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1.
Clin Nutr ; 40(11): 5523-5530, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A limited number of studies have developed simple anthropometric equations that can be implemented for predicting muscle mass in the local community. Several studies have suggested calf circumference as a simple and accurate surrogate maker for muscle mass. We aimed to develop and cross-validate a simple anthropometric equation, which incorporates calf circumference, to predict appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Furthermore, we conducted a comparative validity assessment of our equation with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and two previously reported equations using similar variables. METHODS: ASM measurements were recorded for 1262 participants (837 men, 425 women) aged 40 years or older. Participants were randomly divided into the development or validation group. Stepwise multiple linear regression was applied to develop the DXA-measured ASM prediction equation. Parameters including age, sex, height, weight, waist circumference, and calf circumference were incorporated as predictor variables. Total error was calculated as the square root of the sum of the square of the difference between DXA-measured and predicted ASMs divided by the total number of individuals. RESULTS: The most optimal ASM prediction equation developed was: ASM (kg) = 2.955 × sex (men = 1, women = 0) + 0.255 × weight (kg) - 0.130 × waist circumference (cm) + 0.308 × calf circumference (cm) + 0.081 × height (cm) - 11.897 (adjusted R2 = 0.94, standard error of the estimate = 1.2 kg). Our equation had smaller total error and higher intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values than those for BIA and two previously reported equations, for both men and women (men, total error = 1.2 kg, ICC = 0.91; women, total error = 1.1 kg, ICC = 0.80). The correlation between DXA-measured ASM and predicted ASM by the present equation was not significantly different from the correlation between DXA-measured ASM and BIA-measured ASM. CONCLUSIONS: The equation developed in this study can predict ASM more accurately as compared to equations where calf circumference is used as the sole variable and previously reported equations; it holds potential as a reliable and an effective substitute for estimating ASM.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579103

RESUMO

(1) Background: Observational studies have established that vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) concentrations are the major factors affecting the bioavailability of 25(OH)D. It has also been shown that poor 25(OH)D bioavailability elevates the risk of obesity and its related cardio-metabolic disorders. However, the relationship between 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese cohorts has not been established. Consequently, we evaluated the association between DBP and 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and body composition in overweight and obese women. (2) Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 236 overweight and obese women, DBP and 25(OH)D concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis. Lipid profile and BP were assessed by an auto-analyzer and digital BP monitor, respectively. The associations were examined by multivariate logistic regression. (3) Results: The indicated showed an inverse relationship between DBP and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.010) concentrations (where individuals with higher DBP had lower HDL) which, after adjusting for possible cofounders, remained significant (p = 0.006). Moreover, DBP concentration was positively associated with fat mass index (FMI) after adjustment (p = 0.022). No significant relationships were observed among 25(OH)D and target variables. (4) Conclusions: In conclusion, lower concentrations of HDL and higher values of FMI are associated with higher concentrations of DBP in overweight and obese women. These findings present novel awareness regarding the association of DBP with some metabolic and body composition variables in overweight and obese women. However, a two-way causal relationship between DBP and target variables should be considered.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371837

RESUMO

It has been theorized that folic acid supplementation improves inflammation. However, its proven effects on inflammatory markers are unclear as clinical studies on this topic have produced inconsistent results. To bridge this knowledge gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on serum concentrations of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Methods: To identify eligible RCTs, a systematic search up to April 2021 was completed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and Google Scholar using relevant keywords. A fix or random-effects model was utilized to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: Twelve RCTs were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analysis revealed that serum concentrations of CRP (WMD: -0.59 mg/L, 95% CI -0.85 to -0.33, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced following folic acid supplementation compared to placebo, but did not affect serum concentrations of IL-6 (WMD: -0.12, 95% CI -0.95 to 0.72 pg/mL, p = 0.780) or TNF-α (WMD: -0.18, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.49 pg/mL, p = 0.594). The dose-response analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between an elevated dosage of folic acid supplementation and lower CRP concentrations (p = 0.002). Conclusions: We found that folic acid supplementation may improve inflammation by attenuating serum concentrations of CRP but without significant effects on IL-6 and TNF-α. Future RCTs including a larger number of participants and more diverse populations are needed to confirm and expand our findings.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favorable influences of saffron supplementation on metabolic diseases have previously been shown. We aimed to assess the effects of saffron supplementation on blood pressure in adults. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to the effect of saffron supplementation on blood pressure in adults up to March 2021. The primary search yielded 182 publications, of which eight RCTs were eligible. RESULTS: Our results showed that saffron supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference (WMD): -0.65 mmHg; 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.18, p = 0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD: -1.23 mmHg; 95% CI: -1.64 to -0.81, p < 0.001). Moreover, saffron supplementation reduced DBP in a non-linear fashion, based on duration (r = -2.45, p-nonlinearity = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Saffron supplementation may significantly improve both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. It should be noted that the hypotensive effects of saffron supplementation were small and may not reach clinical importance.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Crocus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in the considerable benefits of dietary supplementations, such as folic acid, on the glycemic profile. We aimed to investigate the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycemic control markers in adults. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycemic control markers published up to March 2021 were detected by searching online databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and ISI web of science, using a combination of related keywords. Mean change and standard deviation (SD) of the outcome measures were used to estimate the mean difference between the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Meta-regression and non-linear dose-response analysis were conducted to evaluate the association between pooled effect size and folic acid dosage (mg/day) and duration of the intervention (week). From 1814 detected studies, twenty-four studies reported fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as an outcome measure. RESULTS: Results revealed significant reductions in FBG (weighted mean difference (WMD): -2.17 mg/dL, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.65, p = 0.005), fasting insulin (WMD: -1.63 pmol/L, 95% CI: -2.53, -0.73, p < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (WMD: -0.40, 95% CI: -0.70, -0.09, p = 0.011) following folic acid supplementation. No significant effect was detected for HbA1C (WMD: -0.27%, 95% CI: -0.73, 0.18, p = 0.246). The dose-response analysis showed that folic acid supplementation significantly changed HOMA-IR (r = -1.30, p-nonlinearity = 0.045) in non-linear fashion. However, meta-regression analysis did not indicate a linear relationship between dose, duration, and absolute changes in FBG, HOMA-IR, and fasting insulin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid supplementation significantly reduces some markers of glycemic control in adults. These reductions were small, which may limit clinical applications for adults with type II diabetes. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Therm Biol ; 99: 102979, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420623

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the effects of ice slurry ingestion on post-exercise cooling in males and females. Twenty-four healthy adults (male n = 12; body weight [BW], 65.8 ± 10.3 kg; female, n = 12; BW, 58.2 ± 10.0 kg) participated in this study. Participants ingested 7.5 g/kg of either ice slurry at -1 °C (ICE) or control fluid at 20 °C (CON) during recovery after cycling at 55% VO2max until the rectal temperature reached 38.5 °C or exhaustion in a hot environment (controlled at 38 °C, 40% relative humidity). Rectal (Tre) and skin (Tsk) temperature, ratings of thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and whole body sweat loss (WBSL) were measured 60 min after exercise. Ice slurry ingestion reduced Tre and TS and improved post-exercise hypotension only in females (p < 0.05). In comparison, males did not receive cooling effect from post- exercise cooling with ice slurry ingestion. WBSL tended to be lower in ICE than CON in males (ICE, 454.3 ± 172.3 g; CON, 539.7 ± 157.2 g; p = 0.065). In conclusion, sex differences were observed in the effects of post-exercise cooling with ice slurry ingestion.

7.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436266

RESUMO

Marine sponge-associated bacteria are known as bio-active compound produce. We have constructed metagenome libraries of the bacteria and developed a metagenomic screening approach. Activity-based screening successfully identified novel genes and novel enzymes; however, the efficiency was only in 1 out of 104 clones. Therefore, in this study, we thought that bioinformatics could help to reduce screening efforts, and combined activity-based screening with database search. Neutrophils play an important role for the immune system to recognize excreted bacterial by-products as chemotactic factors and are recruited to infection sites to kill pathogens via phagocytosis. These excreted by-products are considered critical triggers that engage the immune system to mount a defense against infection, and identifying these factors may guide developments in medicine and diagnostics. We focused on genes encoding amino acid ligase and peptide synthetase and selected from an in-house sponge metagenome database. Cell-free culture medium of each was used in a neutrophil chemiluminescence assay in luminol reaction. The clone showing maximum activity had a genomic sequence expected to produce a molecule like a phospho-N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide by the metagenome fragment analysis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360295

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the intragroup differences in weekly training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) between starter and non-starter male professional soccer players at accelerometry based variables throughout the periods of a season. TM and TS of different accelerations and decelerations zones for twenty-one players were followed for forty-eight weeks. Regardless of group, players obtained the highest mean TM (starters = 3.3 ± 0.6, non-starters = 2.2 ± 1.1, in arbitrary unit, AU) and TS (starters = 1288.9 ± 265.2, non-starters = 765.4 ± 547.5, AU) scores in the pre-season for accelerations at Zone 1 (<2 m/s2). The results also indicated that both groups exhibited similar TM and TS scores in accelerations at Zones 2 (2 to 4 m/s2) and 3 (>4 m/s2) across the entire season. While the starters showed the highest TM and TS scores at deceleration Zone 1 (<-2 m/s2) in the end-season, the non-starters exhibited the highest scores at the deceleration Zone 1 in pre-season. It seems that in pre-season, coaches applied higher levels of training with greater emphasis on deceleration for non-starters. This tendency was reduced over time for non-starters, while starters presented higher values of deceleration Zone 1. These results highlight the variations in TM and TS across the different periods of a full season according to match starting status among professional soccer players, and the results suggest that non-starter players should receive higher levels of load to compensate for non-participation in matches throughout a soccer season.


Assuntos
Futebol , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Aceleração , Acelerometria , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5566880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211629

RESUMO

Previous studies have not investigated the determinants of resting oxidative stress, including physical fitness, as it relates to redox regulation. The present study therefore was aimed at identifying lifestyle and biological factors that determine resting oxidative stress, including objectively measured physical fitness. In 873 middle-aged and elderly men and women, age and anthropometric parameters, lifestyle-related parameters, medication and supplementation status, physical fitness, biochemical parameters, and nutritional intake status, as well as three plasma oxidative stress markers: protein carbonyl (PC), F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were surveyed and measured. The determinants of PC, F2-IsoP, and TBARS in all participants were investigated using stepwise multiple regression analysis. In PC, age (ß = -0.11, P = 0.002), leg extension power (ß = -0.12, P = 0.008), BMI (ß = 0.12, P = 0.004), and HDL-C (ß = 0.08, P = 0.040) were included in the regression model (adjusted R 2 = 0.018). In the F2-IsoP, smoking status (ß = 0.07, P = 0.060), BMI (ß = 0.07, P = 0.054), and HbA1c (ß = -0.06, P = 0.089) were included in the regression model (adjusted R 2 = 0.006). In TBARS, glucose (ß = 0.18, P < 0.001), CRF (ß = 0.16, P < 0.001), age (ß = 0.15, P < 0.001), TG (ß = 0.11, P = 0.001), antioxidant supplementation (ß = 0.10, P = 0.002), and HbA1c (ß = -0.13, P = 0.004) were included in the regression model (adjusted R 2 = 0.071). In conclusion, the present study showed that age, anthropometric index, lifestyle-related parameters, medication and supplementation status, objectively measured physical fitness, biochemical parameters, and nutritional intake status explain less than 10% of oxidative stress at rest.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200791

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis is now present in more than 200 countries. It started in December 2019 and has, so far, led to more than 149, 470,968 cases, 3,152,121 deaths, and 127,133,013 survivors recovered by 28 April 2021. COVID-19 has a high morbidity, and mortality of 2%, on average, whereas most people are treated after a period of time. Some people who recover from COVID-19 are left with 20 to 30% decreased lung function. In this context, exercise focused on skeletal muscle with minimal lung involvement could potentially play an important role. Regular exercise protects against diseases associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. This long-term effect of exercise may be ascribed to the anti-inflammatory response elicited by an acute bout of exercise, which is partly mediated by muscle-derived myokines. The isometric training system seems to have this feature, because this system is involved with the skeletal muscle as the target tissue. However, no studies have examined the effect of exercise on the treatment and recovery of COVID-19, and, more importantly, "muscle-lung cross-talk" as a mechanism for COVID-19 treatment. It is suggested that this theoretical construct be examined by researchers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas , Humanos , Pulmão , Músculo Esquelético
11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-31, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256880

RESUMO

The association between a dietary pattern characterised by high alcohol intake and dyslipidaemia has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between alcohol dietary patterns and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2,171 men and women aged ≥40 years who were alumni of a Japanese university. To identify dietary patterns, a principal component analysis was performed based on the energy-adjusted food intake estimated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified, the second of which was named the alcohol dietary pattern and was characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken, and fish. This alcohol dietary pattern was associated with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of high LDL-C for the lowest through highest quartile of alcohol dietary pattern score were 1.00 (reference), 0.83 (0.64-1.08), 0.84 (0.64-1.10), and 0.68 (0.49- 0.94), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the alcohol dietary pattern was inversely associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in women, whereas it was positively associated with high triglyceride levels in men. In conclusion, the alcohol dietary pattern, characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken, and fish, was associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This finding provides useful information for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia by modifying the diet.

12.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21698, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085350

RESUMO

Regular exercise maintains arterial endothelial cell homeostasis and protects the arteries from vascular disease, such as peripheral artery disease and atherosclerosis. Autophagy, which is a cellular process that degrades misfolded or aggregate proteins and damaged organelles, plays an important role in maintaining organ and cellular homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether regular exercise stimulates autophagy in aorta endothelial cells of mice prone to atherosclerosis independently of their circulating lipid profile. Here, we observed that 16 weeks of voluntary exercise reduced high-fat diet-induced atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aortic root of ApoE deficient mice, and that this protection occurred without changes in circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, and lipoproteins. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that voluntary exercise increased levels of the autophagy protein LC3 in aortic endothelial cells. Interestingly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to serum from voluntarily exercised mice displayed significantly increased LC3-I and LC3-II protein levels. Analysis of circulating cytokines demonstrated that voluntary exercise caused changes directly relevant to IL-1 signaling (ie, decreased interleukin-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1ra] while also increasing IL-1α). HUVECs exposed to IL-1α and IL-1ß recombinant protein significantly increased LC3 mRNA expression, LC3-I and LC3-II protein levels, and autophagy flux. Collectively, these results suggest that regular exercise protects arteries from ApoE deficient mice against atherosclerosis at least in part by stimulating endothelial cell autophagy via enhanced IL-1 signaling.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Autofagia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Interleucina-1/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE
13.
Talanta ; 232: 122435, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074420

RESUMO

Determination of neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition in seawater is useful for tracing water masses and geochemical cycles for lithogenic elements in the ocean. A new separation procedure for determination of the Nd isotopic composition of in seawater samples was developed that offers enhanced sample throughput and improved measurement reliability. The procedure consists of conventional Fe hydroxide coprecipitation, solid phase extraction using DGA chelating resin column chromatography, and Ln Resin column chromatography to preconcentrate samples. High selectivity in HNO3 medium and elution by low concentration HCl medium for Nd are characteristics of extraction using DGA Resin®, and they allowed an evaporation step to be omitted between the chromatographic steps. These chromatographic steps, using DGA Resin to separate REEs and Ln Resin® to remove Sm, were refined from a previous study. The procedural blank value of Nd was obtained as 2 pg (n = 6) from 3 L of water samples. Chemical yield of Nd from 3 L of seawater ranged within 90-95%. The developed procedure was combined with multiple collector-ICP-MS and applied to analysis of vertical seawater samples obtained from the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific Ocean, where εNd ranged from -1.29 ± 0.42 at the surface to -3.80 ± 0.41 at 4000 m depth. These results were validated by comparing them with results obtained by the conventional method verified in the GEOTRACES inter-calibration program.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070847

RESUMO

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a dangerous infectious disease that is easily transmitted and which is called an acute respiratory syndrome. With the spread of the coronavirus around the world and its epidemic among humans, we are losing many humans. The long process of treatment in hospitalized patients who are receiving intensive care and medication is associated with physical weakness. It has been suggested that lifelong exercise can create a safe margin for a person that allows them to avoid becoming infected with the virus. The current study was conducted to assess the effects of low-intensity exercise and breathing exercises on cardiorespiratory responses and physical status in an overweight 20-year-old woman infected with COVID-19. The patient was referred to Hazrat Ali Ibn Abitaleb Hospital in Rafsanjan. The patient had initial symptoms of coronavirus including weakness, shortness of breath, fever, and chills, and the initial tests confirmed that the person was infected with the coronavirus. Although COVID-19 reduces respiration and blood oxygen and severely reduces movement and physical activity, low-intensity rehabilitation and breathing exercises along with medication can improve blood oxygen status, resting heart rate, blood pressure, and hand power status in patients and possibly speeding up the healing process. The results of the present study show that low-intensity exercise and breathing exercises in patients with COVID-19, whose disease severity is mild to moderate, can be performed safely under the supervision of their physicians to prevent the disease process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biomolecules ; 11(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806202

RESUMO

Exercise can ameliorate cardiovascular dysfunctions in the diabetes condition, but its precise molecular mechanisms have not been entirely understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of endurance training on expression of angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Thirty adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (N = 10) including diabetic training (DT), sedentary diabetes (SD), and sedentary healthy (SH), in which diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Endurance training (ET) with moderate-intensity was performed on a motorized treadmill for six weeks. Training duration and treadmill speed were increased during five weeks, but they were kept constant at the final week, and slope was zero at all stages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was used to measure the expression of myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C), histone deacetylase-4 (HDAC4) and Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in cardiac tissues of the rats. Our results demonstrated that six weeks of ET increased gene expression of MEF2C significantly (p < 0.05), and caused a significant reduction in HDAC4 and CaMKII gene expression in the DT rats compared to the SD rats (p < 0.05). We concluded that moderate-intensity ET could play a critical role in ameliorating cardiovascular dysfunction in a diabetes condition by regulating the expression of some angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissues.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Regulação para Cima
16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902763

RESUMO

The present study examined the effects of different temperatures of protein-containing drink after exercise on subsequent gastric motility and energy intake in healthy young men. Twelve healthy young men completed three, 1-d trials in a random order. In all trials, the subjects ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 80% of maximum heart rate. In exercise + cold drink (2°C) and exercise + hot drink (60°C) trials, the subjects consumed 300 ml of protein-containing drink (0·34 MJ) at 2°C or 60°C over a 5-min period after exercise. In the exercise (i.e. no preload) trial, the subjects sat on a chair for 5 min after exercise. Then, the subjects sat on a chair for 30 min to measure their gastric motility with an ultrasound imaging system in all trials. Thereafter, the subjects consumed a test meal until they felt comfortably full. Energy intake in the exercise + hot drink trial was 14 % and 15 % higher than the exercise (P = 0·046, 95% CI 4·010, 482·538) trial and exercise + cold drink (P = 0·001, 95% CI 160·089, 517·111) trial, respectively. The frequency of the gastric contractions in the exercise + hot drink trial was higher than the exercise (P = 0·023) trial and exercise + cold drink (P = 0·007) trial. The total frequency of gastric contractions was positively related to energy intake (r = 0·386, P = 0·022). These findings demonstrate that consuming protein-containing drink after exercise at 60°C increases energy intake and that this increase may be related to the modulation of the gastric motility.

17.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800880

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidant mechanisms. ROS degrade biogenic substances such as deoxyribonucleic acid, lipids, and proteins, which in turn may lead to oxidative tissue damage. One of the physiological conditions currently associated with enhanced oxidative stress is exercise. Although a period of intense training may cause oxidative damage to muscle fibers, regular exercise helps increase the cells' ability to reduce the ROS over-accumulation. Regular moderate-intensity exercise has been shown to increase antioxidant defense. Endogenous antioxidants cannot completely prevent oxidative damage under the physiological and pathological conditions (intense exercise and exercise at altitude). These conditions may disturb the endogenous antioxidant balance and increase oxidative stress. In this case, the use of antioxidant supplements such as creatine can have positive effects on the antioxidant system. Creatine is made up of two essential amino acids, arginine and methionine, and one non-essential amino acid, glycine. The exact action mechanism of creatine as an antioxidant is not known. However, it has been shown to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the capability to eliminate ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It seems that the antioxidant effects of creatine may be due to various mechanisms such as its indirect (i.e., increased or normalized cell energy status) and direct (i.e., maintaining mitochondrial integrity) mechanisms. Creatine supplement consumption may have a synergistic effect with training, but the intensity and duration of training can play an important role in the antioxidant activity. In this study, the researchers attempted to review the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation and physical exercise on oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Creatina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801178

RESUMO

Trends relating to specific diets and lifestyle factors like physical (in) activity have formed in recent times [...].

19.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 130(5): 1410-1420, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764172

RESUMO

Icing is still one of the most common treatments to acute skeletal muscle damage in sports medicine. However, previous studies using rodents reported the detrimental effect of icing on muscle regeneration following injury. This study aimed to elucidate the critical factors governing the impairment of muscle regeneration by icing with a murine model of eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage by electrical stimulation. Because of icing after muscle injury, the infiltration of polynuclear and mononuclear cells into necrotic muscle fibers was retarded and attenuated, leading to the persistent presence of necrotic cellular debris. These phenomena coincided with the delayed emergence and sustained accumulation of Pax7+ myogenic cells within the regenerating area. In addition, due to icing, delayed and/or sustained infiltration of M1 macrophages was noted in accordance with the perturbed expression patterns of inflammation-related factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). The key myogenic regulatory factors (i.e., MyoD and myogenin) involved in the activation/proliferation and differentiation of myogenic precursor cells were not altered by icing during the regenerative process. A detailed analysis of regenerating myofibers by size distribution at day 14 after muscle damage showed that the ratio of small regenerating fibers to total regenerating fibers was higher in icing-treated animals than in untreated animals. These findings suggest that icing following muscle damage blunts the efficiency of muscle regeneration by perturbing the removal of necrotic myofibers and phenotypic dynamics of macrophages rather than affecting myogenic factors.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Icing blunted the muscle regeneration by perturbing the infiltration of polynuclear and mononuclear cells into necrotic myofibers and the phenotypic dynamics of macrophages rather than affecting the myogenic regulatory factors. Because of icing, the disappearance of necrotic muscle debris was retarded, coinciding with the delayed emergence and sustained accumulation of Pax7+ cells within the regenerating area. The expression patterns of TNF-α and IL-10 were altered by icing consistent with the perturbation of the macrophage phenotype.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Regeneração , Animais , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Miogenina , Fenótipo
20.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668504

RESUMO

The low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) is a dietary approach characterized by the intake of high amounts of fat, a balanced amount of protein, and low carbohydrates, which is insufficient for metabolic demands. Previous studies have shown that an LCKD alone may contribute to fatty acid oxidation capacity, along with endurance. In the present study, we combined a 10-week LCKD with an 8-week forced treadmill running program to determine whether training in conjunction with LCKD enhanced fatty acid oxidation capacity, as well as whether the maximal exercise capacity would be affected by an LCKD or training in a mice model. We found that the lipid pool and fatty acid oxidation capacity were both enhanced following the 10-week LCKD. Further, key fatty acid oxidation related genes were upregulated. In contrast, the 8-week training regimen had no effect on fatty acid and ketone body oxidation. Key genes involved in carbohydrate utilization were downregulated in the LCKD groups. However, the improved fatty acid oxidation capacity did not translate into an enhanced maximal exercise capacity. In summary, while favoring the fatty acid oxidation system, an LCKD, alone or combined with training, had no beneficial effects in our intensive exercise-evaluation model. Therefore, an LCKD may be promising to improve endurance in low- to moderate-intensity exercise, and may not be an optimal choice for those partaking in high-intensity exercise.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta Cetogênica , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Corpos Cetônicos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Oxirredução
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