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1.
Int J Toxicol ; : 10915818211047992, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610772

RESUMO

Research suggests that thioether analogs of vitamin K3 (VK3) can act to preserve the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors by blocking enzymes (phosphatases) responsible for their dephosphorylation. Additionally, these derivatives can induce apoptosis via mitogen-activated protein kinase and caspase-3 activation, inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and apoptosis. However, vitamin K1 exhibits only weak inhibition of phosphatase activity, while the ability of VK3 to cause oxidative DNA damage has raised concerns about carcinogenicity. Hence, in the current study, we designed, synthesized, and screened a number of VK3 analogs for their ability to enhance phosphorylation activity, without inducing off-target effects, such as DNA damage. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay revealed that each analog produced a different level of cytotoxicity in the Jurkat human leukemia cell line; however, none elicited a cytotoxic effect that differed significantly from that of the control. Of the VK3 analogs, CPD5 exhibited the lowest EC50, and flow cytometry results showed that apoptosis was induced at final concentrations of ≥10 µM; hence, only 0.1, 1, and 10 µM were evaluated in subsequent assays. Furthermore, CPD5 did not cause vitamin K-attributed ROS generation and was found to be associated with a significant increase in caspase 3 expression, indicating that, of the synthesized thioether VK3 analogs, CPD5 was a more potent inducer of apoptosis than VK3. Hence, further elucidation of the apoptosis-inducing effect of CPD5 may reveal its efficacy in other neoplastic cells and its potential as a medication.

2.
JACS Au ; 1(9): 1380-1388, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604848

RESUMO

The biosynthetic crossover of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activities is a productive pathway to convert arachidonic acid into unique eicosanoids. Here, we show that COX-2 catalysis with 5-LOX derived 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid yields the endoperoxide 5-hydroxy-PGH2 that spontaneously rearranges to 5-OH-PGE2 and 5-OH-PGD2, the 5-hydroxy analogs of arachidonic acid derived PGE2 and PGD2. The endoperoxide was identified via its predicted degradation product, 5,12-dihydroxy-heptadecatri-6E,8E,10E-enoic acid, and by SnCl2-mediated reduction to 5-OH-PGF2α. Both 5-OH-PGE2 and 5-OH-PGD2 were unstable and degraded rapidly upon treatment with weak base. This instability hampered detection in biologic samples which was overcome by in situ reduction using NaBH4 to yield the corresponding stable 5-OH-PGF2 diastereomers and enabled detection of 5-OH-PGF2α in activated primary human leukocytes. 5-OH-PGE2 and 5-OH-PGD2 were unable to activate EP and DP prostanoid receptors, suggesting their bioactivity is distinct from PGE2 and PGD2.

3.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RalA is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. The Anti-RalA autoantibodies (s-RalA-Abs) act as tumor markers in various types of cancer and are negatively associated with the p53 autoantibodies (s-p53-Abs). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between s-RalA-Abs and s-p53-Abs in various types of cancer. METHODS: A total of 1833 cancer patients (esophageal cancer, 172; hepatocellular carcinoma, 91; lung cancer, 269; gastric cancer, 317; colon cancer, 262; breast cancer, 364; and prostate cancer, 358) and 73 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. The levels of s-RalA-Abs and s-p53-Abs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the positivity rates and relations between the two autoantibodies were evaluated. The cutoff values for s-RalA abs and s-p53 abs were set as mean + 2 standard deviation and the values higher than the cutoff values were defined as positive. RESULTS: The titers in all cancer types were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.01). The positivity rates for s-RalA-Abs ranged between 11.7 and 21.5%, and those for s-p53-Abs ranged between 12 and 28.5%. A combined assay of the two antibodies revealed positivity rates of 20.9 and 44.2%. In Stage 0/I/II tumors, the positivity rates of the combination of the two antibodies ranged between 21.5 and 42.3%. The two autoantibodies were complementary to each other in the prostate and breast cancers, but independent in other carcinomas. CONCLUSION: The combined use of s-RalA-Abs and s-p53-Abs tended to increase the positivity rate in all cancers, including Stage 0/I/II cancers.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27429, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622854

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the morphologic features of spiral tibial shaft as well as concomitant fibular and peri-ankle fractures on multidetector high-resolution CT and to speculate about the mechanisms underlying these combined fractures.This is a retrospective cohort study. A total of 197 tibial shaft fractures underwent multidetector high-resolution CT before intramedullary nailing. The presence and location of peri-ankle fractures were recorded using thin-slice axial CT. Tibial shaft fractures were classified as spiral or non-spiral. The morphologies of spiral tibial fractures and concomitant lateral malleolar fractures were delineated using three-dimensional CT.Seventy-five spiral and 122 non-spiral fractures were identified. Peri-ankle fractures excluding lateral malleolar fractures were found in 77.3% of spiral fractures and 18.9% of non-spiral fractures. The most frequent location of peri-ankle fractures in the spiral group was the posterior malleolus, followed by the anterolateral distal tibia, while the medial malleolus was the most frequent site in the non-spiral group. Of 75 spiral fractures, 72 showed a fracture morphology attributed to external rotation force. There were 13 lateral malleolar fractures that were defined as within 6 cm from the distal end of the fibula. No lateral malleolar fractures showed the typical morphology of isolated supination/external rotation-type ankle injuries. The displaced syndesmotic injuries commonly coexisting in pronation/external rotation-type ankle injuries were not observed.Most spiral tibial shaft fractures were caused by external rotation force. However, the morphology of concomitant peri-ankle fractures was inconsistent with typical mechanisms of isolated external rotation ankle injuries.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Fraturas do Tornozelo/complicações , Fraturas do Tornozelo/patologia , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rotação , Fraturas da Tíbia/complicações , Fraturas da Tíbia/patologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prognostic significance of pretreatment serum C-terminus of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1, CYFRA) status was evaluated in the patients with surgically treated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A total of 1047 patients with surgically treated esophageal cancer were enrolled in a multi-institutional study promoted by the Japanese Esophageal Society. This study included an up-front surgery group (n = 412), a neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) group (n = 486), and a neoadjuvant chemoradiation/radiation therapy (NACRT/RT) group (n = 149). The pretreatment CYFRA status was analyzed to assess prognostic significance using multivariate analysis according to treatment modalities. RESULTS: The CYFRA-positive group was significantly associated with deep tumor. Univariate analysis showed that the overall survival of the CYFRA-positive group was significantly worse than that of the CYFRA-negative group, but the difference was not significant in the multivariate analysis. CYFRA was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis just in the NACRT/RT group. CONCLUSIONS: The CYFRA-positive group was associated with deep tumor and poor survival. Pretreatment CYFRA was not an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in the up-front surgery group or NAC group. It was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis just in the NACRT/RT group.

6.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 15(5): 237, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650804

RESUMO

Solid cancers have a poor prognosis, and their morbidity and mortality after surgery is high. Even after radical surgery for esophageal cancer, there have been cases of early postoperative death. The present study therefore aimed to explore new tumor markers that can predict the early postoperative prognosis. To identify antibody markers, serological antigens were identified using recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX). The results identified striatin 4 (STRN4) as the antigen recognized by serum IgG antibodies in patients with esophageal cancer. After performing an amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay-linked immunosorbent assay (AlphaLISA), it was revealed that when compared with healthy donors, serum anti-STRN4 antibody (STRN4-Ab) levels were significantly higher not only in patients with esophageal cancer but also to lesser extent, in those with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer. Compared with STRN4-Ab-negative patients with esophageal cancer, STRN4-Ab-positive patients had a poorer postoperative prognosis at early stages, suggesting that STRN4-Abs may be useful for predicting poor early-stage prognoses of patients with esophageal cancer. The positive diagnosis rates of esophageal cancer using the STRN4-Ab marker and conventional markers, including squamous cell carcinoma antigen and p53 antibody alone, were 26.4, 35.2 and 19.1% respectively; a result that increased up to 59.1% by combining all three markers. Serum STRN4-Ab may serve as a novel marker of esophageal cancer.

7.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 8(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677216

RESUMO

Flow diverters (FDs) are widely employed as endovascular treatment devices for large or wide-neck cerebral aneurysms. Occasionally, overlapped FDs are deployed to enhance the flow diversion effect. In this study, we investigated the hemodynamics of overlapping FDs via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. We reproduced the arterial geometry of a patient who had experienced the deployment of two overlapping FDs. We utilized two stent patterns, namely the patterns for one FD and two overlapping FDs. We calculated the velocity, mass flow rate, wall shear stress, and pressure loss coefficient as well as their change rates for each pattern relative to the no-FD pattern results. The CFD simulation results indicated that the characteristics of the blood flow inside the aneurysm were minimally affected by the deployment of a single FD; in contrast, the overlapping FD pattern results revealed significant changes in the flow. Further, the velocity at an inspection plane within the aneurysm sac decreased by up to 92.2% and 31.0% in the cases of the overlapping and single FD patterns, respectively, relative to the no-FD pattern. The simulations successfully reproduced the hemodynamics, and the qualitative and quantitative investigations are meaningful with regard to the clinical outcomes of overlapped FD deployment.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556614

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypercalcemia has been reported as a poor prognostic factor in malignant tumors. However, no report has shown the clinical impact of serum calcium levels on patients with esophageal cancer. We evaluated the prognostic impact of preoperative serum calcium levels on patients with esophageal cancer. METHODS: We evaluated 240 patients (197 men, 43 women; mean age, 66 years; age range, 34-85 years) with esophageal cancer who underwent radical surgery between September 2008 and December 2017. After assigning the patients to two groups (high calcium group, 8.8 mg/dL or more and low calcium group, 8.7 mg/dL or less), we compared the groups' overall survival and the clinicopathological features. The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of preoperative serum calcium levels were evaluated in a univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The patients with deep tumors showed low serum calcium levels significantly more frequently (P <0.05). The low calcium group showed a significantly worse prognosis than the high calcium group (P <0.05). However, low serum calcium level was not an independent poor prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative low serum calcium levels were associated with advanced tumors. Low serum calcium might be associated with esophageal cancer progression.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 708039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504788

RESUMO

Background: Esophageal cancer often appears as postoperative metastasis or recurrence after radical surgery. Although we had previously reported that serum programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) level correlated with the prognosis of esophageal cancer, further novel biomarkers are required for more precise prediction of the prognosis. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with the cholesterol metabolism. But there was no report of relationship between serum PCSK9 antibody and cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether anti-PCSK9 antibodies could be a novel biomarker for solid cancer. Methods: Serum levels of anti-PCSK9 antibodies and antigens in patients with solid cancer were analyzed using amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay-linked immunosorbent assay (AlphaLISA). The reactivity of serum antibodies against recombinant PCSK9 protein was investigated by Western blotting, and the expression of PCSK9 antigens in esophageal cancer tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Results: AlphaLISA showed that serum anti-PCSK9 antibody (s-PCSK9-Ab) levels were significantly higher in patients with esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer than in healthy donors, and patients with esophageal cancer had the highest levels. The presence of serum antibody in patients was confirmed by Western blotting. There was no apparent correlation between s-PCSK9-Ab and PCSK9 antigen levels. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the expression of PCSK9 antigen in both the cytoplasm and nuclear compartments of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue but not in normal tissue. Compared with patients with low s-PCSK9-Ab levels, those with high s-PCSK9-Ab levels had a favorable postoperative prognosis after radical surgery for esophageal cancer. In the multivariate analysis, tumor depth and s-PCSK9-Ab level were identified as independent prognostic factors. In the univariate analysis of clinicopathological features, high PCSK9 antibody levels were not associated with sex, age, location, tumor depth, lymph node status, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, or p53-Ab, whereas they correlated significantly with PD-L1 levels, which were associated with unfavorable prognosis. Correlation between s-PCSK9-Ab and PD-L1 levels was also confirmed in the logistic regression analysis; therefore, low s-PCSK9-Ab levels could discriminate another poor prognosis group other than high-PD-L1 group. Conclusions: Patients with solid cancer had higher s-PCSK9-Ab levels than healthy donors. High s-PCSK9-Ab levels indicated better prognosis for overall survival after surgery in patients with esophageal cancer.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503187

RESUMO

The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has been well known to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER)-pathway and to be also frequently upregulated in aromatase inhibitor (AI)-resistant breast cancer patients. Intracellular levels of free amino acids, especially leucine, regulate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. L-type amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT3 are associated with the uptake of essential amino acids. LAT1 expression could mediate leucine uptake, mTORC1 signaling, and cell proliferation. Therefore, in this study, we explored amino acid metabolism, including LAT1, in breast cancer and clarified the potential roles of LAT1 in the development of therapeutic resistance and the eventual clinical outcome of the patients. We evaluated LAT1 and LAT3 expression before and after neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NAH) and examined LAT1 function and expression in estrogen deprivation-resistant (EDR) breast carcinoma cell lines. Tumors tended to be in advanced stages in the cases whose LAT1 expression was high. LAT1 expression in the EDR cell lines was upregulated. JPH203, a selective LAT1 inhibitor, demonstrated inhibitory effects on cell proliferation in EDR cells. Hormone therapy changed the tumor microenvironment and resulted in metabolic reprogramming through inducing LAT1 expression. LAT1 expression then mediated leucine uptake, enhanced mTORC1 signaling, and eventually resulted in AI resistance. Therefore, LAT1 could be the potential therapeutic target in AI-resistant breast cancer patients.

11.
Acta Histochem Cytochem ; 54(4): 123-130, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511651

RESUMO

Forkhead box (FOX) proteins are family of transcriptional factors and regulate cell growth and differentiation as well as embryogenesis and longevity. Previous studies have demonstrated that several FOX members regulate growth or metastasis of breast carcinoma, but clinical significance of total FOX members remains unclear. We first examined associations between expression of 40 FOX genes and TNM status of 19 breast carcinoma using microarray data. Subsequently, we immunolocalized FOXI1 in 140 breast carcinomas and evaluated its clinicopathological significance. In the microarray analysis, we newly identified that gene expression of FOXI1 was most pronouncedly linked to metastasis of the breast carcinoma among the FOX members examined. However, clinicopathological significance of FOXI1 has not been examined in the breast carcinoma. FOXI1 immunoreactivity was positive in 44 out of 140 (31%) of breast carcinomas, and it was significantly associated with stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The FOXI1 status was significantly associated with worse prognosis of the breast cancer patients, and it turned out to be an independent prognostic factor for both distant disease-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival. These findings suggest that FOXI1 plays important roles in the metastasis of breast carcinoma and immunohistochemical FOXI1 status is a potent prognostic factor.

12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497058

RESUMO

A 35-year-old woman (gravida 1, para 0) underwent termination of pregnancy (ToP) at 12 weeks of gestation. One month after ToP, she experienced significant vaginal bleeding and the mass with blood flow was identified on imaging. The presence of a placental polyp with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was suspected on transvaginal sonography and MRI. Since the bleeding had ceased when she visited our hospital, we decided to treat the placental polyp with AVM with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist therapy instead of surgery. Two months after GnRH antagonist treatment, the mass and blood flow in the uterus disappeared. Menstruation resumed 1 month after the completion of treatment. In our case, we were able to successfully treat placental polyps with AVM using GnRH antagonist therapy.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas , Placenta , Adulto , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Número de Gestações , Antagonistas de Hormônios , Humanos , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia
13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 51: 128358, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534674

RESUMO

Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) play a crucial role in post-translational modification. Among them, overexpression, mutation, or hyperfunction of EP300/CBP has been associated with various cancers. In this study, we identified the novel compound 2-chloro-5-[5-[(E)-[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxo-pyrazol-4-ylidene]methyl]-2-furyl]benzoic acid (1) as an EP300 HAT inhibitor via virtual screening. Further research has been focused on the design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of virtual hit derivatives. The studies revealed that 4-pyridone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives exhibited bioisosterism of benzoic acid. Replacement proved effective, providing compounds with similar EP300 HAT-inhibitory activity and improved cell growth-inhibitory activity compared to the benzoic acid analogs. Through these studies, we identified a potent and selective EP300/CBP HAT inhibitor.

14.
J Endocr Soc ; 5(11): bvab150, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585037

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the development of prostate cancer, and androgen-deprivation therapy is used as a first-line treatment for prostate cancer. However, under androgen-deprivation therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer inevitably arises, suggesting that the interacting transcriptional coregulators of AR are promising targets for developing novel therapeutics. In this study, we used novel proteomic techniques to evaluate the AR interactome, including biochemically labile binding proteins, which might go undetected by conventional purification methods. Using rapid immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry of endogenous proteins, we identified enhanced at puberty 1 (EAP1) as a novel AR coregulator, whereas its interaction with AR could not be detected under standard biochemical conditions. EAP1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR via the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and its ubiquitination substrate proteins included AR and HDAC1. Furthermore, in prostate cancer specimens, EAP1 expression was significantly correlated with AR expression as well as a poor prognosis of prostate cancer. Together, these results suggest that EAP1 is a novel AR coregulator that promotes AR activity and potentially plays a role in prostate cancer progression.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(35)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433666

RESUMO

Increasing attention has been paid to roles of tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family proteins in cancer biology, often functioning as E3 ubiquitin ligases. In the present study, we focus on a contribution of TRIM47 to breast cancer biology, particularly to endocrine therapy resistance, which is a major clinical problem in breast cancer treatment. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of TRIM47 protein expression in 116 clinical samples of breast cancer patients with postoperative endocrine therapy using tamoxifen. Our clinicopathological study showed that higher immunoreactivity scores of TRIM47 were significantly associated with higher relapse rate of breast cancer patients (P = 0.012). As functional analyses, we manipulated TRIM47 expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells MCF-7 and its 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT)-resistant derivative OHTR, which was established in a long-term culture with OHT. TRIM47 promoted both MCF-7 and OHTR cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells acquired tamoxifen resistance by overexpressing exogenous TRIM47. We found that TRIM47 enhances nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling, which further up-regulates TRIM47. We showed that protein kinase C epsilon (PKC-ε) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3), known as NF-κB-activating protein kinases, are directly associated with TRIM47 and stabilized in the presence of TRIM47. As an underlying mechanism, we showed TRIM47-dependent lysine 27-linked polyubiquitination of PKC-ε. These results indicate that TRIM47 facilitates breast cancer proliferation and endocrine therapy resistance by forming a ternary complex with PKC-ε and PKD3. TRIM47 and its associated kinases can be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for breast cancer refractory to endocrine therapy.

16.
Esophagus ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum creatine kinase level has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in breast or lung cancers but no reports have been in esophageal cancer. We analyzed the prognostic significance of preoperative serum creatine kinase level in patients with esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: We evaluated the preoperative serum creatine kinase levels of 148 patients (118 male and 30 female) with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. According to their median serum creatine kinase levels, we divided the patients into high and low serum creatine kinase groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the impact of serum creatine kinase level on the prognosis of the patients. RESULTS: The tumor depth (P < 0.01) and stage (P < 0.01) were significantly associated with serum creatine kinase levels. The prognosis was worse in the low serum creatine kinase group than in the high serum creatine kinase group (P = 0.02). In the subgroup analysis, although no survival difference was observed in the female patients between the groups (P = 0.171), the survival of low serum creatine kinase group was significantly worse than that of high creatine kinase group in the male patients (P = 0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that nodal status (P = 0.019) and serum creatine kinase level (P = 0.047) were independent risk factors associated with overall survival in the male patients. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative low serum creatine kinase level was useful in predicting overall survival in the male patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

17.
Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil ; 12: 21514593211038089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434592

RESUMO

Introduction: Distal metaphyseal ulnar fractures are often found in conjunction with distal radius fractures. However, there is no consensus on optimal management. The purpose of this study was to determine whether simultaneous fixation of both distal radius and distal ulnar fractures would improve outcomes. Materials and Methods: Patients treated for distal radial fractures over a 4-year period at our trauma center were identified, and their medical records were analyzed. Twenty-three patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. All radius fractures were fixed using a volar locking plate. Fourteen ulnar fractures were treated with surgical fixation, and nine were treated conservatively. Data were collected on patient demographics, mechanism of injury, whether it was a closed or open fracture, Gustilo classification, AO/OTA classification, immobilization period, follow-up period, and type of treatment. Physical findings comprising the active range of motion and grip strength and radiological findings, including the ulnar variance compared to the healthy side and bone union, were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in the quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores, but the arc of dorsi-palmar flexion was more restricted in the operative group than in the conservative group. Other results were not significantly different between the two groups. Discussion: Fixation of distal metaphyseal ulnar fractures can be challenging, and several studies have shown the validity of conservative treatments. This supports the view that if the distal radius fracture is anatomically and rigidly fixed, distal metaphyseal ulnar fractures can be successfully managed conservatively. Conclusion: Our results did not show any merit in the simultaneous fixation of both distal radius and distal ulnar fractures. Thus, needless surgery should be avoided.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445353

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Additionally, the efficacy of targeted molecular therapies with multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors is limited. In this study, we focused on the cellular signaling pathways common to diverse HCC cells and used quantitative reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and statistical analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms determining its malignancy. We examined the heterogeneity of 17 liver cancer cell lines by performing cluster analysis of their expression of CD90 and EpCAM cancer stem cell markers. Gaussian mixture model clustering identified three dominant clusters: CD90-positive and EpCAM-negative (CD90+), EpCAM-positive and CD90-negative (EpCAM+) and EpCAM-negative and CD90-negative (Neutral). A multivariate analysis by partial least squares revealed that the former two cell populations showed distinct patterns of protein expression and phosphorylation in the EGFR and EphA2 signaling pathways. The CD90+ cells exhibited higher abundance of AKT, EphA2 and its phosphorylated form at Ser897, whereas the EpCAM+ cells exhibited higher abundance of ERK, RSK and its phosphorylated form. This demonstrates that pro-oncogenic, ligand-independent EphA2 signaling plays a dominant role in CD90+ cells with higher motility and metastatic activity than EpCAM+ cells. We also showed that an AKT inhibitor reduced the proliferation and survival of CD90+ cells but did not affect those of EpCAM+ cells. Taken together, our results suggest that AKT activation may be a key pro-oncogenic regulator in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Receptor EphA2/fisiologia , Antígenos Thy-1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Receptor EphA2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Oncol Rep ; 46(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278480

RESUMO

Androgens are produced locally in breast carcinoma tissues by androgen­producing enzymes such as 5α­reductase type 1 (5αRed1) and affect not only breast cancer cells but the tumor microenvironment as well. Tumor­associated macrophages (TAMs) are primary components of the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression. Although previous studies suggest that androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling in macrophages has important roles in human diseases, androgen action on TAMs has remained largely unknown. We immunolocalized macrophage marker CD163 as well as AR and 5αRed1 in 116 breast carcinomas and correlated them with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes. Moreover, we examined the roles of androgens on macrophages in breast cancer progression using cell lines 4T1 (mouse breast cancer) and RAW264.7 (macrophage) in a tumor­bearing female BALB/c mouse model. Double immunohistochemistry revealed that AR was sporadically expressed in the macrophages in breast carcinoma tissues. Macrophage infiltration was significantly correlated with an aggressive phenotype of breast carcinomas and worse prognosis, especially in the 5αRed1­positive group. In a sphere­forming assay using 4T1 and RAW­AR cells, which stably express AR, the sphere size was significantly increased due to androgens when 4T1 cells were cocultured with RAW­AR cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments revealed that tumor growth and Ki67, a cell proliferation marker, were increased when androgens were stably produced in breast cancer cells and AR was expressed in macrophages. In conclusion, AR is expressed in intratumoral macrophages and is associated with an aggressive phenotype of breast carcinomas, especially when breast cancer cells actively produce androgens. Thus, androgens may enhance the ability of macrophages to promote breast cancer progression.

20.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18362, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH) catalyzes D-2-hydroxyglutarate to α-ketoglutarate and is involved in the regulation of cellular energy and biosynthetic intermediates. Previously, D2HGDH was reported to decrease 2-hydroxyglutarate level in breast carcinoma cells, but no other report has examined D2HGDH in breast carcinoma, and its significance remains unknown. METHODS: We first immunolocalized D2HGDH in 224 invasive breast carcinomas and evaluated its clinicopathological significance. We next examined associations between gene expression of D2HGDH and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in 23 breast carcinoma tissues using the gene expression profile data. Finally, we examined the effects of D2HGDH on the proliferation in three breast carcinoma cells. RESULTS: D2HGDH immunoreactivity was detected in 49% of invasive breast carcinomas, and the immunohistochemical D2HGDH status was positively associated with histological grade, HER2 and Ki-67, while it was inversely associated with estrogen receptor. Moreover, it was significantly associated with worse prognosis of the breast cancer patients, and it turned out to be an independent prognostic factor for both the disease-free and breast cancer-specific survival in these patients. Gene expression profile data revealed that D2HGDH expression was positively associated with the expression of 6 α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (KDM3A, PLOD1, EGLN2, ALKBH1, ASPH and ALKBH7). Consequent in vitro experiments demonstrated that D2HGDH overexpression significantly increased the cell proliferation activity of MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that D2HGDH plays an important role in the growth of breast carcinoma, possibly through regulating functions of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, and that D2HGDH status is a potent worse prognostic factor in breast cancer patients.

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