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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596720

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS) in tumor tissues has been reported to be a factor associated with a good prognosis in several types of cancers. However, the relationship between TLS formation and peripheral blood findings remains unclear. The purposes of the study were to evaluate the effect of the presence of TLS on survival and determine the peripheral blood characteristics associated with TLS formation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: A total of 147 consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent lung resection at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between 2013 and 2017 were enrolled. TLS expression was evaluated, and the relationships between clinical parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were further analyzed by mass cytometry to characterize the TLS-positive microenvironment. RESULTS: Forty-six patients had high TLS expression, and the remaining 101 patients had low TLS expression. In stage II to IV patients (n = 35), disease-free survival was longer in the high TLS expression group (p = 0.027). A low neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) < 2.75 in the peripheral blood was associated with high TLS expression (p = 0.003). Citrus analysis after mass cytometry assay showed that the number of cells expressing HLA-DR and CD9 in PBMCs was lower in the high TLS expression group. CONCLUSION: High TLS expression is associated with a good prognosis after surgery in stage II and III NSCLC patients. In the peripheral blood, a low NLR and few antigen-presenting cells indicate the presence of TLS in the tumor microenvironment.

2.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is considered a risk factor for cognitive impairment and falls. The association may be modulated by gait performance because ARHL is related to mobility decline, which strongly contributes to cognitive impairment and falls. We investigated the interactive effects of gait and ARHL on global cognition and falls among older adults. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: The auditory acuity of 810 community-dwelling older adults was measured using a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 1,000 and 4,000 Hz in the better-hearing ear. Participants were then stratified as follows: normal hearing, ≤25 dB; mild hearing loss (HL), >25 and ≤40 dB; and moderate to severe HL, >40 dB. Gait speed was assessed as an indicator of gait performance and fall occurrence within the previous year. Global cognition was determined using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. RESULTS: A total of 320 (39.5%) and 233 (28.8%) participants had mild and moderate to severe HL, respectively. Hierarchical multiple and logistic regression analyses showed interactions between gait performance and moderate hearing loss on both global cognition and the occurrence of falls. Specifically, older adults with moderate hearing loss who walked slowly showed lower MoCA scores and a higher incidence of falls, whereas those with decent gait speed did not show such a tendency. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that poor gait performance might modulate the effects of ARHL, leading to cognitive decline and falls. Poor cognitive performance and falls may be prevalent in older adults with ARHL, especially in those with slower gait and moderate hearing loss. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.

3.
Intern Med ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565776

RESUMO

Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) caused by long-term systemic venous congestion following the Fontan procedure may eventually lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment strategies for HCC due to FALD (FALD-HCC) remain unclear. We herein report a 35-year-old man with FALD-HCC that was well controlled by 3 cycles of continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil and low-dose cisplatin (low-dose FP therapy) combined with 60 Gy of radiation therapy. However, the patient ultimately died of extrahepatic metastases. A pathological autopsy revealed more than 90% necrosis in the primary HCC lesion. This case suggests that low-dose FP therapy might be effective in FALD-HCC.

4.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1971430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552823

RESUMO

OX40 (CD134) is a co-stimulatory molecule mostly expressed on activated T lymphocytes. Previous reports have shown that OX40 can be an immuno-oncology target and a clinical biomarker for cancers of various organs. In this study, we collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 124 patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) who had undergone surgery. We analyzed the expression profiles of OX40 and other relevant molecules, such as CD4, CD8, and Foxp3, in tumor stroma and cancer nest using immunohistochemistry and investigated their association with survival. High infiltration of OX40+ lymphocytes (OX40high) in tumor stroma was positively associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with low infiltration of OX40+ lymphocytes (OX40low) (RFS, median, 26.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI), not reached (NR)-NR] vs 13.2 months [9.1-17.2], p = .024; OS, NR [95% CI, NR-NR] vs 29.8 months [21.3-38.2], p = .049). Multivariate analysis revealed that OX40high in tumor stroma was an independent indicator of prolonged RFS. Moreover, RFS of patients with OX40high/CD4high in tumor stroma was significantly longer than that of patients with OX40low/CD4low. The RFS of patients with tumor stroma with OX40high/CD8high was significantly longer than that of patients with tumor stroma with OX40low/CD8high, OX40high/CD8low, or OX40low/CD8low. These findings suggest that OX40+ lymphocytes in tumor stroma play a complementary role in regulating the relapse of early-stage SCLC. Reinforcing immunity by coordinating the recruitment of OX40+ lymphocytes with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in tumor stroma may constitute a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for patients with SCLC.

5.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(9): 1096-1099, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521783

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors(ICIs)are playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of cancer. In the field of lung cancer, ICIs are widely administered from primary therapy to maintenance therapy after chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer. However, excluding tumor proportion score(TPS)for PD-L1, no other biomarker has been reported to be clinically useful. While many biomarkers are being searched for, analysis of intestinal microbiota is attracting attention as a parameter that may reflect immune status. Research on the relationship between ICIs and gut microbiota has expanded worldwide after 2 reports in Science in 2015. In a study in which the gut microbiota of ICI-treated patients was transplanted into germ-free mice, enhanced antitumor effects were observed in the group that received gut microbiota from the response group, suggesting the possibility of stool transplantation. At the same time, when Akkermansia muciniphila, which is one of the mucin-degrading bacteria, was ingested by mice transplanted with non-responsive gut microbiota, a portion of tumor-infiltrating T cells increased on tumor localization, indicating the effect of changes in gut microbiota. In addition, there is a possibility that the anti-tumor effect may be enhanced by the effect of metabolites on immune cells in the blood rather than the gut microbiota itself, and the analysis of metabolites produced by bacteria is attracting attention. In our department, we have analyzed the intestinal microbiota of 25 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with anti- PD-1 antibody. Although we have achieved diversity and identification of specific bacterial species, analysis of bacterial metabolites will be important in the future when considering the impact of the intestinal microbiota on immune cells. The gut microbiota is not only a biomarker for the treatment of ICIs, but also has the potential to create an immune state that facilitates the effects of ICI by changing the gut environment and metabolites.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos
6.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529140

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with terminal cancer undergoing multidisciplinary palliative care often have oral health problems, but these details are still unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate the oral health of patients with terminal-stage cancer who are inpatient recipients of acute-phase palliative care, and to unveil the factors affecting their oral health. METHODS: Participants were 121 patients with terminal-stage cancer (68 males, 53 females, mean age: 73.6 ± 11.1 years) and oral health complaints. They received palliative care at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Medical Hospital between April 2017 and August 2019. Their demographic and medical details were extracted, retrospectively, from their medical records, and their oral health status, such as the number of natural teeth, removable denture usage, Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT), and Dysphagia Severity Scale, were evaluated. All outcomes were assessed by a dentist from the palliative care team. RESULTS: The problems with soft tissue, saliva, and oral cleanliness were observed. The absence of posterior occlusal support was common, and the use of removable dentures was often inadequate. In contrast, swallowing function was relatively well-conserved and 46.3% of the participants were capable of nutrition intake solely by mouth. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between total OHAT score and age, consciousness level, prognostic level, and method of nutritional intake. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that the oral health of terminal cancer patients under palliative care declined despite receiving routine oral care from nurses, and suggest the importance of including dental professionals in multidisciplinary palliative care.

7.
Transl Oncol ; 14(11): 101201, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although sorafenib, a molecular targeted agent, has survival benefits for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, its disease control rate remains limited. To explore the potential for augmenting its antitumor effect, we assessed the preclinical and clinical efficacy and tolerability of S-1 metronomic chemotherapy (MC) plus sorafenib. METHODS: Antitumor effects and toxicity of this combination were tested with HAK-1B xenograft and spontaneous HCC mouse models, and a prospective pilot study was performed to compare therapeutic effects and safety between sorafenib plus MC S-1 for 12 advanced HCC cases and the historical control of 363 sorafenib-treated advanced HCC patients at our hospital from July 2011 to June 2015. RESULTS: In mice, the combination chemotherapy enhanced anti-angiogenic effects, resulting in a stronger tumor hypoxic environment and increased tumor cell apoptosis. Clinically, the objective response rate of the combination chemotherapy was higher than that of sorafenib mono therapy (16.7%; 2/12 vs 5.2%; 19/363, p < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences in overall survival and time to progression. Adverse events including alopecia, thrombocytopenia, and pancreatic enzymes elevation in the combination chemotherapy were higher than those of sorafenib. No patient treated with the combination chemotherapy discontinued treatment due to severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib plus MC S-1 seems to be effective and tolerable for patients with advanced HCC and could be considered a treatment option for these patients.

8.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(8): 1012-1013, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404067
10.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(4): 210-213, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433757

RESUMO

Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a common benign tumor during infancy, although the detailed mechanism behind it has not been fully elucidated. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that formation of hemangioma might be triggered by secondary physiological events (perinatal hypoxia or mechanical stress during delivery) in patients carrying germline risk mutations. We aimed to clarify the mechanism by evaluating whether head and neck lesions were more frequent in patients in who IH appeared after birth compared with those in who it was present at birth. Clinical data of 62 lesions in 51 patients with IH were collected. All patients were analyzed for correlation of onset with gender, localization, family histories, gestational age, birth weight, and clinical subtypes. Distribution of lesions on the head and neck was slightly more frequent in the after-birth IH group, compared with those with IH present at birth, but without significant difference (47.6% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.32). On the other hand, the ratio of superficial and deep type IH at birth was significantly altered compared with that in IH after birth (19:0 vs. 26:7, p = 0.039). In addition, IHs appearing after birth tended to more commonly have multiple lesions than those with IH present at birth, with statistically significant difference (25.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.0164). There may therefore be different triggers for IHs at birth and IH after birth. Further studies with greater number of patients are necessary to validate these findings.

11.
Cancer Sci ; 112(10): 4187-4197, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327762

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB), a type I transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in many cancers, including breast cancer, has been shown to be a prognostic factor. We previously reported that GPNMB overexpression confers tumorigenic potential, as evidenced by invasive tumor growth in vivo, sphere formation, and cellular migration and invasion to non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. In this study, we focused on the serine (S) residue in the intracellular domain of GPNMB (S530 in human isoform b and S546 in mouse), which is predicted to be a phosphorylation site. To investigate the roles of this serine residue, we made an antibody specific for S530-phosphorylated human GPNMB and a point mutant in which S530 is replaced by an alanine (A) residue, GPNMB(SA). Established GPNMB(SA) overexpressing cells showed a significant reduction in sphere formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo as a result of decreased stemness-related gene expression compared to that in GPNMB(WT)-expressing cells. In addition, GPNMB(SA) impaired GPNMB-mediated cellular migration. Furthermore, we found that tyrosine kinase receptor signaling triggered by epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor 2 induces the serine phosphorylation of GPNMB through activation of downstream oncoproteins RAS and RAF.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Serina/metabolismo , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fosforilação , Mutação Puntual , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Quinases raf/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
12.
Gerodontology ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the oral health of malnourished acute-care hospital inpatients, who were the subjects of a nutritional support team (NST). We also aimed to elucidate the systemic and nutritional factors associated with the oral health of those patients. BACKGROUND: Interventions by NST are essential for inpatient nutrition management and require the active participation of dental professionals. However, information is limited regarding the state of oral health among acute-stage malnourished inpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 255 hospitalised patients (101 women, mean age: 69.7 ± 14.4 years) who were referred to an NST for nutrition management between April 2016 and July 2019. The main outcome was the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) scores. Moreover, we assessed participants' demographic characteristics, nutritional status, number of natural and functional teeth, posterior occlusal support, denture use, Dysphagia Severity Scale, whether oral health management was needed, and the methods of nutrition intake. RESULTS: Several participants presented with a deteriorated oral health. Consequently, oral health management was often regarded necessary in these patients. Approximately half were fed by parenteral or tube feeding. Multiple regression analysis revealed the OHAT score has a positive association with age (P = .008), and a negative association with body mass index (P = .009) and the method of nutrition intake (P = .028). CONCLUSION: Malnourished inpatients at an acute care hospital who were subject to an NST had a deteriorated oral health status. Additionally, poor oral health was associated with poor nutritional status and nutrition intake methods.

13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 278, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an important complication of Kawasaki disease (KD) that is associated with arterial structure damage. However, few studies have examined structural changes in coronary arteries that are not associated with CAA. METHODS: We examined coronary arteries in KD patients with CAAs who underwent follow-up coronary angiography (CAG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Coronary arterial branches with no abnormal findings during the most recent CAG were classified into two groups. Arteries with an acute-phase CAA that later regressed were classified as group R; arteries with no abnormal findings on either acute or convalescent phase CAG were classified as group N. Coronary arterial wall structural changes were compared between groups using OCT. RESULTS: Fifty-seven coronary arterial branches in 23 patients were evaluated by OCT. Thirty-six branches showed no abnormality during the most recent CAG. Both groups R and N comprised 18 branches. Maximum intimal thicknesses in groups R and N were 475 and 355 µm, respectively (p = 0.007). The incidences of media disruption were 100% and 67%, respectively (p = 0.02). Calcification, macrophage accumulation, and thrombus were not found in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Intimal thickening and disruption of the media occur in coronary arteries with acute phase CAAs that later regress in the convalescent phase, as well as in arteries with normal CAG findings in the acute and convalescent phases.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12554, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131154

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer with a poor survival rate. It is difficult to diagnose mesotheliomas because they show a variety of histological patterns similar to those of various other cancers. However, since currently used positive markers for mesotheliomas may show false positives or false negatives, a novel mesothelial positive marker is required. In the present study, we screened 25 claudins and found that claudin-15 is expressed in the mesothelial cells. We made new rat anti-human claudin-15 (CLDN15) monoclonal antibodies that selectively recognize CLDN15, and investigated whether CLDN15 is a good positive marker for malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs) using MPM tissue samples by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantification of the expression level using an immunoreactive score (IRS) method. Of 42 MPM samples, 83% were positive for CLDN15. The positive ratio was equal to or greater than other positive markers for MPMs including calretinin (81%), WT-1 (50%), and D2-40 (81%). In 50 lung adenocarcinoma sections, four cases were positive for CLDN15 and the specificity (92%) was comparable with other markers (90-100%). Notably, CLDN15 was rarely detected in 24 non-mesothelial tumors in the tissue microarray (12/327 cases). In conclusion, CLDN15 can be used in the clinical setting as a positive marker for MPM diagnosis.

15.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(15): 2225-2228, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159737

RESUMO

Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangements are found in ~ 5% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed for treatment of so-called ALK-positive NSCLC. In cases of tumor progression during treatment with second-generation ALK-TKIs, such as alectinib, brigatinib, or ceritinib, National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines propose a switch to lorlatinib, a third-generation ALK-TKI, or to cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, they do not mention switching to other second-generation ALK-TKIs. Here, we present a rare case of a 53-year-old Japanese woman, who had never smoked, with ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma who survived alectinib-resistant postoperative recurrence for 4 years by switching to ceritinib. She underwent curative resection for lung adenocarcinoma, but the cancer recurred at the bronchial stump and mediastinal lymph nodes. After platinum-doublet chemotherapy, the patient still had a single growing liver metastasis, but the tumor was found to harbor EML4-ALK rearrangement. Therefore, the patient started to take ALK-TKIs. Alectinib was the second ALK-TKI used to treat this patient. Alectinib shrank the liver metastasis, which was surgically resected. The tumor relapsed again during continued treatment with alectinib, which was switched to ceritinib. Ceritinib was effective for the relapsed tumor and treatment continued well for 4 years. This case report suggests that, in case of tumor progression during treatment with a second-generation ALK-TKI, switching to another second-generation ALK-TKI may be one of the treatment options. Further analyses are warranted to find robust markers to determine which ALK-TKI is best for each patient.

16.
Endocr Res ; 46(4): 178-185, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060951

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been increasing worldwide. The existence of a relationship between the microbiota and the pathology of hepatic steatosis is also becoming increasingly clear. AST-120, an oral spherical carbon adsorbent, has been shown to be useful for delaying dialysis initiation and improving uremic symptoms in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, little is known about the effect of AST-120 on fatty liver.Methods: AST-120 (5% w/w) was administrated to 6-week-old male db/db mice for 8 weeks. The body weight, blood glucose and food consumption were examined. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels, lipid droplets and epididymal fat cell size were measured. The gut microbiota compositions were investigated in feces and cecum.Results: Significant decreases of the hepatic weight and hepatic TG levels were observed in the AST-120-treated db/db mice. Furthermore, AST-120 treatment was also associated with a decrease of Bacteroidetes, increase of Firmicutes, and a reduced ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (B/F ratio) in the feces in the db/db mice. The B/F ratio in the feces was correlated with the liver weight and area of the liver occupied by lipid droplets in the db/db mice.Conclusions: These data suggest that AST-120 treatment alters the composition of the fecal microbiota and suppresses hepatic TG levels in the db/db mice.

17.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(9): 1253-1257, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955678

RESUMO

A 36-year-old man with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) was admitted to Shonan Kamakura General Hospital in Japan. He was diagnosed with refractory hypertension based on a severely elevated blood pressure of 224/116 mmHg and retinal, cardiac, and brain damage revealed by electrocardiogram, fundoscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Although hemodialysis was withdrawn following strict blood pressure control by an angiotensin receptor blocker, severe kidney insufficiency persisted. Therefore, we performed an autologous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood CD34-positive cell transplantation. Collected CD34-positive cells were directly infused to both renal arteries. The patient's general condition was unremarkable after intervention, and the serum creatinine level gradually improved to 2.96 mg/dL 23 weeks after cell therapy. Although transient fever and thrombocytosis were observed after intervention, no major adverse events were observed. This patient is the first case in a phase I/II clinical trial of autologous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood CD34-positive cell transplantation for severe AKI with a CD34-positive cell dose-escalating protocol (trial number jRCTb030190231).

18.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 506, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter, randomized phase II study was to analyze the feasibility and safety of alternate-day S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected pathological stage I (tumor diameter > 2 cm) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy for 1 year comprising either alternate-day oral administration of S-1 (80 mg/m2/day) for 4 days a week (Group A) or a 2-week oral administration of S-1 (80 mg/m2/day) followed by 1 week of rest (Group B). The primary endpoint was feasibility, which was defined as the proportion of patients who completed the allocated intervention for 6 months with a relative dose intensity (RDI) of 70% or more. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were enrolled of whom 90 patients received S-1 treatment. Median follow-up was 66.9 months. The treatment completion rate based on an RDI of 70% or more for 6 months was 84.4% (95%CI; 70.5-93.5%) in group A and 64.4% (95%CI; 48.8-78.1%) in group B. There were no grade 4 adverse events in either group. Moderate or severe adverse events (grade 2 or grade 3) were significantly more frequent in group B (67%) compared with group A (29%, P = 0.001). The 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 87.0 and 80.9% for group A and B, respectively (P = 0.451). The 5-year overall survival rate for all patients (n = 93) was 100 and 89.4% for group A and B, respectively (P = 0.136). CONCLUSION: Alternate-day oral administration of S-1 for 1 year as adjuvant chemotherapy was demonstrated to be feasible with low toxicity in completely resected stage I (tumor diameter > 2 cm) NSCLC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: UMIN000011994 . Date of registration: 10/8/2013.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Tegafur/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ácido Oxônico/efeitos adversos , Tegafur/efeitos adversos
19.
Gait Posture ; 87: 54-58, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of age-related hearing loss on slow gait has been suggested; however, whether it is associated with increased gait variability, an important predictor of fall risk, remains unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is poor auditory acuity associated with increased gait variability, and does this gait change relate to accidental falls among older adults with hearing loss? METHODS: We studied 107 older adults (mean age, 76.5 years; 80.5 % women). Auditory acuity was measured using a pure tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds for 0.5-4 kHz tones in the better-hearing ear. Hearing loss was defined as a PTA of >25 dB. Gait speed and spatiotemporal variability (i.e., stride length and time variabilities) were assessed using a 5-m electronic walkway. We also assessed the occurrence of multiple falls within the previous year. RESULTS: Fifty-two participants (48.6 %) experienced hearing loss. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for potential covariates showed that poor PTA was associated with slower gait speed and stride length variability, but not stride time variability. Among older adults with hearing loss, fall occurrence was associated with an increased stride length variability and not a slow gait or increased stride time variability. SIGNIFICANCE: The association between hearing loss and increased gait variability observed in the present study suggests that age-related hearing loss can jeopardize gait control during daily activities. This leads to increased gait variability and increased risk of accidental falls. Our results provide additional information on how age-related hearing loss increases the risk of falls.


Assuntos
Marcha , Perda Auditiva , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(3): 1151-1167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) display circadian rhythm and sleep-wake disturbances. However, few mouse AD models exhibit these disturbances. Lemborexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, is under development for treating circadian rhythm disorders in dementia. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice as a model for sleep-wake and rhythm disturbances in AD and the effect of lemborexant by assessing sleep-wake/diurnal rhythm behavior. METHODS: SAMP8 and control senescence-accelerated mouse resistant-1 (SAMR1) mice received vehicle or lemborexant at light onset; plasma lemborexant and diurnal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin concentrations were assessed. Sleep-wake behavior and running wheel activity were evaluated. RESULTS: Plasma lemborexant concentrations were similar between strains. The peak/nadir timing of CSF orexin concentrations were approximately opposite between strains. During lights-on, SAMP8 mice showed less non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) and REM sleep than SAMR1 mice. Lemborexant treatment normalized wakefulness/non-REM sleep in SAMP8 mice. During lights-off, lemborexant-treated SAMR1 mice showed increased non-REM sleep; lemborexant-treated SAMP8 mice displayed increased wakefulness. SAMP8 mice showed differences in electroencephalogram architecture versus SAMR1 mice. SAMP8 mice exhibited more running wheel activity during lights-on. Lemborexant treatment reduced activity during lights-on and increased activity in the latter half of lights-off, demonstrating a corrective effect on overall diurnal rhythm. Lemborexant delayed the acrophase of activity in both strains by approximately 1 hour. CONCLUSION: SAMP8 mice display several aspects of sleep-wake and rhythm disturbances in AD, notably mistimed activity. These findings provide some preclinical rationale for evaluating lemborexant in patients with AD who experience sleep-wake and rhythm disturbances.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Orexina/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Orexina/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações
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