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1.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412140

RESUMO

Dietary factors may affect the prognosis of digestive tract cancer, but evidence has been sparse. Focusing on Japanese diet, we investigated the association between pretreatment intake of six Japanese foods (including soy food, miso (soybean paste) soup and seaweed) and the risk of death among patients with histologically confirmed major digestive tract cancers (stomach, 1931; colon, 793; rectum, 510) diagnosed during 1997-2013 at a single institution in Japan. Pretreatment dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and the patients were followed until December, 2016. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among the patients with stomach cancer, frequent intake of soy food was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause (Ptrend for four frequency groups = 0.01; HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 050-1.04 for highest vs. lowest group) and stomach cancer (Ptrend = 0.03; HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 040-0.99) death. A similar inverse association was also found for intake of miso soup. On the other hand, frequent seaweed intake was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause death among the patients with colon cancer (Ptrend = 0.03). Rectal cancer patients who had frequently consumed seaweed tended to have a lower risk of rectal cancer death (Ptrend = 0.02). These findings indicate that pretreatment intake of Japanese foods such as soybean products and seaweed may have favorable effects on patient survival of stomach and colorectal cancer, although this needs to be confirmed by further studies.

2.
Endocr J ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269183

RESUMO

Calcitonin (CT) is a marker for both initial diagnosis and monitoring of patients with residual or recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In Japan, serum CT had been measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) until recently. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) became commercially available in 2014, and this technique is now the only method used to examine CT concentration. The purposes of this study were to investigate the correlations between the CT concentration measured with ECLIA (ECLIA-CT) and RIA (RIA-CT) and to explore the clinical characteristics of patients with elevated ECLIA-CT. CT concentrations of 348 sera samples from 334 patients with various thyroid disorders including nine MTC were measured using both assays. The correlation analysis revealed an excellent correlation between ECLIA-CT and RIA-CT among the cases with CT level >150 pg/mL by both assays (rs = 0.991, p < 0.001). However, 63% of all samples exhibited undetectable ECLIA-CT, while their RIA-CTs were measured between 15 and 152 pg/mL. The ECLIA-CTs in all patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for non-MTC showed low concentrations. High ECLIA-CT was observed in patients with MTC or pancreas neuroendocrine tumor. ECLIA-CT was also increased in 14 other male patients with non-MTC, including four with renal failure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that male sex, negative TgAb, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate were independent factors to predict detectable ECLIA-CT (≥0.500 pg/mL). These results indicate that ECLIA-CT correlates well with RIA-CT in higher range and is affected by sex, TgAb, and renal function.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The outcomes of emergency surgery for type A acute aortic dissection have improved. However, ascending aortic replacement sometimes leads to dilatation of the distal aorta. The present study reviewed our outcomes of ascending aortic replacement and total arch replacement in patients with type A acute aortic dissection. METHODS: A total of 253 patients with type A acute aortic dissection underwent a central repair operation. Our standard technique was ascending aortic replacement. Total arch replacement was performed only when entry existed in the major curvature of the aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta. A total of 169 patients (67%) underwent ascending aortic replacement, and 84 patients (33%) underwent total arch replacement. Hospital death due to initial surgery, dilatation of the distal aorta greater than 5 cm, new occurrence of aortic dissection, any distal aortic surgery, and aortic-related deaths were defined as distal aortic events. RESULTS: The mortality was 7.1% in the ascending aortic replacement group and 6.0% in the total arch replacement group. Postoperative computed tomography was performed in 162 patients in the ascending aortic replacement group. The false lumen of the residual aortic arch had thrombosed and healed in 94 patients (58%) and remained present in 68 patients (42%). The distal aortic event-free rate in the ascending aortic replacement group decreased from 74% at 5 years to 51% at 9 years, and the rate in the total arch replacement group was 83% at 5 to 9 years (P < .01). For the ascending aortic replacement group, more patients with a dissected arch had a distal aortic event compared with patients with a healed arch (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Total arch replacement was associated with fewer distal aortic events. We may expand the indications for total arch replacement in stable patients.

4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(6): 1559-1573, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Excessive prostaglandin E2 production is a hallmark of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Enhanced expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 (prostaglandin E receptor 4) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been demonstrated in human AAAs. Although moderate expression of EP4 contributes to vascular homeostasis, the roles of excessive EP4 in vascular pathology remain uncertain. We aimed to investigate whether EP4 overexpression in VSMCs exacerbates AAAs. Approach and Results: We constructed mice with EP4 overexpressed selectively in VSMCs under an SM22α promoter (EP4-Tg). Most EP4-Tg mice died within 2 weeks of Ang II (angiotensin II) infusion due to AAA, while nontransgenic mice given Ang II displayed no overt phenotype. EP4-Tg developed much larger AAAs than nontransgenic mice after periaortic CaCl2 application. In contrast, EP4fl/+;SM22-Cre;ApoE-/- and EP4fl/+;SM22-Cre mice, which are EP4 heterozygous knockout in VSMCs, rarely exhibited AAA after Ang II or CaCl2 treatment, respectively. In Ang II-infused EP4-Tg aorta, Ly6Chi inflammatory monocyte/macrophage infiltration and MMP-9 (matrix metalloprotease-9) activation were enhanced. An unbiased analysis revealed that EP4 stimulation positively regulated the genes binding cytokine receptors in VSMCs, in which IL (interleukin)-6 was the most strongly upregulated. In VSMCs of EP4-Tg and human AAAs, EP4 stimulation caused marked IL-6 production via TAK1 (transforming growth factor-ß-activated kinase 1), NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and p38. Inhibition of IL-6 prevented Ang II-induced AAA formation in EP4-Tg. In addition, EP4 stimulation decreased elastin/collagen cross-linking protein LOX (lysyl oxidase) in both human and mouse VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulated EP4 overexpression in VSMCs promotes inflammatory monocyte/macrophage infiltration and attenuates elastin/collagen fiber formation, leading to AAA exacerbation.

5.
J Radiat Res ; 61(2): 243-248, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030428

RESUMO

The identification of thyroid cancers among children after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident propelled concerns regarding long-term radiation effects on thyroid cancer in children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, Japan. Herein we consider the potential association between absorbed dose in the thyroid and the risk of developing thyroid cancer as detected by ultrasonography on 300 473 children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Fukushima. The absorbed dose mentioned in the present study indicates the sum of that from external exposure and that from internally deposited radionuclides. We grouped participants according to estimated absorbed doses in each of 59 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture, based on The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2013 report. The 59 municipalities were assigned to quartiles by dose. We limited our analyses to participants aged ≥6 years because only one case of thyroid cancer was observed in participants aged ≤5 years; 164 299 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest dose quartile, the age- and sex-adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the low-middle, high-middle and highest quartiles were 2.00 (0.84-4.80), 1.34 (0.50-3.59) and 1.42 (0.55-3.67) for the 6-14-year-old groups and 1.99 (0.70-5.70), 0.54 (0.13-2.31) and 0.51 (0.12-2.15) for the >15-year-old group, respectively. No dose-dependent pattern emerged from the geographical distribution of absorbed doses by municipality, as estimated by UNSCEAR, and the detection of thyroid cancer among participants within 4-6 years after the accident. Ongoing surveillance might further clarify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on thyroid cancer in Fukushima.

6.
Psychooncology ; 29(4): 663-670, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984588

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies have explored factors causing depression in cancer survivors, including perceived physical symptoms. Another critical factor in the depression symptomatology of cancer survivors is activity restriction (AR). We investigated how AR mediate the effects of perceived pain and fatigue on depression in cancer survivors. METHODS: Cancer survivors (n = 61; mean age 56.16 years) that were recruited through cancer support groups in Japan participated in this study. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires comprising demographic and clinical information, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Cancer Fatigue Scale, the Activity Restriction Scale for Cancer Patients, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Mediation analysis indicated that AR partially mediates the effect of pain on depression. Direct paths from pain to AR, AR to depression, and pain to depression were significant (P < .005). Moreover, indirect paths from pain to AR, AR to depression, and pain to depression were also significant at the 95% level [0.04-0.13]. However, AR did not mediate the effect of fatigue on depression, and fatigue had a significant direct path to both AR and depression (P < .005). CONCLUSION: This study aimed to explore the mediating effect of AR in the relationships of perceived pain and fatigue and depression in cancer survivors. We found that AR mediates perceived pain to depression, however not for perceived fatigue. In addition, because AR was experienced in the face of any survivorship period, AR may need to be treated as a long-term effect of the cancer diagnosis.

7.
Fukushima J Med Sci ; 65(3): 122-127, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839647

RESUMO

The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, prompted implementation of the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination (TUE) program as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. The purpose of this program is to support residents of Fukushima Prefecture, and to analyze the health effects of the released radionuclides. Regardless of relatively high participation rates and a well-planned diagnostic flow, it is conceivable that not all thyroid cancer cases can be detected by the TUE program. The aims of the present study were to identify and characterize these "outside" cases, targeting patients at Fukushima Medical University (FMU) Hospital. As of June 30, 2017, we have successfully identified 11 outside cases. These corresponded to 5.7% of the 194 subjects who were identified as having thyroid cancer or suspected thyroid cancer in the TUE program. Although the outside subjects of other institutes were not investigated, the present study may have identified the majority of outside subjects in Japan, considering that FMU Hospital treats a large number of thyroid cancer subjects. Furthermore, the characteristics of the 11 subjects were not different from those of the subjects identified in the TUE program. These findings confirm that the TUE program was able to identify subjects of thyroid cancer adequately and sufficiently.

8.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803098

RESUMO

Introduction: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms are maintained by cognitive biases, which are overestimations of the severity and likelihood of negative social events (cost/probability biases), and by sensitivity to rewards and punishments that are determined according to behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation systems (BIS/BAS). Cost/probability biases might activate the behavioral immune system and exacerbate the avoidance of social events. Earlier studies have proposed that low BIS or high BAS decrease SAD symptoms; BIS/BAS may even change the effects of cognitive biases on SAD symptoms. Hence, the current study investigates the interaction effects of BIS/BAS and cost/probability biases on SAD symptoms. Method: Seventy-six Japanese undergraduate students completed the Japanese version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), which comprises Fear and Avoidance subscales, the BIS/BAS Scale, and the Social Cost Probability Scale. Results: A multiple regression analysis was performed to examine whether cost/probability biases, BIS/BAS, and their interactions affected SAD symptoms; following this, the main effects of cost bias and BIS were determined for LSAS-Fear (ß = 0.64, p < 0.001; ß = 0.33, p < 0.01) and LSAS-Avoidance (ß = 0.49, p < 0.001; ß = 0.35, p < 0.01). The interaction effect between cost bias and BAS was significant for LSAS-Avoidance (ß = -0.32, p < 0.05). Simple slope analysis showed that the slope of cost bias was significant for low-BAS individuals (ß = 0.77, p < 0.001) but not for high-BAS individuals (ß = -0.21, n.s.). The interaction effect between probability bias and BAS was significant for LSAS-Avoidance (ß = 0.40, p < 0.01) as well. Further, simple slope analysis revealed that the slope of probability bias was significant for low-BAS individuals (ß = -0.53, p < 0.05) but not for high-BAS individuals (ß = 0.17, n.s.). Discussion: The study found interesting results with respect to the avoidance of social events. Low-BAS individuals with high cost or low probability biases regarding social events may have a tendency to avoid social events. In contrast, if high-BAS individuals overestimate the cost of social events or underestimate the probability of social events, their anticipation of rewards might prevent them from avoiding social events.

9.
Kyobu Geka ; 72(10): 752-756, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582690

RESUMO

Good exposure of aortic lesions is very important to perform the surgery for descending thoracic aneurysm (DTA) and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). The patient is positioned in the right lateral decubitus position with the shoulders at 90°, and the hips flexed to 45°. A left thoracoabdominal skin incision is made in the 6th intercostal space beginning at the posterior axillary fold, and is extended through the costal cartilage and obliquely across the abdomen. The left chest cavity is exposed through the 6th intercostal space, and the costal arch is divided, then the descending thoracic aorta is exposed. The abdominal aorta is exposed through the retroperitoneal cavity. The dissection of diaphragm is carried out to expose the aortic hiatus. When the diaphragm is cut to get better exposure, it is circumferentially cut, at the muscle edge of approximately 2 cm. Then the aortic lesion of extent Ⅱ TAAA, which is all of thoracoabdominal aorta, can be exposed. Lung and abdominal organs should be retracted gently to avoid the damage of them.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Aorta Abdominal , Diafragma , Humanos
10.
Thyroid ; 29(11): 1563-1571, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441377

RESUMO

Background: Two Japanese prospective trials of active surveillance (AS) for adult patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) ≤1 cm (cT1aN0M0 PTMC) have verified the safety of AS in oncological control and its superiority over immediate surgery with respect to unfavorable outcomes. Thus, AS has been accepted as an alternative to immediate surgery for asymptomatic papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). However, the real-world clinical approach for PTMC is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the current state of management of asymptomatic PTMCs in Japan. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey on the actual treatment patterns for adult patients with low-risk PTMCs. The subjects were member institutions of the Japan Association of Endocrine Surgery (JAES) or Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgery (JSTS), including the departments of surgery and head and neck surgery (HNS). Results: Responses were obtained from 134 institutes, where 72.4% of Japanese thyroid cancer cases operated by surgeons were treated. For suspicious tumors on ultrasound, 18 responders (13.4%) conducted cytological examination routinely, while 69 (51.5%) and 40 (27.8%) conducted it only for tumors >5 and >10 mm, respectively. After the diagnosis, 42 responders (31.3%) recommend AS, 35 (26.1%) recommend immediate surgery as the management, and 52 (38.8%) allowed patients to decide the treatment course. The present responders tended to recommend surgery for PTMCs that were located adjacent to the dorsal surface of the thyroid, were multiple, or measured almost 10 mm in size. At these institutions, 1176 patients with PTMC underwent surgery in 2017, accounting for 18.1% of surgeries for PTC. During the succeeding three months, 310 of 576 (53.8%) PTMC patients underwent AS. The treatment strategies did not differ between the departments (Surgery or HNS). The institutions that have six or more surgeons, that were located in metropolitan areas, or that were certified by JAES or JSTS performed AS more actively. Conclusion: More than 50% of low-risk PTMCs are on AS in Japan. However, the indication and recommendation for AS vary significantly between institutions. To improve the implementation of this management modality, physicians and patients should be further educated, and the sociomedical environment should be improved.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220574, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449537

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis and is an attractive therapeutic target for combating obesity and related diseases. Human BAT activity has been evaluated by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) under acute cold exposure, but the method has some serious limitations, including radiation exposure. Infrared thermography (IRT) may be a simple and less-invasive alternative to evaluate BAT activity. In the present study, to establish an optimal condition for IRT, using a thermal imaging camera, skin temperature was measured in the supraclavicular region close to BAT depots (Tscv) and the control chest region (Tc) in 24 young healthy volunteers. Their BAT activity was assessed as the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) by 18FDG-PET/CT. Under a warm condition at 24-27°C, no significant correlation was found between the IRT parameters (Tscv, Tc,, and the difference between Tscv and Tc,, Δtemp) and SUVmax, but 30-120 min after cold exposure at 19°C, Tscv and Δtemp were significantly correlated with SUVmax (r = 0.40-0.48 and r = 0.68-0.76). Δtemp after cold exposure was not affected by mean body temperature, body fatness, and skin blood flow. A lower correlation (r = 0.43) of Δtemp with SUVmax was also obtained when the participant's hands were immersed in water at 18°C for 5 min. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that Δtemp after 30-60 min cold exposure can be used as an index for BAT evaluation with 74% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 79% diagnostic accuracy. Thus, IRT may be useful as a simple and less-invasive method for evaluating BAT, particularly for large-scale screening and longitudinal repeat studies.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/diagnóstico por imagem , Temperatura Cutânea , Termografia/métodos , Adulto , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto Jovem
12.
Epidemiology ; 30(6): 853-860, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This study examines the associations of radiation dose and lifestyle factors with incidence of thyroid cancer in Fukushima. METHODS: We designed a prospective study with 300,473 participants aged 18 years or younger, who underwent thyroid examinations from October 2011. Follow-up surveys were conducted through June 2017, and 245,530 participants (123,480 men and 122,050 women, 82% follow-up) received follow-up examinations. Fukushima Prefecture was divided into five areas based on individual external radiation dose. We calculated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for thyroid cancer in each area, with area of lowest dose as reference, using age-adjusted Poisson regression models. We also calculated risks associated with overweight and obesity. RESULTS: The incidence per 100,000 for Groups A (highest dose), B, C, D, and E (lowest dose) were 13.5, 19.2, 17.3, 9.0, and 8.3, respectively. Compared with Group E, the age-adjusted risks (95% CIs) were 1.62 (0.59, 4.47) for group A, 2.32 (0.86, 6.24) for group B, 2.21 (0.82, 5.94) for group C, and 1.02 (0.36, 2.86) for group D. Obesity was positively associated with thyroid cancer incidence; the multivariable-adjusted risk of thyroid cancer was 2.23 (1.01, 4.90) for obese individuals compared with nonobese individuals. CONCLUSION: Regional differences in radiation dose were not associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer among children in Fukushima within 4 to 6 years after the nuclear power plant accident. Obesity may be an important factor for further follow-up in Fukushima.

13.
Pediatr Int ; 61(11): 1159-1167, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has major negative consequences for individuals and society, and psychological assessment tools for early disease detection are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of an updated Japanese version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI-J) and set a cut-off score for the detection of depression. METHODS: The participants consisted of 465 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years. The control (CON) groups consisted of students recruited from elementary and junior-high school (CONEJ) and children recruited from among hospital staff members (CONRE), while the outpatient clinical (OPC) groups consisted of pediatric psychosomatic outpatients (OPCPD) and adolescent psychiatric outpatients (OPCPS). The CON and OPC CDI-J scores underwent factor analysis using varimax rotation, followed by measurement invariance analysis. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) was administered to assess concurrent validity. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was administered to the OPC group to diagnose current depressive symptoms. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate case-finding performance and to set cut-off points for the detection of depression. RESULTS: The CDI-J was reliable in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.86; mean inter-item correlation, 0.16). Re-test reliability was substantial (mean interval 18 days: γ = 0.59, P < 0.05). The four-factor solution exhibited adequate internal consistency (range, 0.52-0.73) and correspondence (Pearson correlation of 0.65 with the YSR) for both the CON and OPC groups. On ROC analysis the optimal cut-off score was 23/24. CONCLUSION: The CDI-J can be used as a reliable and well-validated instrument alongside standard diagnostic procedures.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Biopsychosoc Med ; 13: 9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168316

RESUMO

Background: Behavioral activation therapy (BAT) directly addresses activities that individuals value most highly, and may be easily applicable to cancer patients. However, there is no established evidence of the use of BAT in this population. In this study, we examined the possibility of a BAT program for depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Case presentation: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of cancer patients with each of the following characteristics: 1) were outpatients or inpatients visiting the psycho-oncology division of the National Cancer Center Hospital in Japan; 2) met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder or Adjustment Disorders; and 3) participated in a BAT program. The primary outcome was the program completion percentage. Secondary outcomes were self-reported depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score), anxiety disorder status (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) score), and clinical improvement (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) score) after the program. We analyzed both depression and anxiety by the matched paired t-test. Ten patients participated in the program, and nine completed it. One dropped out due to cognitive impairment secondary to brain metastasis. Both the PHQ-9 scores (pre: 14.4 (SD, 6.1); post: 5.1 (SD, 5.8)) and the GAD-7 scores (pre: 11.9 (SD, 4.9); post: 4.7 (SD, 5.5)) significantly improved after the program (PHQ-9: P = 0.0014; GAD-7: P = 0.0004). CGI-I scores ranged from 1 to 3, and all subjects except the patient who dropped out improved clinically. Among the ten patients, three distinctive cases could be observed as follows. Case 1; a 45-year-old housewife with breast cancer who did not agree to take antidepressants because of concerns about the side effects achieved remission without antidepressants and began to live an active life. Case 4; a 66-year-old housewife was so shocked after endometrial cancer diagnosis that she was absent-minded and her compliance with the assigned homework was poor, therefore, her depression did not improve much. Case 9; a 62-year-old man with laryngeal cancer who had recurrent anxiety. Increased business activity, on which he put great value, gradually allowed him to be able to live his life actively without concerns. Conclusions: This study suggests that BAT would be effective for the depression and anxiety of cancer patients.

15.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a preliminary ultrasound-based screening for thyroid cancer was conducted to establish a baseline for subsequent evaluations. In this survey, we assessed the relationship between the proportion of non-examinees and characteristics of the target populations. METHODS: After summarizing a regional difference of non-examinees among the population of 359,200 (primary evaluation) and 2,246 (confirmatory testing) individuals who were living in the Fukushima prefecture on 11 March 2011, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for each characteristic including age, sex, area of residence, and moving after the accident, based on the proportion of non-examinees for the primary examination and the confirmatory testing, using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: The dataset included 64,117 non-examinees (primary evaluation) and 194 (confirmatory testing). The logistic regression result indicated that girls were not likely to be non-examinees compared to boys with adjusted OR of 0.80 (95% confidence interval[CI]:0.78-0.81) for the primary evaluation. OR was the lowest for children 6-10 years old (y/o) (OR=0.26, CI:0.25-0.27), and higher for those 11-15 y/o (OR=1.28, CI:1.25-1.32) and over 16 y/o (OR=5.30, CI:5.16-5.43) when compared to children 0-5 y/o. Individuals residing in the western part of the prefecture showed higher ORs. There was a higher proportion of non-examinees among those who moved after the accident compared to those who did not in the primary evaluation (OR=1.72, CI:1.64-1.79). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the demographic characteristics, a change of residence could be a potential factor that influenced the proportion of non-examinees. Our results will help proper interpretation of reports and prospective management of the survey.

16.
Front Nutr ; 6: 14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873411

RESUMO

Post-marketing surveillance studies of traditional Japanese medicine in Japan are limited, and currently there are no data for Ninjin'yoeito, which is often used for the elderly because of its efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the post-marketing safety and efficacy of Ninjin'yoeito in elderly patients over 65 years of age in clinical practice in Japan. This survey was an open-label, non-comparative, prospective, multicenter, post-marketing survey conducted at 383 centers between February 2016 and March 2017. In the safety analysis of 808 patients, adverse reactions were reported in 25 patients (3.1%), most of whom had gastrointestinal disorders (2.1%). In the efficacy analysis, Ninjin'yoeito was found to significantly improve visual analog scale scores in fatigue/malaise and anorexia at weeks 8, 16, and 24, and weeks 8 and 24 after commencement of treatment, respectively. In addition, the Basic Checklist created by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan was used as a secondary survey item. The proportion of patients expected to require nursing care significantly decreased after 24 weeks compared with the baseline in four domains (activities of daily living, motor function, oral function, and depression). On the basis of physician assessment, Ninjin'yoeito was rated as "effective" or "moderately effective" in 486 (90.5%) of 537 cases. As the checklist contains many aspects of frailty, Ninjin'yoeito might be beneficial in preventing frailty. The findings of the present study indicate the safety of Ninjin'yoeito in aged patients, although further integrated clinical trials are necessary to examine its efficacy.

17.
Cardiovasc Interv Ther ; 34(4): 364-372, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725361

RESUMO

Preprocedural computed tomography (CT) imaging appears to provide an advantage in localization of the appropriate septal branch targeted for alcohol septal ablation (ASA). The objective of this study was to compare the clinical backgrounds, procedural characteristics, and outcomes of patients who underwent ASA with preprocedural CT assessment against those without CT assessment. Thirty consecutive patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent ASA were retrospectively included. Patients who underwent preprocedural CT (CT-guided ASA group, n = 11) were compared with patients who underwent ASA without CT (traditional ASA group, n = 19). The CT-guided ASA group had a significantly lower number of approached target vessels (1 [interquartile range {IQR}, 1-2] vs. 2 [IQR, 2-3], P = 0.036) and non-ablated target vessels (0 [IQR, 0-1] vs. 1 [IQR, 0-2], P = 0.031) than the traditional ASA group. There were no differences between the two groups in total fluoroscopy time, the amount of delivered radiation dose, and the volume of contrast medium used during the procedures. There were also no differences between the two groups in procedural success rate and improvement of left ventricular outflow tract gradient and New York Heart Association functional class at 1 month follow-up. CT had a significant impact on the ASA procedure diminishing the number of target vessels, and could be a reliable assessment modality to build its procedural strategy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagem , Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Intervencionista , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Artif Organs ; 43(6): 577-583, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488514

RESUMO

Although the efficacy of external stents for vein grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting has been recognized, the ideal diameter and material of the stent remain controversial. We created a new external stent made of soft polyester mesh and performed an animal experiment using canines. Bilateral saphenous vein grafts were interposed in the bilateral common carotid artery of 10 beagles. The grafts in the left carotid artery were designated as the control group, and those in the right rolled by a soft polyester mesh external stent were designated as mesh group. Two of the 10 animals were sacrificed due to severe wound infection. The other eight were observed by echography for 6 months, and then grafts were extracted and thickness of the neointima of the grafts was measured. The control group showed 146% ± 26% postoperative enlargement of the internal diameter of the vein grafts after 6 months, whereas the mesh group showed only 115% ± 15% after the same duration (P = 0.0003). The median thickness of the neointima in the mesh group (170 µm [range: 150-190]) was significantly thinner than that in the control group (260 µm [range: 220-310], P < 0.0001). Some degree of correlation between the thickness of neointima and proportion of enlargement was noted (r = 0.518, P = 0.0024). A soft polyester mesh external stent for vein grafts successfully suppressed the enlargement of the vein grafts and thickness of the neointima after 6 months.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Hiperplasia/prevenção & controle , Neointima/prevenção & controle , Poliésteres/química , Veia Safena/patologia , Stents , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hiperplasia/etiologia , Hiperplasia/patologia , Neointima/etiologia , Neointima/patologia , Stents/efeitos adversos , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Enxerto Vascular/efeitos adversos
19.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 145(1): 4-11, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489622

RESUMO

Importance: Ultrasonographic (US) screening for thyroid cancer was performed in the Fukushima Health Management Survey after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident. Clinical characteristics of thyroid cancers screened by US among children and young adults during the first 5 years after the accident were analyzed. Objectives: To evaluate the number of detected thyroid cancers by age group within 5 years of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident and to compare the basic clinical characteristics and demographic patterns in first- and second-round examinations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 324 301 individuals 18 years or younger at the time of accident were included. Patients received a cytologic diagnosis of malignant or suspected malignant thyroid cancer during the first (fiscal years 2011-2013) or second round (fiscal years 2014-2015) of screening. Number of detected cases of cancer was evaluated, correcting for the number of examinees by age group at the time of the accident and for the incidence of detected cancers according to age group at the time of the screening (age groups were divided into 3-year intervals). Results were compared using the age-specific incidence of unscreened cancers from a national cancer registry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical baseline characteristics of the patients and the age-specific number and incidence of thyroid cancers detected during the second round. Results: Among 299 905 individuals screened in the first round (50.5% male; mean [SD] age at screening, 14.9 [2.6] years), malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 116. Among 271 083 individuals screened in the second round (50.4% male; age at screening, 12.6 [3.2] years), malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 71. The most common pathologic diagnosis in surgical cases was papillary thyroid cancer (149 of 152 [98.0%]). The distribution pattern by age group at the time of the accident, where the number of detected thyroid cancer cases was corrected by the number of examinees, increased with older age in both screening rounds. This demographic pattern was similar between the first and second examinations. The distribution pattern of the incidence rate by age group at the time of screening in the second round also increased with older age. The incidence rate detected by screening was 29 cases per 100 000 person-years for those aged 15 to 17 years, 48 cases per 100 000 person-years for those aged 18 to 20 years, and 64 cases per 100 000 person-years for those aged 21 to 22 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Large-scale mass US screening of young people resulted in the diagnosis of a number of thyroid cancers, with no major changes in overall characteristics within 5 years of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power station accident. These results suggest that US screening can identify many detectable cancers from a large pool of nonclinical and subclinical thyroid cancers among individuals of a relatively young age, in an age-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Sci ; 110(2): 817-827, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548366

RESUMO

Thyroid ultrasound screening of young residents in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, showed a high detection rate of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Detailed morphological analysis of these tumors was not presented to date. This study sets out to evaluate changes in histopathological and invasive characteristics of Fukushima PTC with time after the nuclear accident of March 2011 in all available cases and in different age subgroups. Histological specimens of 115 PTCs from patients aged 18 years or younger at the time of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, who underwent surgical resection at Fukushima Medical University during 2012-2016, were reviewed. Patients were divided into those treated during the first 4 years after the accident (n = 78, shorter-onset) or later (n = 37, longer-onset). The whole group and 3 age subgroups: children (aged less than 15 years), adolescents (aged from 15 to less than 19 years), and young adults (aged from 19 years) at surgery were analyzed. No statistically significant time-related changes in tumor structure or invasiveness were found in the whole group or in age-matched subgroups. Statistically significant age-related downtrend was observed for intrathyroid spread in the whole group of patients. The absence of temporal changes in tumor morphological characteristics and tumor invasiveness strongly suggests common etiology of the shorter- and longer-onset Fukushima PTCs, which are unlikely related to the effect of exposure to very low doses of radiation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/patologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/diagnóstico , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Doses de Radiação , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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