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2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(3): 280-283, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224591

RESUMO

A fulfilling communication between healthcare professionals and patients is important during medical interviews, especially when asking sex-life-related questions in compliance with TERMS® (Thalidomide Education and Risk Management System) and RevMate® (procedures for proper management of Revlimid® (lenalidomide) and Pomalyst® (pomalidomide)). Educational systems for improving medical communications related to sexual issues remain to be developed. Therefore, we surveyed real views of healthcare professionals and patients involved in thalidomide treatment. We created an educational DVD and a side reader to improve medical communications under the aid from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).

3.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297407

RESUMO

In the phase 3 OPTIMISMM trial, pomalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (PVd) significantly improved the progression-free survival (PFS) and the overall response rate (ORR) vs bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. All patients were previously treated with lenalidomide (70% refractory to lenalidomide) and had received one to three prior regimens. Here we report the first efficacy and safety analysis of PVd vs Vd in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients enrolled in the OPTIMISMM trial in Japan. With a median follow-up of 14.8 months, the median PFS was 17.6 months with PVd (n = 12) vs 4.4 months with Vd (n = 5), and the ORR was 100% vs 60.0%, respectively. The safety profile was as expected for PVd. Toxicities were managed with dose reductions and interruptions, and no patients discontinued PVd due to treatment-emergent adverse events. These results are consistent with those in the overall OPTIMISMM patient population and confirm the clinical benefit of PVd in Japanese patients.

4.
Int J Hematol ; 111(4): 512-518, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125606

RESUMO

This article presents a practical overview of the treatment of younger, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients, focusing on novel treatment strategies. With the introduction of effective new agents, multiple myeloma is one of the most active and changing fields in clinical oncology. In addition, monitoring technology has become reliable and practical. Achieving and sustaining minimal residual disease negativity (MRD- ), such as multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) < 10-5, is one of the goals of therapy. MRD- is significantly associated with prolonged progression-free survival, whereas MRD persistence (MRD +) is an independent factor for poor progression-free survival. Evidence from several recent studies evaluating modern therapy has further supported the positive correlation between depth of response and outcomes. Multiple myeloma can become a chronic illness with sustained MRD- in a significant number of patients. Our ultimate hope is to leverage tumoricidal-immunomodulatory sequential therapies and to cure a subset of our patients.

5.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157945

RESUMO

Although several pedigrees of familial myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia (fMDS/AML) have been reported, the epidemiology and clinical features has been poorly understood. To explore the epidemiology of this entity, we performed a retrospective nationwide epidemiological survey in Japan using questionnaire sheets. The questionnaire was sent to 561 institutions or hospitals certified by Japanese Society of Hematology, unearthing the existence of 41 pedigrees of fMDS/AML. Among them, we obtained the clinical information of 31 patients in 20 pedigrees. The median age of the initial diagnosis was 51 years (range 9-88 years) and the WHO classification 2008 ranged from refractory anemia (RA) to AML. Focusing on the familial MDS patients, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-2 was the largest group (27.3%). The median overall survival (OS) of fMDS and fAML in this study were 71.6 and 12.4 months, and the five-year OS were 61.3 and 50%, respectively.

6.
Int J Hematol ; 111(5): 692-701, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002821

RESUMO

Lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) treatment is common for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. Daratumumab plus Rd (D-Rd) is effective and well tolerated for treating relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. In this ongoing phase 1b trial, transplant-ineligible Japanese patients with NDMM received daratumumab (16 mg/kg intravenously every week for 8 weeks, every 2 weeks for 16 weeks, then every 4 weeks until disease progression) plus Rd (R 25 mg on Days 1‒21 of 28-day cycle; d 40 mg weekly). The primary objective was to evaluate D-Rd tolerability and safety in Japanese patients with NDMM. Secondary objectives included daratumumab pharmacokinetics and response rate. During the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) evaluation period, two DLTs occurred in seven (28.6%) patients, indicating D-Rd tolerability. At an 11.0-month median follow-up (interim analysis), grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in six (85.7%) patients, including lymphopenia (71.4%), leukopenia (57.1%), and neutropenia (42.9%). Three (42.9%) patients experienced infusion-related reactions (IRRs). All IRRs were grade 2, occurred during the first daratumumab infusion, and resolved within 24 h. Pharmacokinetic findings were comparable to those in previous studies. A 100% overall response rate was achieved. These findings suggest D-Rd is tolerable in Japanese patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02918331.

7.
Int J Hematol ; 111(1): 103-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673952

RESUMO

The combination of bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) is used as induction treatment in multiple myeloma; however, the optimum schedule for this regimen remains controversial. In this retrospective study, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of twice-weekly VRD (twVRD) and modified VRD-lite in transplant-eligible myeloma patients. Fifty-five patients (median age 61 years) were included; 22 received twVRD (bortezomib [1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11] and lenalidomide [25 mg/body on days 1-14] over 21-day cycles) and 33 received modified VRD-lite (bortezomib [1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, 15, and 22) and lenalidomide [15 mg/body on days 2-7, 9-14, 16-21] over 28-day cycles). Overall response, very good partial response, and complete response rates after VRD were 96.4%, 45.5%, and 20.0%, respectively (median follow-up period, 17.7 months). The 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival rates were 95.8% and 98.2%, respectively. The response rate and PFS were similar between the groups, regardless of cytogenetic risk and age. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy ≥ grade 2 and thrombocytopenia ≥ grade 3 was higher in the twVRD group (27.2% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.003 and 27.2% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.003). In conclusion, modified VRD-lite had similar efficacy with, but better tolerability than, twVRD in transplant-eligible patients.

8.
J Med Econ ; 23(2): 166-173, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682533

RESUMO

Aims: Various drugs have recently been launched for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). This increase in the number of treatment options has potentially changed treatment patterns and medical costs for patients with MM. Japanese public health insurance claims were analyzed to examine the change in the treatment patterns of MM drugs and medical costs per patient.Materials and methods: A claims database provided by Medical Data Vision was used, which includes data from ∼20 million patients from >300 acute care hospitals across Japan. The type of MM drugs prescribed and medical costs for patients with MM between April 2008 and December 2016 were examined using monthly cross-sectional analyses. Patients with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis code of C90.0 were classified as having MM. MM drugs were defined by generic names.Results: In total, 19,137 patients with MM (average age at first diagnosis: 69.6 years; percentage of women: 47.9%) were identified from the database. The percentage of patients prescribed each MM drug changed substantially as novel drugs were launched. Total medical costs increased until 2010, then stabilized. MM drug costs increased from approximately 2010, but costs for other care decreased, particularly for hospitalization (including surgery).Limitations: The database contained data from large, acute care hospitals, which may have caused bias in terms of patients' clinical history and disease severity.Conclusions: Total medical costs for MM have remained stable since 2010. MM drug costs increased, but costs for other care decreased after the launch of lenalidomide in 2010 and other drugs in 2015 and later. More detailed research is required to confirm whether the launch of novel drugs caused the changes in medical costs.

9.
Eur J Haematol ; 104(2): 110-115, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRd) is a standard induction regimen for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). However, some patients discontinue VRd because of severe adverse events, despite its high efficacy. We aimed to study the efficacy of modified dose of VRd (VRd lite) in transplant-eligible patients with NDMM. METHODS: Forty-eight transplant-eligible patients with NDMM were included. VRd lite was administered every 4 weeks. Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 was administered subcutaneously on days 1, 8, 15 and 22, and dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally on the day of and the day after bortezomib administration. Lenalidomide was omitted on days 1, 8 and 15, which are the days of bortezomib administration. RESULTS: The overall response rate (ORR) after four cycles of VRd lite was 83%, including a complete response of 25%. Thirty-eight among the 45 patients who completed at least four cycles of VRd lite received autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The ORR and very good partial response or better were upgraded to 100% and 74%, respectively, following ASCT. CONCLUSION: Our strategy consisting of VRd lite followed by ASCT is, thus, a highly effective and well-tolerated regimen resulting in durable responses in patients with NDMM.

10.
Int J Hematol ; 111(1): 65-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701481

RESUMO

Novel therapies are needed for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Elotuzumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). This phase 2 study in Japan evaluated ELd vs lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Ld) in patients with NDMM who were ineligible for stem cell transplantation. Elotuzumab infusion was accelerated to 5 mL/min by dose 3, cycle 1, allowing most subsequent infusions to be completed within 1 h. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) in the ELd arm. Secondary endpoints were the difference in ORR between treatments, and progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were randomized to ELd (n = 40) or Ld (n = 42); median number of treatment cycles was 13 (ELd) and 12 (Ld). In the ELd arm, ORR was 88% [70% confidence interval (CI) 80-93]. The estimated difference in ORR between treatments was 13% (95% CI - 4, 30) in favor of ELd. Progression-free survival data were immature. Safety was consistent with previous findings of ELd in Japanese patients with RRMM. No infusion reactions occurred at the maximum rate of 5 mL/min, which was used in 89% of elotuzumab infusions. ELd may be an effective, well-tolerated frontline treatment for patients with NDMM ineligible for stem cell transplantation.

11.
Int J Hematol ; 111(1): 57-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664647

RESUMO

We report the final results from a multicenter, open-label phase I study of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in Japanese patients with heavily pretreated relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Twenty-six RRMM patients were enrolled and received a median of 4.0 prior regimens; 12/26 patients (46.2%) completed the planned 18 administration cycles (mean number of cycles: 14.5 ± 4.9). The safety profile was consistent with that of previous carfilzomib studies. All patients experienced adverse events (AEs), but no new safety concerns were observed. The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs (incidence: ≥ 10%) were lymphocyte count decreased (46.2%), platelet count decreased (42.3%), and neutrophil count decreased (34.6%). The overall response rate was 88.5% (23/26; 90% confidence interval: 72.8-96.8). Complete response (CR) or better was achieved by 30.8% of patients compared with 3.8% in the interim analysis. The median time to CR or better response was 9.4 months. Median progression-free survival and duration of response were 19.5 months and 20.3 months, respectively. Median overall survival was not reached. Long-term administration of carfilzomib produced deep response and long-term disease control. The combination of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone was well tolerated and showed promising clinical efficacy for heavily pretreated RRMM patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was registered in the database clinicaltrials.jp (clinical trial registration number: Japic CTI 142677).

12.
Lancet ; 395(10218): 132-141, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard-of-care treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma includes combination therapies for patients who are not eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. At the primary analysis for progression-free survival of the phase 3 ALCYONE trial, progression-free survival was significantly longer with daratumumab in combination with bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (D-VMP) versus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) alone in patients with transplant-ineligible, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here we report updated efficacy and safety results from a prespecified, interim, overall survival analysis of ALCYONE with more than 36 months of follow-up. METHODS: ALCYONE was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, active-controlled, phase 3 trial that enrolled patients between Feb 9, 2015, and July 14, 2016, at 162 sites in 25 countries across North America, South America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and were ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation, because of their age (≥65 years) or because of substantial comorbidities. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio and by permuted block randomisation to receive D-VMP or VMP. An interactive web-based randomisation system was used. Randomisation was stratified by International Staging System disease stage, geographical region, and age. There was no masking to treatment assignments. All patients received up to nine 6-week cycles of subcutaneous bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 of body surface area on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29, and 32 of cycle one and on days 1, 8, 22, and 29 of cycles two through nine), oral melphalan (9 mg/m2 once daily on days 1 through 4 of each cycle), and oral prednisone (60 mg/m2 once daily on days 1 through 4 of each cycle). Patients in the D-VMP group also received intravenous daratumumab (16 mg/kg of bodyweight, once weekly during cycle one, once every 3 weeks in cycles two through nine, and once every 4 weeks thereafter as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which has been reported previously. Results presented are from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. The primary analysis population (including for overall survival) was the intention-to-treat population of all patients who were randomly assigned to treatment. The safety population included patients who received any dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02195479. FINDINGS: 706 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (350 to the D-VMP group, 356 to the VMP group). At a median follow-up of 40·1 months (IQR 37·4-43·1), a significant benefit in overall survival was observed for the D-VMP group. The hazard ratio (HR) for death in the D-VMP group compared with the VMP group was 0·60 (95% CI 0·46-0·80; p=0·0003). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 36-month rate of overall survival was 78·0% (95% CI 73·2-82·0) in the D-VMP group and 67·9% (62·6-72·6) in the VMP group. Progression-free survival, the primary endpoint, remained significantly improved for the D-VMP group (HR 0·42 [0·34-0·51]; p<0·0001). The most frequent adverse events during maintenance daratumumab monotherapy in patients in the D-VMP group were respiratory infections (54 [19%] of 278 patients had upper respiratory tract infections; 42 [15%] had bronchitis, 34 [12%] had viral upper respiratory tract infections), cough (34 [12%]), and diarrhoea (28 [10%]). INTERPRETATION: D-VMP prolonged overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. With more than 3 years of follow-up, the D-VMP group continued to show significant improvement in progression-free survival, with no new safety concerns. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , América do Norte , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , América do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(10): 1411-1417, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695000

RESUMO

Because multiple myeloma is rare in young people, there are fewer reports on the same. Thus, its clinical aspects and prognosis remain unelucidated. We retrospectively evaluated 30 patients with multiple myeloma aged ≤ 45 years at diagnosis. We divided them into three groups based on their cytogenetic risks: standard risk (SR), high risk (HR), and unknown risk. The frequency of HR patients was 36.6%, the highest of the three groups, unlike the previous report. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 35 months (SR vs. HR, 46 vs. 29 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was not reached (NR) (SR vs. HR, NR vs. 82 months). The OS was significantly worse, and the PFS also appeared inferior in HR patients. The International Staging System score was not associated with OS. Thus, young patients with myeloma appeared to have a higher frequency of HR features, suggesting that instead of age, the cytogenetic risk was a significant prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Citogenética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Ann Hematol ; 98(12): 2805-2814, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620815

RESUMO

In the ALCYONE trial, daratumumab plus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (D-VMP) reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 50% versus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) in patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here, we report a subanalysis of East Asian patients from ALCYONE. After a median follow-up of 17.1 and 15.9 months for Japanese (n = 50) and Korean (n = 41) patients, respectively, median progression-free survival for D-VMP versus VMP was not reached (NR) versus 20.7 months in Japanese patients and NR versus 14.0 months in Korean patients. The overall response rate for D-VMP versus VMP was 96% versus 92% in Japanese patients and 91% versus 61% in Korean patients. Using next-generation sequencing, minimal residual disease negativity at 10-5 sensitivity for D-VMP versus VMP was 33% versus 8% among Japanese patients and 17% versus 0% among Korean patients. Rates of any grade and grade 3/4 pneumonia were consistent with the rates observed for the global safety population. Similar efficacy and safety findings were observed in the combined Japanese and Korean subgroup and ≥ 75 years of age subgroup. In conclusion, D-VMP was safe and efficacious in East Asian patients, consistent with the global ALCYONE population.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2924-2932, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336012

RESUMO

This multicenter, open-label phase 1/2 study evaluated single-agent carfilzomib in 50 heavily pretreated Japanese patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (median of five prior treatments). In phase 1, patients were dosed at three levels: 15, 20, or 20/27 mg/m2 . Maximum tolerated dosage was not reached at the tolerability evaluation. Patients in phase 2 were treated with 20/27 mg/m2 carfilzomib. Median duration of exposure to carfilzomib in the 20/27 mg/m2 group at this final analysis was 4.7 months (range: 0.3-39.4). Overall response rate in the 20/27 mg/m2 group, primary endpoint of the study, was 22.5% (n = 9) (95% confidence interval, 12.3-37.5) with 2.5% (n = 1) stringent complete response. Median progression-free survival and overall survival in the 20/27 mg/m2 group were 5.1 months (95% CI, 2.8-13.6) and 22.9 months (95% CI, 14.1-not estimable), respectively. Frequently occurring grade ≥3 adverse events in the 20/27 mg/m2 group included lymphopenia (72.5%), neutropenia (40.0%), and leukopenia (32.5%). Giving long-term carfilzomib monotherapy led to long-term overall survival for heavily pretreated multiple myeloma patients with a favorable safety profile. Carfilzomib monotherapy can be a good option for heavily pretreated multiple myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Leucopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Oligopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(9): e459-e469, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pomalidomide and dexamethasone is a standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma in whom bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment has failed. KEYNOTE-183 assessed efficacy and safety of pomalidomide and dexamethasone with or without pembrolizumab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Here, we present the findings of an unplanned, ad-hoc interim analysis at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). METHODS: KEYNOTE-183 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 97 medical centres across 11 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, and USA). Patients aged at least 18 years with multiple myeloma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 or 1, previously treated with at least two lines of therapy (excluding pomalidomide) and refractory to the last line were randomly assigned 1:1 to the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group via an interactive voice response or integrated web response system. Patients received oral pomalidomide 4 mg daily on days 1-21 and oral low-dose dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 in 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The dual primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. Efficacy was assessed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02576977, and it is closed for accrual. FINDINGS: Between Jan 18, 2016, and June 7, 2017, 249 patients were randomly assigned to either the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=125) or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=124). On July 3, 2017, the FDA established that risks associated with the triple combination outweighed benefits and halted the study. Median follow-up was 8·1 months (IQR 4·5-10·9). Median progression-free survival was 5·6 months (95% CI 3·7-7·5) in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 8·4 months (5·9-not reached) in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group; progression-free survival estimates at 6 months were 48% (95% CI 37-58) versus 60% (49-69) at 6 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1·53; 95% CI 1·05-2·22; p=0·98). Median overall survival was not reached (95% CI 12·9-not reached) versus 15·2 months (12·7-not reached; HR 1·61; 95% CI 0·91-2·85; p=0·95); overall survival estimates at 6 months were 82% (95% CI 74-88) versus 90% (82-95). Serious adverse events occurred in 75 (63%) of 120 patients in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 56 (46%) of 121 patients in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group. Four (3%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (one each of unknown cause, neutropenic sepsis, myocarditis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome); myocarditis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome were considered related to pembrolizumab. No treatment-related deaths were reported in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group. INTERPRETATION: The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit-risk profile of pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Miocardite/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(9): e448-e458, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide and dexamethasone has been a standard of care in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The addition of a third drug to the combination is likely to improve treatment efficacy. KEYNOTE-185 assessed the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide and dexamethasone with and without pembrolizumab in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Here, we present the results of an unplanned interim analysis done to assess the benefit-risk of the combination at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). METHODS: KEYNOTE-185 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 95 medical centres across 15 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA). Transplantation-ineligible patients aged 18 years and older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who were treatment naive were enrolled, and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone using an interactive voice or integrated web response system. Patients received oral lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1-21 and oral dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of repeated 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was investigator-assessed because of early trial termination. Efficacy was analysed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02579863, and it is closed for accrual. FINDINGS: Between Jan 7, 2016, and June 9, 2017, 301 patients were randomly assigned to the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=151) or the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=150). On July 3, 2017, the FDA decided to halt the study because of the imbalance in the proportion of death between groups. At database cutoff (June 2, 2017), with a median follow-up of 6·6 months (IQR 3·4-9·6), 149 patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and 145 in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group had received their assigned study drug. Median progression-free survival was not reached in either group; progression-free survival estimates at 6-months were 82·0% (95% CI 73·2-88·1) versus 85·0% (76·8-90·5; hazard ratio [HR] 1·22; 95% CI 0·67-2·22; p=0·75). Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (54%) patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 57 (39%) patients in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group; the most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (nine [6%]) and pyrexia (seven [5%]) in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and pneumonia (eight [6%]) and sepsis (two [1%]) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group. Six (4%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, myocarditis, large intestine perforation, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism) and two (1%) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and respiratory failure). INTERPRETATION: The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit-risk profile of pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated multiple myeloma. Long-term safety and survival follow-up is ongoing. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Hematol ; 110(4): 447-457, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325152

RESUMO

We conducted a phase I study to determine the recommended dose of thalidomide combined with melphalan plus prednisolone (MPT) and a phase II study evaluating the efficacy and safety of this MPT regimen in transplant-ineligible Japanese patients with untreated multiple myeloma. The recommended dose was determined to be 100 mg/day in the phase I study. In the phase II, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients were allocated to either MPT (n = 52) or MP (n = 51), with 21 and 29 patients completing the study, respectively. Overall response rate, the primary endpoint, was significantly higher in the MPT [40.4% (21/52 patients), 95% confidence interval (CI) 27.0-54.9%] than in the MP [19.6% (10/51 patients), 95% CI 9.8-33.1%] group (P = 0.022). Time to response was also significantly shorter in the MPT group. Incidences of hematological toxicities were similar in the two groups, suggesting that addition of thalidomide did not increase hematological toxicity. Although incidences of some non-hematological toxicities tended to be higher in the MPT group, the low incidence of ≥ Grade 3 toxicities suggests that MPT therapy was well tolerated. These results support the safety and efficacy of MPT therapy in untreated Japanese multiple myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Autoenxertos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Hematol ; 110(4): 431-437, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236823

RESUMO

Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been used for the differential diagnosis of anemia, but high RDW may also be associated with several human disorders. We evaluated the prognostic relevance of RDW in patients with light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We retrospectively analyzed all patients with AL amyloidosis who were newly diagnosed at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center between December 2011 and June 2018. RDW was evaluated in 94 patients; 48% (n = 45) of patients had a high RDW (≥ 13.8%) and 52% (n = 49) had a low RDW (< 13.8%). Overall survival (OS) was significantly lower in patients with a high RDW (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, increased RDW was an independent predictor for OS. Even in patients without cardiac amyloidosis, the OS was significantly lower in the high-RDW group (P = 0.0064). The survival rate of high-RDW patients without cardiac involvement was as poor as that of patients with cardiac involvement. In addition, in patients with revised Mayo stage I or a normal level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, high RDW was negatively correlated with OS (P = 0.0086, 0.025). RDW is a simple and strong predictor of early death, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with AL amyloidosis without cardiac involvement.


Assuntos
Índices de Eritrócitos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/sangue , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Ann Hematol ; 98(7): 1703-1711, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049648

RESUMO

In spite of recent development in the treatment armamentarium for multiple myeloma, overall survival (OS) still depends on risk status and sensitivity to treatment of each patient. We have evaluated the clinical relevance of the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) by comparing it with the original ISS in 718 Japanese patients. The distribution of patients according to response was similar between the ISS and R-ISS stages. Treatment response was greatly influenced by initial treatment modalities and deeper response was observed more frequently in transplanted patients. The R-ISS discriminated the difference in OS between the stages more distinctly than the ISS (p = 9.0 × 10-15 and p = 4.0 × 10-10, respectively). Differences in OS were clarified by both R-ISS and ISS in non-transplanted patients (p = 2.4 × 10-12 and p = 1.4 × 10-8, respectively), but the ISS failed to distinguish the difference between the stages in transplanted patients (p = 0.13). In contrast, the R-ISS could at least discriminate the excellent prognosis of stage I patients whereas the distinction between stage II and III was not that clear (p = 0.033). The R-ISS stage II encompassed a large number of patients, and the prognosis was heterogeneous depending on the fulfillment of prognostic factors such as LDH and adverse cytogenetics. These results suggest that treatment factors and prognostic factors greatly affect the therapeutic response and outcome, and the R-ISS is superior to ISS in prognostication of both transplant-eligible and -ineligible patients in our current clinical practice.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
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