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27200300

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is emerging as a minimally invasive alternative to brachytherapy to deliver highly conformal, dose--escalated radiation therapy (RT) to the prostate. SBRT alone may not adequately cover the tumor extensions outside the prostate commonly seen in unfavorable prostate cancer. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with high dose rate brachytherapy boost is a proven effective therapy for unfavorable prostate cancer. This study reports on early prostate-specific antigen and prostate cancer-specific quality of life (QOL) outcomes in a cohort of unfavorable patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and SBRT boost. MATERIALS/METHODS: Prostate cancer patients treated with SBRT (19.5 Gy in three fractions) followed by fiducial-guided IMRT (45-50.4 Gy) from March 2008 to September 2012 were included in this retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Biochemical failure was assessed using the Phoenix definition. Patients completed the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC)-26 at baseline, 1 month after the completion of RT, every 3 months for the first year, then every 6 months for a minimum of 2 years. RESULTS: One hundred eight patients (4 low-, 45 intermediate-, and 59 high-risk) with median age of 74 years completed treatment, with median follow-up of 4.4 years. Sixty-four percent of the patients received androgen deprivation therapy prior to the initiation of RT. The 3-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 100 and 89.8% for intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively. At the initiation of RT, 9 and 5% of men felt their urinary and bowel function was a moderate to big problem, respectively. Mean EPIC urinary and bowel function and bother scores exhibited transient declines, with subsequent return to near baseline. At 2 years posttreatment, 13.7 and 5% of men felt their urinary and bowel function was a moderate to big problem, respectively. CONCLUSION: At 3-year follow-up, biochemical control was favorable. Acute urinary and bowel symptoms were comparable to conventionally fractionated IMRT and brachytherapy. Patients recovered to near their baseline urinary and bowel function by 2 years posttreatment. A combination of IMRT with SBRT boost is well tolerated with minimal impact on prostate cancer-specific QOL.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA