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1.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC) are both H. pylori infection-related diseases, individuals with DU are known to have lower risk for GC. Many epidemiological studies have identified the PSCA rs2294008 T-allele as a risk factor of GC, while others have found an association between the rs2294008 C-allele and risk of DU and gastric ulcer (GU). Following these initial reports, however, few studies have since validated these associations. Here, we aimed to validate the association between variations in PSCA and the risk of DU/GU and evaluate its interaction with environmental factors in a Japanese population. METHODS: PSCA six SNPs were genotyped in 584 DU cases, 925 GU cases, and 8,105 controls from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC). Unconditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between the SNPs and risk of DU/GU. RESULTS: PSCA rs2294008 C-allele was associated with per allele OR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18-1.51; P=2.28×10-6) for the risk of DU. This association was independent of age, sex, study site, smoking habit, drinking habit and H. pylori status. On the other hand, we did not observe an association between the risk of GU and PSCA SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms an association between the PSCA rs2294008 C-allele and the risk of DU in a Japanese population.

3.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813893

RESUMO

BackgroundSecond-hand smoke exposure has been associated with poor mental health. However, among Japanese adults, little is known about the association between second-hand smoking and depressive symptoms. We examined this association in a cross-sectional study among a Japanese general adult population sample.MethodsJapanese adults were recruited from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in the Okazaki area between 2012 and 2017. Second-hand smoke exposure and smoking status were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on their frequency of exposure to second-hand smoke, non-smokers and smokers were categorized as "almost never," "sometimes," and "almost every day." Depressive symptoms were defined by a Kessler 6 score ≥ 5 points. We performed a multivariable Poisson regression analysis to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depressive symptoms.ResultsOverall, 5,121 participants (4,547 non-smokers and 574 smokers) were included whose mean age was 63.6 years (SD = 10.3 years) for non-smokers and 59.33 years (SD = 10.2 years) for smokers. The association between second-hand smoking and depressive symptoms was significant among non-smokers, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers, PRs (95% CIs) compared with "almost never" were 1.25 (1.09 - 1.42) for "sometimes," 1.41 (1.09 - 1.84) for "almost every day" (p for trend < 0.001), and among smokers, 1.30 (0.82 - 2.06) for "sometimes," 1.44 (0.90 - 2.33) for "almost every day" (p for trend = 0.144).ConclusionsSecond-hand smoking and depressive symptoms were associated among non-smokers. Our findings indicate the importance of tobacco smoke control for mental health.

4.
J Lipid Res ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only 1 interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction (P-interaction = 0.001 [α = 0.05/21 = 0.002]). The per-major-allele (C) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17332, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757997

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified about 70 genomic loci associated with breast cancer. Owing to the complexity of linkage disequilibrium and environmental exposures in different populations, it is essential to perform regional GWAS for better risk prediction. This study aimed to investigate the genetic architecture and to assess common genetic risk model of breast cancer with 6,669 breast cancer patients and 21,930 female controls in the Japanese population. This GWAS identified 11 genomic loci that surpass genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5.0 × 10-8 with nine previously reported loci and two novel loci that include rs9862599 on 3q13.11 (ALCAM) and rs75286142 on 21q22.12 (CLIC6-RUNX1). Validation study was carried out with 981 breast cancer cases and 1,394 controls from the Aichi Cancer Center. Pathway analyses of GWAS signals identified association of dopamine receptor medicated signaling and protein amino acid deacetylation with breast cancer. Weighted genetic risk score showed that individuals who were categorized in the highest risk group are approximately 3.7 times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to individuals in the lowest risk group. This well-powered GWAS is a representative study to identify SNPs that are associated with breast cancer in the Japanese population.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e028105, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722936

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Effects of fetal, perinatal and childhood environment on the health of children at birth and during later life have become a topic of concern. The Aichi regional sub-cohort of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS-A) is an ongoing birth cohort of pregnant women and their children which has been used to provide unique data, as adjunct studies of JECS, on multifaceted potential factors affecting children's health. PARTICIPANTS: The JECS-A is part of the JECS which follows a total of 100 000 pairs of children and their mothers (fathers' participation is optional) across 15 regions in Japan. In JECS-A, of the 8134 pregnant women living in Ichinomiya City and Nagoya City, Japan, a total of 5721 pregnant women and their 5554 children were included. Sociodemographic and psychological data as well as biological specimens were collected from the pregnant women and their spouses (if available) in the cohort during their pregnancy. Information on children included in the JECS-A was collected from their mothers and includes demographic, behavioural, childcare, psychological and psychiatric data. Urine extracted from disposable diapers and anthropometric data were also obtained from the children. FINDINGS TO DATE: A similar distribution trend for age at delivery was confirmed between the pregnant women enrolled in the JECS-A and the national statistics of the relevant areas. However, differences in education level and household income were observed. A total of 5502 children remained in the cohort at 18 months after delivery. Compared with the national statistics, the basic demographics of the children in the cohort represented the population in the study areas. FUTURE PLANS: The enrolled children in the JECS-A will be followed until the age of 13 years. The studies that come from JECS-A will complement JECS and bring novel results with a high level of generalisability.

7.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625435

RESUMO

Objectives: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan using data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions, a nationwide questionnaire survey conducted in 2016.Methods: In total, 222,365 men and 245,251 women aged ≥16 years were included in the study. RA patients were defined as those who reported 'currently receiving treatment for RA at hospitals, clinics, or a facility for Japanese traditional massage, acupuncture, moxibustion, or judo-orthopedics.' The number of RA patients was estimated from the age-specific prevalence and total Japanese population in 2016. Further, the prevalence of individuals experiencing difficulties in activities of daily living due to health problems and those with mental distress as evaluated by K6 Scale was examined.Results: The estimated number and prevalence of RA in Japan with 95% confidence interval was 822 (768-880) thousand and 0.75% (0.70-0.80%). The population peaked in the late 60s, and the prevalence continued increasing until the early 80s, regardless of sex. Compared with non-RA participants, RA patients were more likely to experience difficulties in activities and to be distressed.Conclusion: High prevalence of RA in older age and mental and physical burden among RA patients were confirmed.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029279, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the association between community social capital and the onset of functional disability among older Japanese people by using validated indicators of social capital and a prospective multilevel design. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study SETTING: We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, established from August 2010 to January 2012 in 323 districts. PARTICIPANTS: The target population was restricted to non-institutionalised people aged 65 years or older who were independent in activities of daily living. Participants included 73 021 people (34 051 men and 38 970 women) who were followed up over a 3-year period. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome measure was the onset of functional disability, defined as a new registration in public long-term care insurance system records with a care-needs level of two or above, analysed with multilevel Cox proportional hazards regression models by community social capital (civic participation, social cohesion and reciprocity). RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 73.3 years (SD=6.0) for men and 73.8 years (SD=6.2) for women. During the study period, the onset of functional disability occurred in 1465 (4.3%) men and 1519 (3.9%) women. Of three community social capital variables, social cohesion significantly reduced the risk of onset of functional disability (HR 0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998) among men, after adjusting for individual social and behavioural variables. There was no significant effect among women. CONCLUSIONS: Living in a community with rich social cohesion is associated with a lower incidence of onset of functional disability among older Japanese men.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4393, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562340

RESUMO

Human height is a representative phenotype to elucidate genetic architecture. However, the majority of large studies have been performed in European population. To investigate the rare and low-frequency variants associated with height, we construct a reference panel (N = 3,541) for genotype imputation by integrating the whole-genome sequence data from 1,037 Japanese with that of the 1000 Genomes Project, and perform a genome-wide association study in 191,787 Japanese. We report 573 height-associated variants, including 22 rare and 42 low-frequency variants. These 64 variants explain 1.7% of the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, a gene-based analysis identifies two genes with multiple height-increasing rare and low-frequency nonsynonymous variants (SLC27A3 and CYP26B1; PSKAT-O < 2.5 × 10-6). Our analysis shows a general tendency of the effect sizes of rare variants towards increasing height, which is contrary to findings among Europeans, suggesting that height-associated rare variants are under different selection pressure in Japanese and European populations.

11.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481698

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to show the combined effect of weight gain within normal weight range in adulthood and parental HT on the prevalence of HT. The study subjects were 44,998 individuals (19,039 men and 25,959 women) with normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9) aged 35-69 years who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were categorized into six groups by weight gain from age 20 years (<10 kg, and ≥10 kg) and by the number of parents having HT (no parent, one parent, and both parents). Odds ratios for HT were estimated after adjustment for age, sex, current BMI, estimated daily sodium intake, and other confounding factors. The prevalence of HT (31.5% in total subjects) gradually increased with greater weight gain from age 20 years and with greater number of parents with HT. Subjects who gained weight ≥10 kg and having both parents with HT showed the highest risk of having HT compared with those who gained weight <10 kg without parental HT (59.8% vs. 24.9%, odds ratio 4.25, 95% CI 3.53-5.13 after adjustment). This association was similarly observed in any category of age, sex, and BMI. Subjects who gained weight within normal range of BMI and having one or both parent(s) with HT showed the higher risk of having HT independent of their attained BMI in their middle ages. Thus, subjects having parent(s) with HT should avoid gaining their weight during adulthood, even within normal range of BMI, to reduce the risk of having HT.

13.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 17(7): 355-361, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145031

RESUMO

Background: Evidence of the long-term benefits of telephone-delivered lifestyle interventions is limited. This study investigated the ability of telephone-delivered lifestyle intervention to reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) during health checkups. Methods: Our subjects were participants in the Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1), a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to investigate whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching over the telephone can effectively reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes development in high-risk individuals in a primary health care setting. We extracted 753 and 844 J-DOIT1 participants from the intervention and controls arms, respectively, who had IFG but did not meet the MetS criteria at baseline. The intervention arm received goal-focused lifestyle support delivered by health care providers via telephone over a 1-year period. The endpoint was the development of incident MetS, defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for Japan. Results: During the median follow-up period of 4.9 years, 8.0% of the intervention arm and 12.0% of the control arm developed MetS. Overall, the hazard ratio (HR) for the development of MetS was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-1.09; P = 0.14] in the intervention arm. However, the HR in overweight or obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2] individuals was significantly reduced to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41-0.95; P = 0.029), but not in lean (BMI <23 kg/m2) individuals. Conclusion: Telephone-delivered lifestyle intervention effectively reduced the incidence of MetS in overweight and obese subjects in a real-world setting. Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000000662 (registered March 30, 2007; https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000000798).

14.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052301

RESUMO

: The association between nutrient patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been examined in a Japanese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 30,108 participants (aged 35-69 years) in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 46-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was diagnosed according to the Joint Interim Statement Criteria of 2009, using body mass index instead of waist circumference. Factor analysis was applied to energy-adjusted intake of 21 nutrients, and three nutrient patterns were extracted: Factor 1 (fiber, potassium and vitamins pattern); Factor 2 (fats and fat-soluble vitamins pattern); and Factor 3 (saturated fatty acids, calcium and vitamin B2 pattern). In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, and other potential confounders, Factor 1 scores were associated with a significantly reduced odds ratio (OR) of MetS and all five components. Factor 2 scores were associated with significantly increased prevalence of MetS, obesity, and high blood pressure. Factor 3 scores were significantly associated with lower OR of MetS, high blood pressure, high serum triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol levels. Analysis of nutrient patterns may be useful to assess the overall quality of diet and its association with MetS.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/classificação , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
15.
Commun Biol ; 2: 115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993211

RESUMO

Gout is a common arthritis caused by elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels. Here we investigated loci influencing SUA in a genome-wide meta-analysis with 121,745 Japanese subjects. We identified 8948 variants at 36 genomic loci (P<5 × 10-8) including eight novel loci. Of these, missense variants of SESN2 and PNPLA3 were predicted to be damaging to the function of these proteins; another five loci-TMEM18, TM4SF4, MXD3-LMAN2, PSORS1C1-PSORS1C2, and HNF4A-are related to cell metabolism, proliferation, or oxidative stress; and the remaining locus, LINC01578, is unknown. We also identified 132 correlated genes whose expression levels are associated with SUA-increasing alleles. These genes are enriched for the UniProt transport term, suggesting the importance of transport-related genes in SUA regulation. Furthermore, trans-ethnic meta-analysis across our own meta-analysis and the Global Urate Genetics Consortium has revealed 15 more novel loci associated with SUA. Our findings provide insight into the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of hyperuricemia/gout.

16.
Endocrine ; 64(3): 552-563, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate independent relationships of daily non-exercise life activity and leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits in Japanese adults. METHODS: Data of 24,625 eligible subjects (12,709 men, 11,916 women) who participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study were analyzed. Information about lifestyle characteristics was obtained from a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent associations of daily life activity as well as leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits by sex. RESULTS: Male subjects with higher daily life activity as well as with higher leisure-time exercise volume had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, independently with each other. Female subjects with higher daily life activity also had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Particularly, male and female subjects with the highest daily life activity quartile showed considerably low odds ratios of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.81) and 0.64 (0.52-0.79), respectively, for low HDL-cholesterol even after the adjustment for BMI compared with the first quartile. Meanwhile, male subjects with the higher leisure-time exercise showed a quite lower prevalence of elevated triglycerides. Higher moderate-intensity exercise was more intensely associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and some of its traits in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher daily life activity and higher moderate-intensity exercise may be independently associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults.

17.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(8): 1351-1360, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine missing data in FFQ and to assess the effects on estimating dietary intake by comparing between multiple imputation and zero imputation. DESIGN: We used data from the Okazaki Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. A self-administered questionnaire including an FFQ was implemented at baseline (FFQ1) and 5-year follow-up (FFQ2). Missing values in FFQ2 were replaced by corresponding FFQ1 values, multiple imputation and zero imputation. SETTING: A methodological sub-study of the Okazaki J-MICC study.ParticipantsOf a total of 7585 men and women aged 35-79 years at baseline, we analysed data for 5120 participants who answered all items in FFQ1 and at least 50% of items in FFQ2. RESULTS: Among 5120 participants, the proportion of missing data was 3·7%. The increasing number of missing food items in FFQ2 varied with personal characteristics. Missing food items not eaten often in FFQ2 were likely to represent zero intake in FFQ1. Most food items showed that the observed proportion of zero intake was likely to be similar to the probability that the missing value is zero intake. Compared with FFQ1 values, multiple imputation had smaller differences of total energy and nutrient estimates, except for alcohol, than zero imputation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that missing values due to zero intake, namely missing not at random, in FFQ can be predicted reasonably well from observed data. Multiple imputation performed better than zero imputation for most nutrients and may be applied to FFQ data when missing is low.

18.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.

19.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(5): 661-668, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753327

RESUMO

Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified genetic variants associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-induced gastric cancer, few studies have examined the genetic traits associated with the risk of HP-induced gastric precancerous conditions. This study aimed to elucidate genetic variants associated with these conditions using a genome-wide approach. Data from four sites of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study were used in the discovery phase (Stage I); two datasets from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center 2 (HERPACC2) study were used in the replication phases (Stages II and III) and SKAT (SNP-set Kernel Association Test) and single variant-based GWASs were conducted for the risks of gastric atrophy (GA) and severe GA defined by serum pepsinogen (PG) levels, and PG1 and PG1/2 ratios. In the gene-based SKAT in Stage I, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was significantly associated with the risks of GA and severe GA, and serum PG1/2 level by linear kernel [false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.011, 0.230 and 7.2 × 10-7, respectively]. The single variant-based GWAS revealed that nine PSCA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fulfilled the genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8) for the risks of both GA and severe GA in the combined study, although most of these associations did not reach genome-wide significance in the discovery or validation cohort on their own. GWAS for serum PG1 levels and PG1/2 ratios revealed that the PSCA rs2920283 SNP had a striking P-value of 4.31 × 10-27 for PG1/2 ratios. The present GWAS revealed the genetic locus of PSCA as the most significant locus for the risk of HP-induced GA, which confirmed the recently reported association in Europeans.

20.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 24(6): 670-673, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide including Japan. Recent genome-wide association studies have discovered CKD susceptibility variants. We developed a genetic risk score (GRS) based on CKD-associated variants and assessed a possibility that the GRS can improve the discrimination capability for the prevalence of CKD in a Japanese population. The present study consists of 11 283 participants randomly selected from 12 Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study sites. Individual GRS was constructed combining 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in a Japanese population. Participants with eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 was defined as case (stage 3 CKD or higher) in this study. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between the GRS and CKD risk with adjustment for sex, age, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The frequency of individuals with CKD was 8.3%, which was relatively low compared with those previously reported in a Japanese population. The odds ratio of having CKD was 1.120 (95% confidence interval: 1.042-1.203) per 10 GRS increment in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.002). The C-statistic was significantly increased in the model with the GRS, comparing with the model without the GRS (0.720 vs 0.719, Pdifference = 0.008). Increment of the GRS was associated with increased risk of CKD. Additionally, the GRS significantly improved the discriminatory ability of CKD prevalence in a Japanese population; however, the improvement of discriminatory ability brought about by the GRS seemed to be small compared with that of non-genetic CKD risk factors.

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