Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723868

RESUMO

Adipose tissue is essential for metabolic homeostasis, balancing lipid storage and mobilisation based on nutritional status. This is coordinated by insulin, which triggers kinase signalling cascades to modulate numerous metabolic proteins, leading to increased glucose uptake and anabolic processes like lipogenesis. Given recent evidence that glucose is dispensable for adipocyte respiration, we sought to test whether glucose is necessary for insulin-stimulated anabolism. Examining lipogenesis in cultured adipocytes, glucose was essential for insulin to stimulate the synthesis of fatty acids and glyceride-glycerol. Importantly, glucose was dispensable for lipogenesis in the absence of insulin, suggesting distinct carbon sources are used with or without insulin. Metabolic tracing studies revealed glucose was required for insulin to stimulate pathways providing carbon substrate, NADPH, and glycerol 3'-phosphate for lipid synthesis and storage. Glucose also displaced leucine as a lipogenic substrate and was necessary to suppress fatty acid oxidation. Together, glucose provided substrates and metabolic control for insulin to promote lipogenesis in adipocytes. This contrasted with the suppression of lipolysis by insulin signalling, which occurred independently of glucose. Given previous observations that signal transduction acts primarily before glucose uptake in adipocytes, these data are consistent with a model whereby insulin initially utilises protein phosphorylation to stimulate lipid anabolism, which is sustained by subsequent glucose metabolism. Consequently, lipid abundance was sensitive to glucose availability, both during adipogenesis and in Drosophila flies in vivo. Together, these data highlight the importance of glucose metabolism to support insulin action, providing a complementary regulatory mechanism to signal transduction to stimulate adipose anabolism.

2.
iScience ; 23(2): 100855, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058966

RESUMO

Cellular metabolism is dynamic, but quantifying non-steady metabolic fluxes by stable isotope tracers presents unique computational challenges. Here, we developed an efficient 13C-tracer dynamic metabolic flux analysis (13C-DMFA) framework for modeling central carbon fluxes that vary over time. We used B-splines to generalize the flux parameterization system and to improve the stability of the optimization algorithm. As proof of concept, we investigated how 3T3-L1 cultured adipocytes acutely metabolize glucose in response to insulin. Insulin rapidly stimulates glucose uptake, but intracellular pathways responded with differing speeds and magnitudes. Fluxes in lower glycolysis increased faster than those in upper glycolysis. Glycolysis fluxes rose disproportionally larger and faster than the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with lactate a primary glucose end product. The uncovered array of flux dynamics suggests that glucose catabolism is additionally regulated beyond uptake to help shunt glucose into appropriate pathways. This work demonstrates the value of using dynamic intracellular fluxes to understand metabolic function and pathway regulation.

3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1619: 460914, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008820

RESUMO

Recently, ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been used for the determination of anionic metabolites. However, connection with a mass spectrometer in this method is not straightforward because backpressure produced by the addition of a make-up solution often affects the peak resolutions of the target metabolites. To overcome this problem, we developed a capillary ion chromatography-mass spectrometry method utilizing a double coaxial electrospray ionization sprayer. This method was not affected by backpressure and the number of theoretical plates was about three times that of a conventional sprayer. Under optimized conditions, 44 anionic metabolites, including organic acids, sugar phosphates, nucleotides, and cofactors, were successfully separated and selectively detected with a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. The calibration curves of the tested metabolites showed excellent linearity within the range of 1-100,000 nmol/L and the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.991. The detection limits for these metabolites were between 1 and 500 nmol/L (0.4 and 200 fmol). The developed method was applied to the quantitation of anionic metabolites in cultured cancer cell samples with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation. This allowed for the successful determination of 105 metabolites. The levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates changed significantly after TNF-α stimulation. These results demonstrate that the developed method is a promising new tool for comprehensive analysis of anionic metabolites.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/isolamento & purificação , Ânions/química , Calibragem , Cromatografia/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/análise , Nucleotídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/normas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
4.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 6(2): 134-140, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406882

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with malignant gliomas have to adjust their daily lives because of the threat of impending death and declining abilities. Thus, clarifying the process of life adjustment in such patients would help them lead a normal life. To clarify the process of life adjustment in patients at the onset of glioma, who continuously receive oral anticancer drug. Methods: The study institution consisted of two designated cancer centers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 patients, and the data were analyzed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach of Kinoshita (M-GTA). Results: As a core category representing the process of life adjustment in patients at the onset of glioma, "trials and errors for self-fulfillment even in a limited lifespan" was extracted. Patients began "seeking information about the unfamiliar life-threatening disease," and "imaging their uncertain lives after the disease and the resulting disability" while "conducting repeated trials and errors to establish coping methods according to their abilities." When facing difficulties in such trials and errors, they reported "losing self-confidence due to unexpected limitations." However, they regulated their feelings by "resigning themselves to their unchangeable reality." Contrarily, as "functional improvement enhanced their motivation to recover," they attempted to promote functional recovery and organized their daily lives in "fulfilling their desires in their limited lifespan." Conclusion: The process of life adjustment in patients with malignant gliomas involved identifying a way of living despite limited lifespan. To ensure appropriate nursing care for patients at the onset of glioma, it is important to help them establish coping methods in accordance with their abilities.

5.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 59(6): 275-281, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626785

RESUMO

The aluminium (Al) content of Japanese confectionery and foods containing flour was investigated. Some of these items were investigated in previous studies, which examined foods that made use of baking powder containing aluminium potassium sulfate (Alum). Al was detected in 41 of the 123 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 0.40 mg/g. The detection rate of Al in almost all confectionery (except Japanese confectionery) was decreased as compared with previous studies. However, the detection rate of Al in Japanese confectionery and foods containing flour was high. For 4 of the 41 samples tested, consuming one serving once a week would result in an Al intake exceeding the PTWI for young children (body weight=16 kg).


Assuntos
Compostos de Alúmen , Alumínio/análise , Sulfato de Cálcio , Farinha/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Amido , Criança , Humanos
6.
Cell Rep ; 21(12): 3536-3547, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262332

RESUMO

Insulin triggers an extensive signaling cascade to coordinate adipocyte glucose metabolism. It is considered that the major role of insulin is to provide anabolic substrates by activating GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake. However, insulin stimulates phosphorylation of many metabolic proteins. To examine the implications of this on glucose metabolism, we performed dynamic tracer metabolomics in cultured adipocytes treated with insulin. Temporal analysis of metabolite concentrations and tracer labeling revealed rapid and distinct changes in glucose metabolism, favoring specific glycolytic branch points and pyruvate anaplerosis. Integrating dynamic metabolomics and phosphoproteomics data revealed that insulin-dependent phosphorylation of anabolic enzymes occurred prior to substrate accumulation. Indeed, glycogen synthesis was activated independently of glucose supply. We refer to this phenomenon as metabolic priming, whereby insulin signaling creates a demand-driven system to "pull" glucose into specific anabolic pathways. This complements the supply-driven regulation of anabolism by substrate accumulation and highlights an additional role for insulin action in adipocyte glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Células 3T3 , Animais , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 58(3): 166-171, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690308

RESUMO

Stainless steel kitchenware and tableware on sale in Japan were investigated. Surface elemental composition ratios of 172 samples were analyzed by the fluorescence X-ray method. High levels of manganese (9.59-20.03%)were detected in 17 samples. This finding was confirmed by ICP analysis. Next, we conducted migration tests. Samples conformed to the Italian Specific Migration Limits. Moreover, lead and antimony were not detected in these samples, in accordance with the Japanese Food Sanitation Law.


Assuntos
Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Manganês/análise , Aço Inoxidável/química , Antimônio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Ferro/análise , Japão , Chumbo/análise , Níquel/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X
8.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 9(3): 185-90, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092423

RESUMO

Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/química , Alumínio/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Alumínio/toxicidade , Pão/efeitos adversos , Pão/análise , Pão/economia , Pão/normas , Pré-Escolar , Culinária , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Análise de Alimentos/economia , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Hidrólise/efeitos da radiação , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Internacionalidade , Limite de Detecção , Micro-Ondas , Ácido Nítrico/química , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Lanches , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Tóquio
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26730677

RESUMO

A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/análise , Lubrificantes/química , Óleo Mineral/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração em Fase Sólida
10.
Women Birth ; 28(4): e164-70, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26138284

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate educational approaches for midwives to promote breast awareness for postnatal women by measuring the knowledge, attitude and practice of midwives. METHODS: A nonequivalent control design comparing two intervention groups and control group was used. Participants were Japanese midwives agreeing to this study. Midwives in the program group attended the program; those in the text group only read the textbook. Midwives in the control group neither attended the program nor learned by textbook. All measurements were administered at baseline, one-month post-program, and three-month post-program. RESULTS: Among 215 participants, 168 midwives (45 program, 62 text, and 61 control) remained until three month follow-up. The knowledge test score was found to have significant mutual interactions between the three groups and time (F=14.2, df=4, p<0.001). However, the attitudes did not differ between the three groups. Implementation rates for midwifery practice incorporating breast awareness education for postpartum women were different at one month and three months between the three groups. Implementation of breast awareness education at three months revealed the following factors: program group (OR 5.4, 95%CI [1.3-21.8]; text group: OR 0.7, 95%CI [0.2-2.7]) and implementation of breast awareness education at the first time measurement (OR 18.6, 95%CI [4.6-73.9]). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that the educational program increased midwives' knowledge and contributed to the continuation implementing breast awareness education for postpartum women about three months after testing.


Assuntos
Mama , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Tocologia/educação , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Conscientização , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
11.
ISRN Nurs ; 2012: 716367, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23150835

RESUMO

Depression and anxiety are prevalent in women with breast cancer. We developed a self-help kit as a self-learning package of necessary preparatory information (basic knowledge on chemotherapy, side effects, and problem-solving skills). We provided an oncology nurse-guided self-help kit with a cognitive behavioral therapy approach to 46 women with breast cancer in the intervention group and usual care to 36 in the control group in outpatient chemotherapy settings. The oncology nurse monitored and facilitated the patient's progress using the diary during the patient's chemotherapy. We also provided professional-led support group programs. Depression, anxiety, and quality of life were measured at baseline, 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months. The chi-square test and t were used to examine differences between the two groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the intervention on the measures over time. All depression and anxiety scores were improved in both the intervention and control groups, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of an oncology nurse-guided self-help approach for cancer patients.

12.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 53(1): 57-62, 2012.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22450671

RESUMO

The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.


Assuntos
Alumínio/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos
13.
Open Nurs J ; 5: 79-85, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22135715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the advent of genomic technology accelerates personalized medicine and complex care, multidisciplinary care is essential for management of breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether healthcare delivery systems are related to patients' perceptions of care in breast cancer treatment institutions. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide study of breast cancer treatment institutions approved by the Japanese Breast Cancer Society in Japan. From 128 of the 457 institutions, 1,206 patients were included in the analysis. Each patient completed a questionnaire regarding perceptions of care that consisted of a multidisciplinary care subscale and a patient-centered care subscale. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis revealed that the multidisciplinary care subscale was significantly related to implementation of patient-based medical record system that was paper-based (p<0.05). The results of the secondary analysis showed a significant relationship between the interdepartmental medical record system and the patient's perception of multidisciplinary care (p<0.05) and patient-centered care (p<0.05). When a multidisciplinary case conference took place regularly or multidisciplinary viewpoints were incorporated into the conference records, the conference had a significantly higher correlation with both subscales (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Integrated patient-based information and regular multidisciplinary case conferences that include records of viewpoints from different professionals improve patients' perceptions of comprehensive breast cancer care.

14.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 14(2): 132-6, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20091203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral obesity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Waist circumference has been used as a surrogate measure of visceral fat mass; however, subcutaneous fat mass is also correlated with waist circumference. We therefore conducted this cross-sectional study to clarify the relationship between directly measured sizes of visceral and subcutaneous fat and microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: We studied a total of 208 adult Japanese individuals with T2DM, 99 women and 109 men, with a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) age of 56 +/- 13 years. Patients with macroalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) >or=300 mg/g creatinine, and those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were excluded. Visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by abdominal computed tomography. RESULTS: In the univariate correlational analysis, logarithmically transformed urinary ACR was significantly associated with visceral fat area (r = 0.14, p = 0.047) but not with subcutaneous fat area (r = 0.08, p = 0.237). In the multiple regression analysis with stepwise selection procedure, visceral fat area but not subcutaneous fat area was selected as an independent variable that was statistically associated with urinary ACR. CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study suggests that increased visceral but not subcutaneous fat is independently associated with microalbuminuria in Japanese adult patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Creatinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Abdominal , Análise de Regressão , Gordura Subcutânea/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 50(5): 256-60, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19897953

RESUMO

Pollution levels of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg) and arsenic in existing food additives used as food colors (40 samples of 15 kinds) were investigated. Heavy metals were detected in 8 samples; Pb in 1 sample (2.8 microg/g), Hg in 8 samples (0.1-3.4 microg/g) and arsenic in 2 samples (1.7, 2.6 microg/g). The Pb level in 1 sample of lac color (2.8 microg/g) exceeded the limit of 2 microg/g proposed by JECFA and Hg levels in 3 samples of cacao color (1.2-3.4 microg/g) exceeded the limit of 1 microg/g in the EU specification.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Corantes de Alimentos/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
16.
Diabetes Care ; 32(8): 1518-20, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19435960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between albuminuria, including elevation within the normal range, and decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 5,449 Japanese diabetic patients were categorized according to sex and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR; <5, 5-9, 10-29, 30-99, 100-299, 300-999, 1,000-2,999, and > or =3,000 mg/g) and followed for at least 5 years. The rate of change in estimated GFR (eGFR) adjusted for age and baseline eGFR was compared among ACR categories. RESULTS A higher baseline ACR predicted a faster decline in eGFR for both sexes. Even within the normal range (<30 mg/g), ACR > or =10 mg/g in women and > or =5 mg/g in men was associated with a significantly greater rate of decline in eGFR relative to subjects with ACR <5 mg/g. CONCLUSIONS Elevated ACR, even within the normal range, is associated with a faster decline in eGFR in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hypertens Res ; 32(5): 381-6, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19325564

RESUMO

Although chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease it is unclear whether diabetic patients with a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), independent of (micro)albuminuria, carry an increased risk of stroke. We therefore investigated the independent effect of estimated GFR (eGFR) on stroke events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We studied T2DM patients with an eGFR >or=15 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2), who had no history of stroke. Patients were divided into four categories by the eGFR at baseline for comparison: >or=90, 60-89, 30-59 and 15-29 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2). The end point was an incident stroke event. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The study included a total of 1300 T2DM patients (546 women and 754 men) with a mean (+/-s.d.) age of 63+/-13 years. During a mean follow-up period of 3.7+/-1.4 years, 91 patients experienced an incident stroke event. Although a lower eGFR was associated with an increased stroke risk using a univariate model, statistical significance disappeared after adjusting for other risk factors including albuminuria. The HR (95% CI) was 0.75 (0.40-1.41, P=0.373), 0.99 (0.50-1.95, P=0.964) and 0.91 (0.36-2.28, P=0.844) for patients with eGFRs of 60-89, 30-59 and 15-29 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2), respectively, compared with patients with an eGFR >or=90. Clinical albuminuria remained a significant risk factor for stroke, and the adjusted HR compared with normoalbuminuria was 2.40 (1.46-3.95, P=0.001). In conclusion, the association between reduced GFR and stroke events in patients with T2DM is likely to be mediated by albuminuria.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminúria/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 49(5): 366-75, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19029790

RESUMO

Organic solvent residue levels in "Existing Food Additives" (n=145), health food materials (n=23), and commercial health food products (n=19) were surveyed. Ethanol was the dominant solvent found in the samples, suggesting its use in the manufacturing process. Methanol, acetone, 2-propanol and ethyl acetate was also found. No residual solvent exceeded the limits set by the Food Sanitation Law.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Solventes/análise , 2-Propanol/análise , Acetatos/análise , Acetona/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Etanol/análise
19.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 48(4): 112-7, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17892005

RESUMO

Properties of eight commercial licorice extracts used as a food additive (sweetener, listed in the List of Existing Food Additives in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law) were surveyed. Residue on ignition ranged from 0.3 to 12.4%, and pH ranged from 4.1 to 6.8, amount of glycyrrhizin, which is the major component in licorice extract, ranged from 10.9 to 77.4%, sodium ranged from 0.1 to 1.2%, potassium ranged from 0.3 to 5.0%, and ammonium nitrogen ranged from 0.03 to 2.5%. These results indicated that various products were distributed on the market. Differences in the manufacturing process may contribute to the variations of product properties.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares , Glycyrrhiza/química , Ácido Glicirrízico/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Potássio/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Sódio/análise
20.
J AOAC Int ; 90(2): 437-45, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17474514

RESUMO

A fast and effective cleanup method was developed for the analysis of Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red (Sudan dyes) in various foods and paprika color (oleoresin) by high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) with a diode array detector (DAD). Removal of fat or oil in fatty sample was a critical point for reducing the volume of the final sample solution in order to obtain a sufficient level of the analytes. Separation of fat or oil from the dyes with a silica gel solid-phase extraction (SPE) column seemed unfeasible, because elution profiles of oil, fat, and the dyes were similar. Finally, fat and oil were separated from the dyes by elution from the SPE column with n-hexane, not as intact compounds but as fatty acid methyl esters prepared by direct transesterification of acylglycerols in fat and oil, leaving the dyes on the column. The dyes were eluted with n-hexane-diethyl ether (9 + 1). Gradient elution with water and tetrahydrofuran was used for separation on a C18 column by LC. Measurement of spectral of 0.5 microg/g of Sudan dyes in foods and 1 microg/g in paprika color (oleoresin) with the DAD was achieved.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Corantes/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Naftóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Esterificação , Gorduras/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Glicerídeos/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Extração em Fase Sólida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA