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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The only established treatment for preventing colorectal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is colectomy, which greatly reduces patient quality of life. Thus, an alternative method is warranted. In this trial, we aimed to clarify the individual and joint effects of low-dose aspirin and mesalazine on the recurrence of colorectal polyps in Japanese patients with FAP. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial with a two-by-two factorial design done in 11 centres in Japan. Eligible patients were aged 16-70 years and had a history of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the large intestine, without a history of colectomy. Before the study, patients underwent endoscopic removal of all colorectal polyps of at least 5·0 mm in diameter. Randomisation was done with a minimisation method with a random component to balance the groups with respect to the adjustment factors of sex, age (<30 years vs ≥30 years), or smoking status at the time of entry. Patients and researchers were masked to the treatment group. There were four groups: aspirin (100 mg per day) plus mesalazine (2 g per day), aspirin (100 mg per day) plus mesalazine placebo, aspirin placebo plus mesalazine (2 g per day), or aspirin placebo plus mesalazine placebo. Treatment was continued until 1 week before 8 month colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of colorectal polyps of at least 5·0 mm at 8 months and was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in the ITT population. We also did a per-protocol analysis including only patients who took at least 70% of the allocated study drug. This trial is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, number UMIN000018736, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between Sept 25, 2015, and March 13, 2017, 104 patients were randomly assigned to receive either aspirin or aspirin placebo (n=52) or mesalazine or mesalazine placebo (n=52). Two patients withdrew from the aspirin plus mesalazine placebo group. 26 (50%) of 52 patients who received no aspirin had colorectal polyps of at least 5·0 mm at 8 months, as did 15 (30%) of the 50 patients who received any aspirin, 21 (42%) of the 50 patients who received no mesalazine, and 20 (38%) of the 52 patients who received any mesalazine. The adjusted odds ratio for polyp recurrence was 0·37 (95% CI 0·16-0·86) in the patients who received any aspirin and 0·87 (95% CI 0·38-2·00) in any who received mesalazine. The most common adverse events were grade 1-2 upper gastrointestinal symptoms in three (12%) of 26 patients who received aspirin plus mesalazine, one (4%) of 24 patients who received aspirin plus mesalazine placebo, and one (4%) of 26 patients who received mesalazine plus aspirin placebo. There was one grade 4 event in the mesalazine plus aspirin placebo group, but not related to the treatment. INTERPRETATION: Low-dose aspirin safely suppressed the recurrence of colorectal polyps larger than 5·0 mm in patients with FAP. These results suggest an effect of low-dose aspirin for FAP and could be an alternative method for preventing colorectal cancer in FAP. FUNDING: Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development.

2.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 183-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727749

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10-8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10-6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2 SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 95: 104385, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The number of older adults who continue working after retirement is increasing in Japan. Little is known about how job conditions affect older adults' health. We examined the association between job conditions and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during a five-year follow-up study. METHODS: This study included participants aged 65 years or older from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in the Okazaki area recruited at baseline between 2007 and 2011 and followed up five years later. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on the physical and mental health aspects of HRQOL (SF-8™), employment status, and job conditions (job satisfaction, skill use, and job suitability). RESULTS: Data of 1,146 men and 522 women were analyzed (mean age: 69.1 and 68.6 years, respectively). Generalized mixed linear regression analysis revealed that, compared to the not-working group, skill use was positively associated with mental health aspects among men (skill use × time: ß = 0.16, SE = 0.08, p < 0.05), while poor job satisfaction and job suitability were negatively associated with mental health aspects among women (job satisfaction, not satisfied × time: ß = -0.93, SE = 0.47, p < 0.05; job suitability, not suitable × time: ß = -1.06, SE = 0.50, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding job conditions among older adults, skill use in men was marginally associated with mental health, and poor job satisfaction and suitability in women were negatively associated with mental health. Considering the job conditions of older workers is necessary to protect their mental health.

4.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632354

RESUMO

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. METHODS: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IVCRP and IVAsian, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IVCRP and IVAsian explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively. RESULTS: Using the IVCRP, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IVAsian, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IVCRP: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IVAsian: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.

6.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of interactions between kidney stone formation and conventional risk factors on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: A total of 11,402 subjects (men 30-69 years of age, Japanese) without CKD at baseline were observed over an average period of 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the association between incident CKD, kidney stone formation, and conventional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricemia/gout). We also examined the interactions of renal stones and the conventional risk factors for CKD. RESULTS: In total, 2301 men (20.2%) developed incident CKD during the follow-up period. After multivariable adjustment, kidney stones were found to increase the risk of incident CKD (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.03-1.32). Kidney stone formers with hypertension, dyslipidemia, or hyperuricemia/gout presented a greater risk for incident CKD than those who had either kidney stones or other risk factors. However, no significant interactions between kidney stones and other risk factors were found to increase CKD risk. On the other hand, a negative interactive effect between kidney stones and overweight/obesity was observed, leading to reversed risk of incident CKD in coexistence of both factors. CONCLUSION: Kidney stones were linked to a higher risk for the development of CKD. However, no positive interactive effects were identified between renal stones and conventional risk factors on the risk of incident CKD.

7.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region. RESULTS: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10-8. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity. CONCLUSION: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.

9.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical and psychosocial backgrounds of frailty in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: Patients with RA between 40 and 79 years of age who visited university hospitals in an urban area were recruited. Well-validated self-reported questionnaires were used to evaluate patient physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II), and frailty (Kihon Checklist). A 28-point Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) was calculated to evaluate RA disease activity. RESULTS: A total of 375 RA patients, 323 of whom were women, were enrolled (average age: 65.2 ± 9.7 years; average disease duration: 16.6 ± 11.9 years). The prevalence rates of frailty, working-age (40-64 years), young-old (65-74 years), and old-old (≥75 years) patients were 18.5, 28.8, and 36.6%, respectively. Higher age and longer disease duration were associated with frailty. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that HAQ, DAS-28, and BDI-II scores were independently associated with frailty in RA patients. CONCLUSION: Frailty is common, even among working-age RA patients. Physical function, disease activity, and depressive symptoms were independently associated with frailty. A multidisciplinary intervention approach, along with adequate pharmacological therapy, may promote successful aging in patients with RA.

10.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marital transitions are associated with adverse health events, such as mortality and cardiovascular disease. Since marital transitions (e.g., becoming widowed) are unavoidable life events, it is necessary to identify modifiable intermediate outcomes. Thus, we examined the association between marital transitions and vegetable intake among middle-aged and older Japanese adults. METHODS: This longitudinal study included Japanese adults aged 40-79 years who received an annual health checkup between 2007 and 2011 (baseline) and five years later (follow-up). Marital transitions were classified as whether and what type of transition occurred during the five-year period and comprised five groups: consistently married, married to widowed, married to divorced, not married to married, and remained not married. Changes in total vegetable, green and yellow vegetable, and light-colored vegetable intake from baseline to follow-up were calculated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. RESULTS: Data from 4813 participants were analyzed (mean age: 59.4 years; 44.1% women). Regarding marital transitions, 3,960 participants were classified as "consistently married," 135 as "married to widowed," 40 as "married to divorced," 60 as "not married to married," and 529 as "remained not married." Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that compared to consistently married, married to widowed was inversely associated with the change in total vegetable intake (ß = -16.64, SE = 7.68, p = 0.030) and light-colored vegetable intake (ß = -11.46, SE = 4.33, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that being widowed could result in a reduced intake of vegetables. Hence, dietary counseling according to marital situation is necessary.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18499, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116160

RESUMO

There are few studies examining the association between homocysteine (Hcy) level and the risk of hypertension with consideration for folate and vitamin B12 as related to Hcy level. We simultaneously examined the associations of plasma levels of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12, and dietary folate intake with the prevalence of hypertension. Participants included 1046 men and 1033 women (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.0 ± 8.9 years) in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary folate intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hypertension was defined based on measured blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication. A total of 734 participants (35.3%) had hypertension. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for the highest quartile group of Hcy were 2.36 (95% CI 1.41-3.96) in men and 1.86 (95% CI 1.11-3.11) in women, as compared with the lowest group (P for trend = 0.014 and 0.005, respectively). Dietary folate intake was not correlated with hypertension in both men and women (P for trend = 0.099 and 0.703, respectively). Plasma vitamin B12 was positively associated with hypertension only in women (P for trend = 0.027). Plasma Hcy level was positively linked with hypertension after controlling for covariates, including folate and vitamin B12.

12.
Alcohol ; 89: 129-138, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991979

RESUMO

To investigate the association between alcohol intake pattern in amount and frequency and metabolic syndrome (Mets) components, we simulated the change in the prevalence of Mets components by intake reduction. In order to manage Mets, alcohol intake reduction with moderation of intake pattern is required. However, evidence investigating the comparative impact of alcohol intake reduction in amount and frequency for Mets components is limited. We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study in the general Japanese population. The study subjects included 37,371 non-drinkers and current drinkers recruited in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Odds ratios (ORs) for Mets components according to alcohol intake amount and frequency were estimated using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of Mets components was estimated after assumed alcohol intake reduction of a) none, b) 10 g/day (men) or 5 g/day (women), c) 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women), d) less than 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women) for moderate-to-heavy drinkers, e) 1-2 times/week, and f) 3-4 times/week. The ORs with alcohol intake amount and frequency increased with high blood pressure while decreasing with dyslipidemia. A J-shaped association was observed between intake amount and Mets. The estimated prevalence (%) of high blood pressure and dyslipidemia in men were a) 45.2, b) 43.0, c) 41.4, d) 40.4, e) 42.9, and f) 42.0; and a) 50.3, b) 51.8, c) 52.9, d) 50.2, e) 52.7, and f) 53.4 in women. The estimated prevalence of high blood pressure in women did not evidently decrease. Simulated alcohol intake reduction showed decreased prevalence for high blood pressure and increased prevalence for dyslipidemia in men after reduced intake amount and frequency. The largest decreased prevalence for high blood pressure was observed in men when all moderate-to-heavy drinkers reduced their alcohol intake amount to less than 20 g/day.

13.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants. METHODS: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.

14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis. RESULTS: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal. CONCLUSION: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.

15.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 375, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Frequent self-weighing is associated with weight loss and maintenance, but the relationship between frequent self-weighing and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. The study aim was to examine the association between self-weighing frequency and the incidence of T2D in people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESULTS: We tested the hypothesis that self-weighing frequency and the incidence of T2D are associated in 2607 people with IFG (1240 in the intervention arm; 1367 in the self-directed control arm). Both arms received a weighing scale with storage function. Healthcare providers offered a one-year goal-focused lifestyle intervention via phone. Participants were divided into 4 categories based on self-weighing frequency (No data sent [reference group], low: < 2 times/week, middle: 3-4 times/week, and high: 5-7 times/week). The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. In the intervention arm, middle- and high-frequency self-weighing were associated with a decreased incidence of T2D relative to the reference group (AHR = 0.56, 95% CI [0.32, 0.98] and AHR = 0.43, 95% CI [0.25, 0.74], respectively). In the control arm, high-frequency self-weighing was also associated with a decreased incidence of T2D relative to the reference group (AHR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.35, 0.83]). Trial registration This trial has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000000662).

16.
Public Health ; 186: 6-7, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726639
17.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using annual health check-up data, the aim of this study was to identify target populations for lifestyle interventions to effectively prevent diabetes in a real-world setting. METHODS: The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1, a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial, was launched to test if year-long telephone-delivered lifestyle support by health professionals can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) identified at health check-ups. A total of 2607 participants aged 20-65 years with IFG were randomized to an intervention arm (n = 1240) or a control arm (n = 1367). We performed subgroup analysis to examine the effects of the intervention on the incidence of T2D in participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥25, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and non-alcoholic or alcoholic elevated liver enzymes at the baseline. Cox regression analysis adjusted for sex was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: In addition to IFG, the presence of BMI ≥25, MetS, and elevated liver enzymes increased the incidence of diabetes by two- or three-fold. During a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, only the non-alcoholic elevated liver enzyme group showed a low incidence rate owing to lifestyle interventions (adjusted HR: 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.98). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that people who have IFG and non-alcoholic elevated liver enzymes are a good target population for lifestyle interventions to effectively reduce the incidence of diabetes in a real-world setting.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Telefone
18.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486113

RESUMO

The association between dietary acid load and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was performed on 14,042 men and 14,105 women (aged 35-69 years) who participated in a baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Dietary acid load was assessed using the net-endogenous-acid-production (NEAP) score that is closely correlated with the rate of renal net acid excretion. MetS was diagnosed according to the Joint Interim Statement Criteria of 2009 using body-mass index instead of waist circumference. After adjusting for potential confounders, higher NEAP scores were associated with a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of MetS, obesity, high blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for carbohydrate intake or two nutrient-pattern scores significantly associated with MetS. After adjustment for fiber, iron, potassium, and vitamin pattern scores, the OR of MetS for the highest quartile of NEAP scores, relative to the lowest quartile, was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.39). There was no significant interaction between sex, age, or body-mass index and NEAP. Higher dietary acid load was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS and several of its components, independently of carbohydrate intake or nutrient patterns.

19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260513

RESUMO

We examined the association between family caregiver burden and subjective well-being with social participation's moderating effect among Japanese adults. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey by the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in the Okazaki area between 2013 and 2017. Study participants included 5321 adults who visited the Public Health Center for annual health check-ups and answered a questionnaire regarding health status and lifestyle. Subjective well-being was assessed by a single item, out of 10 points, and analyzed with multivariable linear regression analysis models by subjective family caregiver burden ("none", "mild", "severe"), stratified by gender. Ultimately, 2857 men and 2223 women were included. Mean participant age (standard deviation) in years was 64.7 (10.4) for men and 61.3 (10.0) for women. Multivariable analysis revealed that, among women, higher caregiver burden was inversely associated with subjective well-being (p for trend < 0.001), and the interaction of severe caregiver burden and social participation on subjective well-being was positive and significant (p for interaction < 0.05). High family caregiver burden was inversely associated with subjective well-being among Japanese women, but moderated by the caregiver's social participation, suggesting the importance of community development that enables family caregivers' social participation to protect their subjective well-being.

20.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 27(10): 1097-1107, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269208

RESUMO

AIM: Accumulating evidence reveals that sedentary behavior is associated with mortality and cardiometabolic disease; however, there are potential age and sex differences in sedentary behavior and health outcomes that have not been adequately addressed. This study aimed to determine the association of sedentary behavior with cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and its risk factors in a large Japanese population according to age and sex. METHODS: Using data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study obtained from baseline surveys, data of 62,754 participants (27,930 males, 34,824 females) were analyzed. This study uses a cross-sectional design and self-administered questionnaires to evaluate sedentary time and anamnesis. For the logistic regression analysis, sedentary time <5 h/day was used as the reference and then adjusted for age, research areas, leisure-time metabolic equivalents, and alcohol and smoking status. From the analysis of anthropometric and blood examinations, 35,973 participants (17,109 males, 18,864 females) were analyzed. RESULTS: For hypertension and diabetes, sedentary time was associated with a significantly higher proportion of male participants. Both sexes were associated with a significantly higher proportion of participants with dyslipidemia. Participants who had longer sedentary time tended to have increased levels of blood pressure, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and decreased levels of HDL-C, especially in the 60-69 years group. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of leisure-time physical activity, sedentary time was associated with cardiometabolic diseases in a large Japanese population classified by age and sex. Our findings indicate that regularly interrupting and replacing sedentary time may contribute to better physical health-related quality of life.

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