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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980954

RESUMO

We present five Danish individuals with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) (OMIM #102500), a rare multisystem skeletal disorder with distinctive facies, generalised osteoporosis and progressive focal bone destruction. In four cases positive genetic screening of exon 34 of NOTCH2 supported the clinical diagnosis; in one of these cases, mosaicism was demonstrated, which, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported. In one case no genetic testing was performed since the phenotype was definite, and the diagnosis in the mother was genetically confirmed. The age of the patients differs widely from ten to 57 years, allowing a natural history description of the phenotype associated with this ultra-rare condition. The evolution of the condition is most apparent in the incremental bone loss leading to osteoporosis and the acro-osteolysis, both of which contribute significantly to disease burden.

2.
Bone ; 121: 243-254, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), encoded by IKBKG, is necessary for activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Animal studies suggest NEMO is required for NF-κB mediated bone homeostasis, but this has not been thoroughly studied in humans. IKBKG loss-of-function mutation causes incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a rare X-linked disease featuring linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, hypodontia, and immunodeficiency. Single case reports describe osteopetrosis (OPT) in boys carrying hypomorphic IKBKG mutations. METHOD: We studied the bone phenotype in women with IP with evaluation of radiographs of the spine and non-dominant arm and leg; lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD using DXA; µ-CT and histomorphometry of trans-iliac crest biopsy specimens; bone turnover markers; and cellular phenotype in bone marrow skeletal (stromal) stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a cross-sectional, age-, sex-, and BMI-matched case-control study. X-chromosome inactivation was measured in blood leucocytes and BM-MSCs using a PCR method with methylation of HpaII sites. NF-κB activity was quantitated in BM-MSCs using a luciferase NF-κB reporter assay. RESULTS: Seven Caucasian women with IP (age: 24-67 years and BMI: 20.0-35.2 kg/m2) and IKBKG mutation (del exon 4-10 (n = 4); c.460C>T (n = 3)) were compared to matched controls. The IKBKG mutation carriers had extremely skewed X-inactivation (>90:10%) in blood, but not in BM-MSCs. NF-κB activity was lower in BM-MSCs from IKBKG mutation carriers (n = 5) compared to controls (3094 ±â€¯679 vs. 5422 ±â€¯1038/µg protein, p < 0.01). However, no differences were identified on skeletal radiographics, aBMD, µ-architecture of the iliac crest, or bone turnover markers. The IKBKG mutation carriers had a 1.7-fold greater extent of eroded surfaces relative to osteoid surfaces (p < 0.01), and a 2.0-fold greater proportion of arrested reversal surface relative to active reversal surface (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Unlike mutation-positive males, the IKBKG mutation-positive women did not manifest OPT.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(11): 2934-2942, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409573

RESUMO

17q12 deletions and duplications are two distinct, recurrent chromosomal aberrations usually diagnosed by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). The aberrations encompass the genes, HNF1B, LHX1, and ACACA, among others. We here describe a large national cohort of 12 phenotyped patients with 17q12 deletions and 26 phenotyped patients with 17q12 duplications. The total cohort includes 19 index patients and 19 family members. We also reviewed the literature in order to further improve the basis for the counseling. We emphasize that renal disease, learning disability, behavioral abnormalities, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, structural brain abnormalities, facial dysmorphism, and joint laxity are features seen in both the 17q12 deletion syndrome and the reciprocal 17q12 duplication syndrome; and we extend the list of features seen in both patient categories to include strabismus, esophageal defects, and duodenal atresia. Delayed language development, learning disability, kidney involvement, and eye dysmorphism and strabismus were the most consistently shared features among patients with 17q12 deletion. Patients with 17q12 duplications were characterized by an extremely wide phenotypic spectrum, including a variable degree of learning disabilities, delayed language development, delayed motor milestones, and a broad range of psychiatric and neurological features. This patient group also included adults achieving an academic degree. Assessing index patients and non-index patients separately, our observations illustrate that an overall milder disease burden is seen, in particular in patients with 17q12 duplications who are ascertained on the duplication rather than the phenotype. This evidence may be useful in prenatal counseling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Dinamarca , Facies , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(8): 1833-52, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23813913

RESUMO

Chromosome 17p13.3 is a gene rich region that when deleted is associated with the well-known Miller-Dieker syndrome. A recently described duplication syndrome involving this region has been associated with intellectual impairment, autism and occasional brain MRI abnormalities. We report 34 additional patients from 21 families to further delineate the clinical, neurological, behavioral, and brain imaging findings. We found a highly diverse phenotype with inter- and intrafamilial variability, especially in cognitive development. The most specific phenotype occurred in individuals with large duplications that include both the YWHAE and LIS1 genes. These patients had a relatively distinct facial phenotype and frequent structural brain abnormalities involving the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, and cranial base. Autism spectrum disorders were seen in a third of duplication probands, most commonly in those with duplications of YWHAE and flanking genes such as CRK. The typical neurobehavioral phenotype was usually seen in those with the larger duplications. We did not confirm the association of early overgrowth with involvement of YWHAE and CRK, or growth failure with duplications of LIS1. Older patients were often overweight. Three variant phenotypes included cleft lip/palate (CLP), split hand/foot with long bone deficiency (SHFLD), and a connective tissue phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome. The duplications in patients with clefts appear to disrupt ABR, while the SHFLD phenotype was associated with duplication of BHLHA9 as noted in two recent reports. The connective tissue phenotype did not have a convincing critical region. Our experience with this large cohort expands knowledge of this diverse duplication syndrome.


Assuntos
1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/patologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
5.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 50(Pt 4): 374-9, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23761384

RESUMO

Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency (FLLD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the LPL gene. FLLD individuals usually express an impaired or non-functional LPL enzyme with low or absent triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis activity causing severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Here we report a case of FLLD in a 29-year-old man, who initially presented with eruptive cutaneous xanthomata, elevated plasma TG concentration but no other co-morbidities. Subsequent genetic testing of the patient revealed compound heterozygosity of a novel duplication (p.R44Kfs*4) leading to a premature stop codon in exon 2 and a known mutation (N291S) in exon 5 of the LPL gene. Further biochemical analysis of the patient's postheparin plasma confirmed a reduction of total lipase activity compared with his heterozygous father carrying the common N291S mutation and to a healthy control. Also the patient showed increased (1.85-fold) activity of hepatic lipase (HL), indicating a functional link between HL and LPL. In summary, we report a case of FLLD caused by compound heterozygosity of a new duplication and a common mutation in the LPL gene, resulting in residual LPL activity. With such mutations, individuals may not receive a diagnosis before classical FLLD symptoms appear later in adulthood. Nevertheless, early diagnosis and lipid-lowering treatment may favour a reduced risk of premature cardiovascular disease or acute pancreatitis in such individuals.


Assuntos
Duplicação Gênica/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(5): 236-42, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23416623

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is characterised by hypohidrosis, sparse hair, and teeth abnormalities. Infants with XLHED have an increased risk of death by hyperpyrexia. XLHED is the most common form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED); however, no population-based prevalence estimates are available. We aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of XLHED in the Danish population per January 1, 2011; 2) identify the most frequent age at time of diagnosis; and 3) quantify the most frequent clinical feature associated with XLHED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study (1995-2010). We leveraged national medical registries and data from clinical departments to categorise XLHED cases into three groups: 1) Molecularly-confirmed XLHED; 2) Clinically-diagnosed HED (registered with ICD-10 Q 82.4); and 3) Possible HED (registered with sufficient clinical features based on a clinical algorithm that we designed). RESULTS: We identified 90 molecularly-confirmed XLHED, 146 clinically-diagnosed HED, and 988 possible HED cases between 1995 and 2010 (total n = 1224). The prevalence was 21.9 per 100,000 overall and 1.6 per 100,000 when restricting to molecularly-confirmed XLHED cases. The most frequent age at time of XLHED diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 18 years. Teeth abnormalities occurred in 79% of all cases and 52% of molecularly-confirmed cases as a primary clinical marker. CONCLUSION: We present the first ever population-based prevalence estimates of XLHED and suggest that the prevalence of XLHED may be higher than previously estimated. Diagnosis occurs most frequently during adolescence and teeth abnormalities were the most frequent clinical marker of XLHED.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/complicações , Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Prevalência , Anormalidades Dentárias/complicações , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética
7.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 99(1): 9-15, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21793192

RESUMO

We compared early fixation of titanium implants grafted with impacted allograft bone or coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) granules (Pro Osteon 200) with and without the addition of concentrated bone marrow cells (BMC). Autologous bone marrow aspirate was centrifuged to increase the BMC concentration. Four nonloaded cylindrical, porous coated titanium implants with a circumferential gap of 2.3 mm were inserted in the proximal humeri of eight dogs. Coralline HA granules +/- BMC were impacted around the two implants on one side, and allograft +/- BMC was impacted around the contra lateral implants. Observation time was 4 weeks. The implants surrounded by allograft bone had a three-fold better fixation than the HA-grafted implants. The concentration of BMC after centrifugation was increased with a factor 2.1. The addition of BMC to either of the bone graft materials had no statistically significant effects on implant fixation. The allografted implants were well osseointegrated, whereas the HA-grafted implants were largely encapsulated in fibrous tissue. The addition of concentrated autologous BMCs to the graft material had no effect on implant fixation. The HA-grafted implants were poorly anchored compared with allografted implants, suggesting that coralline HA granules should be considered a bone graft extender rather than a bone graft substitute.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Substitutos Ósseos , Cerâmica , Hidroxiapatitas , Osseointegração , Próteses e Implantes , Titânio , Animais , Cães , Porosidade , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo
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