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1.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 5(1): 10, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580183

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) represents promising treatments for human cancers. Our previous studies demonstrated PD-L1 overexpression in some canine cancers, and suggested the therapeutic potential of a canine chimeric anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (c4G12). However, such evidence is scarce, limiting the clinical application in dogs. In the present report, canine PD-L1 expression was assessed in various cancer types, using a new anti-PD-L1 mAb, 6C11-3A11, and the safety and efficacy of c4G12 were explored in 29 dogs with pulmonary metastatic oral malignant melanoma (OMM). PD-L1 expression was detected in most canine malignant cancers including OMM, and survival was significantly longer in the c4G12 treatment group (median 143 days) when compared to a historical control group (n = 15, median 54 days). In dogs with measurable disease (n = 13), one dog (7.7%) experienced a complete response. Treatment-related adverse events of any grade were observed in 15 dogs (51.7%). Here we show that PD-L1 is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy in dogs, and dogs could be a useful large animal model for human cancer research.

2.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In contrast to the study in other part of the world, information about characteristics of plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in Enterobacteriaceae derived from environmental water in tropical Asian countries including Thailand is limited. This study, therefore, aimed to gain insight into genetic information of antimicrobial resistance in environmental water in Thailand. METHODS: Coliform bacteria were isolated from environmental water collected at 20 locations in Thailand and identified. Then, susceptibility profiles to ampicillin, cefazoline, cefotaxime, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid were assessed. In addition, antimicrobial resistant genes integrons, and replicon types were analyzed. And furthermore, plasmids carrying blaTEM and tetM were identified by S1-PFGE analysis and confirmed transmissibility by transconjugation experiments. RESULTS: In 130 coliform bacteria isolated, 89 were resistant to cefazoline while 41 isolates were susceptible. Cefazoline-resistant coliform bacteria were found to be significantly resistant to cefotaxime and tetracycline as compared to susceptible isolates. Hence, blaTEM and tetM correlating with ß-lactam antibiotics and tetracycline, respectively, were analyzed found to co-localize on the IncFrepB plasmids in isolates from pig farms' wastewater by S1-PFGE analysis. And furthermore, transmissibility of the plasmids was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained in this study suggested that ARGs in coliform bacteria may have been spreading on the farm via IncFrepB plasmids. Hence, appropriate use of antimicrobials and good hygiene management on the farm are required to prevent the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008996, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493196

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a significant health threat to cattle and a zoonotic threat for humans in many developing countries. Rapid and accurate detection of M. bovis is fundamental for controlling the disease in animals and humans, and for the proper treatment of patients as one of the first-line anti-TB drug, pyrazinamide, is ineffective against M. bovis. Currently, there are no rapid, simplified and low-cost diagnostic methods that can be easily integrated for use in many developing countries. Here, we report the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for specific identification of M. bovis by targeting the region of difference 4 (RD4), a 12.7 kb genomic region that is deleted solely in M. bovis. The assay's specificity was evaluated using 139 isolates comprising 65 M. bovis isolates, 40 M. tuberculosis isolates, seven M. tuberculosis complex reference strains, 22 non-tuberculous mycobacteria and five other bacteria. The established LAMP detected only M. bovis isolates as positive and no false positives were observed using the other mycobacteria and non-mycobacteria tested. Our LAMP assay detected as low as 10 copies of M. bovis genomic DNA within 40 minutes. The procedure of LAMP is simple with an incubation at a constant temperature. Results are observed with the naked eye by a color change, and there is no need for expensive equipment. The established LAMP can be used for the detection of M. bovis infections in cattle and humans in resource-limited areas.

4.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 114: 103847, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888966

RESUMO

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is a bovine chronic infection caused by BLV, a member of the genus Deltaretrovirus. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of GS-9620, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist, in cattle (Bos taurus) and its therapeutic potential for treating BLV infection. GS-9620 induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as CD80 expression in CD11c+ cells and increased CD69 and interferon (IFN)-γ expressions in T cells. Removing CD11c+ cells from PBMCs decreased CD69 expression in T cells in the presence of GS-9620. These results suggest that TLR7 agonism promotes T-cell activation via CD11c+ cells. Analyses using PBMCs from BLV-infected cattle revealed that TLR7 expression in CD11c+ cells was upregulated during late-stage BLV infection. Furthermore, GS-9620 increased IFN-γ and TNF-α production and inhibited syncytium formation in vitro, suggesting that GS-9620 may be used to treat BLV infection.

5.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(1)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320939

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) is a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Thailand and other countries due to the consumption of contaminated and undercooked seafood. However, there have been few reports of the molecular epidemiology of VP isolates from asymptomatic seafood handlers. Here, we report the phenotypic and genetic characterization of 61 VP isolates obtained from asymptomatic workers in two seafood-processing plants. We found 24 O:K serotypes, of which O11:KUT, O1:KUT and O3:KUT were the dominant serotypes. Analysis by PCR showed that 12 isolates harbored either tdh or trh genes with the potential to be pathogenic VP strains. The presence of T3SS2α and T3SS2ß genes was correlated with the presence of tdh and trh, respectively. Four tdh+ isolates were positive for pandemic marker. In this study, VP isolates were commonly resistant to ampicillin, cephazolin, fosfomycin and novobiocin. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1680 loci in 35 isolates from 17 asymptomatic workers, 6 gastroenteritis patients, 7 environmental samples and 5 genomes from a database showed 22 different alleles. Gene VP1680 was conserved in tdh+ isolates and pandemic strains, while that of trh + isolates was diverse. Asymptomatic workers carrying VP were the most likely source of contamination, which raises concerns over food safety in seafood-processing plants.

6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281144

RESUMO

Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic enteritis of ruminants. Previous studies have shown that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is associated with the disease progression, and PD-L1 blockade activates MAP-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Here, we performed anti-PD-L1 antibody administration using 2 MAP-infected cattle at the late subclinical stage of infection. After administration, bacterial shedding was reduced or maintained at a low level after administration. Additionally, MAP-specific Th1 cytokine production was upregulated, and CD69 expression was increased in T cells. Collectively, the treatment has a potential as a novel control method against Johne's disease.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) outbreaks have occurred in the Thamaka district, Kanchanaburi province in Thailand. METHODS: Seventy-two isolates, which included 7% mono-, 30.6% MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), were genotyped by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, and their drug resistance was analysed. RESULTS: The spoligotyping results showed that Beijing spoligo-international type (SIT)1 was predominant (n=38; 52.8%) while the remaining were non-Beijing sublineages (n=34). The MIRU-VNTR analysis showed that Beijing isolates, most of which belonged to the modern type (n=37), formed 5 clusters and 13 individual patterns. In katG, only mutation Ser315Thr was identified. In rpoB, Ser531Leu was predominant, except for His526Arg and Leu533Pro, which were found in two isolates. A cluster of 14 Beijing strains contained these common mutations and shared the MIRU-VNTR genotype with isolates in the Thamaka district that had spread previously. Two U SIT523 isolates contained the mutations A1400G in rrs and Asp94Gly in gyrA genes, indicating a spread of XDR-TB. CONCLUSIONS: Most mutations were associated with drug resistance and the specific MDR Beijing and XDR-TB in U SIT523 isolates remain. This genotyping is a key tool for tracking TB transmission in the Thamaka district of Thailand.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0234218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216754

RESUMO

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed on lymphocytes. Interaction of PD-1 with its ligand PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) delivers inhibitory signals and impairs proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of T cells. In our previous studies, we have developed anti-bovine PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and reported that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway was closely associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression in bovine chronic infections and canine tumors. Furthermore, we found that blocking antibodies that target PD-1 and PD-L1 restore T-cell functions and could be used in immunotherapy in cattle and dogs. However, the immunological role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway for chronic equine diseases, including tumors, remains unclear. In this study, we identified cDNA sequences of equine PD-1 (EqPD-1) and PD-L1 (EqPD-L1) and investigated the role of anti-bovine PD-L1 mAbs against EqPD-L1 using in vitro assays. In addition, we evaluated the expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissues of equine malignant melanoma (EMM). The amino acid sequences of EqPD-1 and EqPD-L1 share a considerable identity and similarity with homologs from non-primate species. Two clones of the anti-bovine PD-L1 mAbs recognized EqPD-L1 in flow cytometry, and one of these cross-reactive mAbs blocked the binding of equine PD-1/PD-L1. Of note, immunohistochemistry confirmed the PD-L1 expression in EMM tumor tissues. A cultivation assay revealed that PD-L1 blockade enhanced the production of Th1 cytokines in equine immune cells. These findings showed that our anti-PD-L1 mAbs would be useful for analyzing the equine PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Further research is warranted to discover the immunological role of PD-1/PD-L1 in chronic equine diseases and elucidate a future application in immunotherapy for horses.

9.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132303

RESUMO

Despite the availability of anti-tuberculosis drugs, treatment of tuberculosis has been complicated by drug resistant tuberculosis. Early detection of drug resistance make early appropriate treatment possible. However, the available tools are mainly for rifampicin resistance and the existing isoniazid resistance detection method is expensive, highly technical and complicated to maintain to make them unsustainable for use in developing nations. This study aimed to develop a simple, rapid and low-cost diagnostic kit for isoniazid resistant tuberculosis using single-stranded tag hybridization method targeting an isoniazid resistance conferring mutation. Specificity and sensitivity were assessed by utilizing DNA extracted from 49 isoniazid resistant and 41 susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates cultured in Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes. Positive signals were observed at mutant and wildtype lines with the sensitivity and specificity of 100% comparing to sanger sequencing results. In contrast, no positive signal was observed with non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. And the detection limit of this method was supposed to be 103 CFU or less. The STH-PAS method for isoniazid resistant M. tuberculosis detection developed in this study offers a better alternative for conventional phenotypic isoniazid resistance determination which will be of both clinical and epidemiological significance in resource limited nations.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 489-496, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been reported to be increasing in Zambia. The reasons for the increase are still unclear. This study determined the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes among isolates in Lusaka, the capital city, and investigated their association with MDR-TB. METHODS: Spoligotyping, large sequence polymorphism (LSP) analysis, and sequencing of MDR associated genes were performed on a total of 274 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates stored at the University Teaching Hospital from 2013 to 2017. Of these, 134 were MDR-TB while 126 were pan-susceptible. RESULTS: Spoligotyping showed the LAM family as the most predominant genotype (149/274, 54.4%) followed by the CAS family (44/274, 16.1%), T family (39/274, 14.2%), and minor proportions of X, S, Harleem, EAI and Beijing spoligofamilies were identified. Three M. bovis isolates were also observed. Among those, CAS1-Kili (SIT 21) and LAM1 (SIT 20) subfamilies showed a propensity for MDR-TB with p = 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This phenomenon might explain the future increase in the MDR-TB burden caused by specific lineages in Zambia. Therefore, it is recommended that the National TB control program in the country complements conventional control strategies with molecular analysis for monitoring and surveillance of MDR-TB epidemiology.

11.
J Microbiol Methods ; 177: 106062, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950563

RESUMO

Rapid and easy detection of nucleotide point mutations in bacterial pathogens associated with drug resistance is essential for the proper use of antimicrobials. Here, we developed a rapid and simple method for the detection of mutations using Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with the single-tag hybridization (STH) chromatographic printed array strips (PAS) method. This procedure is able to detect four mutations (C1349 T, A1295C, G1303 T, A1304 T) in Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR-TB), simultaneously. LAMP reactions contained a LAMP primer and eight allele-specific primers for each mutation. The allele-specific primers products were detected by nucleic acid chromatography using PAS. Four detection lines were detected there, one of which was detected at different positions depend on the wild type and the mutant type. We carried out the four mutations detection using 31 genomic DNA (2 A1295T, 1 G1303 T, 6 A1304 T, 22 C1349 T) from clinical isolate. The mutations have been confirmed by sequence analysis. The detection results were completely consistent with the sequence analysis. In the present study, four mutations could be detected, but only 60% of RR-TB could be detected with these four. It is expected that the detection rate will increase by adding more mutant primers. The combined LAMP and STH chromatographic PAS method is a simple and rapid method for detecting point mutations in clinical isolates as a point-of-care testing (POCT) technique. In addition, it does not require special equipment and can meet the demand in areas where drug-resistant bacteria are endemic, such as developing countries.

12.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953447

RESUMO

Drug-induced lung injury (DLI) has become more common because of the increasing number of therapeutic agents in use. Mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is one of the key drugs for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Although mesalazine-induced lung injury has been previously reported, few cases have included severe respiratory failure. In this report, we present a case of mesalazine-induced lung injury with severe respiratory failure, which was improved by discontinuation of mesalazine and introduction of corticosteroid therapy and ventilation support with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). We also review the previous literature on mesalazine-induced lung injury.

13.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(12): 1272-1277, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eradication of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) before urological procedures is important to reduce the risk for infectious complications after surgery. However, the appropriate regimen for antimicrobial treatment has not been fully determined. We experienced continuous (over 10 months) isolation of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli from urine of an asymptomatic patient. The four isolates obtained (SMESC1 to 4) were international high-risk clones of O25b:H4-ST131-H30R, and originated from one strain, as revealed by the whole genome sequences. Although the patient received meropenem (MEPM) and fosfomycin (FOM), to which the strains were susceptible before the urological procedures, they could not be eradicated. METHODS: To explore the reason for the continuous isolation even after MEPM and FOM administration, antimicrobial killing of adherent and/or intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) formed by coculture of the E. coli cells and T24 bladder epithelial cells were examined. RESULTS: FOM and levofloxacin did not decrease viable E. coli cells compared with gentamicin. MEPM partly decreased them, and sitafloxacin (STFX) decreased them most potently. These observations indicate that E. coli can survive in the urinary tract under antimicrobial administration, and some antimicrobials such as FOM and MEPM cannot eradicate E. coli in uroepithelial cells. Adhesion on urinary epithelial cells and/or IBC formation might result in continuous isolation from the urinary tract and recurrence of ASB and urinary tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that STFX is a promising optional agent for the eradication of ESBL-producing fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli in the urinary tract before urological procedures.

14.
J Med Chem ; 63(17): 9803-9827, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787111

RESUMO

The synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of uridylpeptide antibiotics were described, and the molecular interaction between the 3'-hydroxy analogue of mureidomycin A (3'-hydroxymureidomycin A) and its target enzyme, phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide transferase (MraY), was analyzed in detail. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) involving MraY inhibition suggests that the side chain at the urea-dipeptide moiety does not affect the MraY inhibition. However, the anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa activity is in great contrast and the urea-dipeptide motif is a key contributor. It is also suggested that the nucleoside peptide permease NppA1A2BCD is responsible for the transport of 3'-hydroxymureidomycin A into the cytoplasm. A systematic SAR analysis of the urea-dipeptide moiety of 3'-hydroxymureidomycin A was further conducted and the antibacterial activity was determined. This study provides a guide for the rational design of analogues based on uridylpeptide antibiotics.

15.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 125: 101985, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829153

RESUMO

Mutation in rpsL (encoding ribosomal protein S12), rrs (encoding 16S ribosomal RNA) and gidB (encoding 7-methylguanosine methyltransferase) are associated with resistance to streptomycin (STR), which is used for the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Nepal. The aim of our study is to analyze the correlation between mutations in the target genes and STR-resistance in 197 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from Nepal. Mutations in rpsL was harbored by 65.9% of isolates, in which the most common mutation in rpsL is caused by K43R (58.8%) and were significantly associated with Beijing genotype (P < 0.001). About 13.2% of isolates harbored mutations in two highly mutable regions of rrs, the 530 loop and the 912 region. About 13.2% of gidB mutants do not show any mutation in rpsL and rrs, which might suggest the role of gidB mutations in STR-resistance in MTB. In addition, 5.6% of isolates do not show any mutations in three genes examined, suggesting the involvement of other mechanism in STR-resistance in MTB. Our findings can be implemented for the establishment of molecular STR-susceptibility testing, in which tuberculosis can be treated with appropriate drugs and can improve control strategies for DR-TB.

16.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(11): 1139-1145, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance protein Qnr is an important factor in bacterial resistance to quinolones. Qnr interacts with DNA gyrase and reduces susceptibility to quinolones. The gene qnr likely spreads rapidly among Enterobacteriaceae via horizontal gene transfer. Though the vast amounts of epidemiological data are available, molecular details of the contribution of QnrB19, the predominant Qnr in Salmonella spp., to the acquisition of quinolone resistance has not yet been understood well. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the role of QnrB19 in quinolone resistance acquisition using recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium DNA gyrases and QnrB19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant QnrB19 was expressed in E. coli and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column chromatography. DNA supercoiling activities of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium DNA gyrase were assessed with or without QnrB19 under the existence of three quinolones to measure IC50s, the concentration of each quinolone required for 50% inhibition in vitro. RESULTS: The IC50s of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid against DNA gyrases were measured to be 0.30, 0.16 and 17.7 µg/mL, respectively. The addition of QnrB19 increased the IC50s of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin to be 0.81 and 0.48 µg/mL, respectively, where no effect of QnrB19 was observed on the IC50 of nalidixic acid. CONCLUSION: QnrB19 was shown for the first time in vitro to have ability to grant non-classical quinolone resistance to S. Typhimurium DNA gyrase. Structural insight on quinolones in this study may contribute to investigate drugs useful for preventing the spread of plasmid carrying PMQR along with other factors associating with antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium and other bacteria.

17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(9): 2411-2415, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of VRE is of clinical concern. While certain numbers of vanD-type VRE have been isolated, only two vanD5-harbouring Enterococcus faecium isolates have been reported in Canada and Japan. METHODS: We report the isolation of vanD5-type E. faecium and the first ever determination of the whole-genome sequence to investigate the possible mechanisms of the acquisition of the vanD5 gene cluster in E. faecium. RESULTS: Two vanD5-harbouring vancomycin-resistant E. faecium were isolated from the skin (SMVRE19) and faeces (SMVRE20) of a patient with a skin ulcer in Japan. The isolates exhibited vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC values of 128 mg/L, whilst the previous isolates of vanD5-harbouring E. faecium were only resistant to vancomycin. SMVRE19 and SMVRE20 were clones related to ST18, which is also seen in vanA- and vanB-type VRE. These isolates harboured an insertion element, ISEfm1, in the ddl gene, similar to a previously described teicoplanin-resistant vanD3-type E. faecium. The vanD5 gene cluster was integrated into the SMVRE20 chromosome as a part of a large genomic island (approximately 127 kb), similar to other recently spreading vanD variants in the Netherlands. The genomic island shared the greatest similarity with a part of the Blautia coccoides genome sequence, except for the region surrounding the vanD gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports that emergence of vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant vanD5-type E. faecium occurred via acquisition of the vanD5 cluster and ISEfm1 insertion into ddl. Considering the genetic similarity between the various VRE strains, the current study should serve as a warning against the spread of vanD5-type VRE.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520211

RESUMO

Simple, low-cost and effective diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) are needed especially in TB-high burden settings. The present study evaluated the performance of an in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosing TB by comparing it to Xpert MTB/RIF, microscopy and culture. In Thailand, a total of 204 excess sputum samples volume after the processing of cultures were used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) detection by Xpert MTB/RIF and LAMP. Based on culture results as the gold standard, the overall sensitivity of LAMP and Xpert MTB/RIF were 82.1% (126/153; 95% confidential interval [CI]: 75.4-88.98%) and 86.9 % (133/153; 95% CI: 80.5-90.8%) respectively, and the specificity of both tests was 100% (51/51; 95% CI: 93.0-100.0%). In comparison with Xpert MTB/RIF, the sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were 94.7% (126/133; 95% CI: 89.5-97.9%), and 100.0% (73/73; 95% CI: 94.9-100.0%), respectively. The average threshold cycle (Ct) of Xpert MTB/RIF detection for positive and negative LAMP results was statistically different, of 18.4 and 27.0, respectively (p < 0.05). In comparison with the acid-fast staining technique, and analyzing LAMP and Xpert MTB/RIF in smear-negative/culture-positive specimens, there was an increase of the detection rate by 47.7% (21/44) and 54.6% (24/44). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of LAMP appeared to be comparable to those of Xpert MTB/RIF. We claim that this LAMP has potential to provide a sensitive diagnostic test for the rapid TB diagnosis. It allowed a fast detection of MTB before the cultures and it could be used in resource-limited laboratory settings.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tailândia
19.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 73(4): 272-277, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115540

RESUMO

The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in endemic countries is challenging due to high caseloads and limited resources. A simple and cost-effective diagnostic test for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in clinical specimens is crucially needed. We evaluated the performance of an in-house assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the M. tuberculosis 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene for the diagnosis of TB in Thailand. A total of 252 sputum samples from suspected cases of pulmonary TB were analyzed. The sensitivity of LAMP was 99.04% (103/104; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.76-9.98%) and 72.73% (16/22; 95% CI: 49.78-89.27%) for smear-positive and smear-negative samples with TB-culture positivity, respectively. LAMP detected 20.69% (24/116) of TB culture negative samples but all those were positive by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of LAMP was higher than that of sputum microscopy while the performance of LAMP was similar to PCR. None of the samples positive for non-tuberculous mycobacteria by culture and PCR were positive by LAMP. Compared to TB culture, the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and kappa coefficient of LAMP were 83.22%, 88.33%, and 0.75 respectively. Based on the diagnostic performance, we propose that LAMP would be suitable as a potential diagnostic test for rapid TB diagnosis in resource-limited laboratory settings.

20.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 22: 302-307, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It is established that resistance to rifampicin (RIF) in 90% of RIF-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is attributable to point mutations in the rpoB gene, whilst 50-95% of M. tuberculosis resistance to isoniazid (INH) is caused by mutations in the katG gene. However, the patterns and frequencies of mutations vary by geographical region. In Zambia, the genetic mechanisms of resistance of M. tuberculosis to RIF and INH were unreported before this study. METHODS: Using gene sequencing, the rpoB, katG and inhA genes of 99 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 49 pan-susceptible M. tuberculosis isolates stored at a tuberculosis reference laboratory from 2013 to 2016 were analysed and were compared with published profiles from other African countries. RESULTS: Of the 99 MDR-TB isolates, 95 (96.0%) carried mutations in both rpoB and katG. No mutations were detected among the pan-susceptible isolates. The most common mutations among RIF- and INH-resistant isolates were in codon 531 of the rpoB gene (55.6%; 55/99) and codon 315 of the katG gene (94.9%; 94/99), respectively. Distinctly, katG mutations were predominantly high among Zambian isolates (96.0%) compared with other countries in the region. CONCLUSION: Resistance-associated mutations to RIF and INH circulating in Zambia are similar to those reported globally, therefore these data validate the applicability of molecular diagnostic tools in Zambia. However, katG mutations were predominantly high among M. tuberculosis isolates in this study compared with other regional countries and might distinguish cross-boundary transmission of MDR-TB from other African nations.

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