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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetoprotein, cancer antigens 15.3, 19.9, 125, carcinoembryonic antigen and alkaline phosphatase are widely measured in attempts to detect cancer and to monitor treatment response. However, due to lack of sensitivity and specificity, their utility is debated. The serum levels of these markers are affected by a number of non-malignant factors, including genotype. Thus, it may be possible to improve both sensitivity and specificity by adjusting test results for genetic effects. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association studies of serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (N = 22,686), carcinoembryonic antigen (N = 22,309), cancer antigens 15.3 (N = 7,107), 19.9 (N = 9,945) and 125 (N = 9,824), and alkaline phosphatase (N = 162,774). We also examined the correlations between levels of these biomarkers and the presence of cancer, using data from a nation-wide cancer registry. RESULTS: We report a total of 84 associations of 79 sequence variants with levels of the six biomarkers, explaining between 2.3 and 42.3% of the phenotypic variance. Among the 79 variants, 22 are cis (in- or near the gene encoding the biomarker), 18 have minor allele frequency less than 1%, 31 are coding variants and 7 are associated with gene expression in whole blood. We also find multiple conditions associated with higher biomarker levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide insights into the genetic contribution to diversity in concentration of tumor biomarkers in blood. IMPACT: Genetic correction of biomarker values could improve prediction algorithms and decision-making based on these biomarkers.

2.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1459-1474, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4803, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641117

RESUMO

Features of the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram, reflecting ventricular depolarisation, associate with various physiologic functions and several pathologic conditions. We test 32.5 million variants for association with ten measures of the QRS complex in 12 leads, using 405,732 electrocardiograms from 81,192 Icelanders. We identify 190 associations at 130 loci, the majority of which have not been reported before, including associations with 21 rare or low-frequency coding variants. Assessment of genes expressed in the heart yields an additional 13 rare QRS coding variants at 12 loci. We find 51 unreported associations between the QRS variants and echocardiographic traits and cardiovascular diseases, including atrial fibrillation, complete AV block, heart failure and supraventricular tachycardia. We demonstrate the advantage of in-depth analysis of the QRS complex in conjunction with other cardiovascular phenotypes to enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of myocardial mass, cardiac conduction and disease.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5101, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504769

RESUMO

Gallstones are responsible for one of the most common diseases in the Western world and are commonly treated with cholecystectomy. We perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of gallstone disease in Iceland and the UK, totaling 27,174 cases and 736,838 controls, uncovering 21 novel gallstone-associated variants at 20 loci. Two distinct low frequency missense variants in SLC10A2, encoding the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), associate with an increased risk of gallstone disease (Pro290Ser: OR = 1.36 [1.25-1.49], P = 2.1 × 10-12, MAF = 1%; Val98Ile: OR = 1.15 [1.10-1.20], P = 1.8 × 10-10, MAF = 4%). We demonstrate that lower bile acid transport by ASBT is accompanied by greater risk of gallstone disease and highlight the role of the intestinal compartment of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in gallstone disease susceptibility. Additionally, two low frequency missense variants in SERPINA1 and HNF4A and 17 common variants represent novel associations with gallstone disease.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1681-1687, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374069

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis has a highly negative impact on quality of life because of the associated pain and loss of joint function. Here we describe the largest meta-analysis so far of osteoarthritis of the hip and the knee in samples from Iceland and the UK Biobank (including 17,151 hip osteoarthritis patients, 23,877 knee osteoarthritis patients, and more than 562,000 controls). We found 23 independent associations at 22 loci in the additive meta-analyses, of which 16 of the loci were novel: 12 for hip and 4 for knee osteoarthritis. Two associations are between rare or low-frequency missense variants and hip osteoarthritis, affecting the genes SMO (rs143083812, frequency 0.11%, odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, P = 7.9 × 10-12, p.Arg173Cys) and IL11 (rs4252548, frequency 2.08%, OR = 1.30, P = 2.1 × 10-11, p.Arg112His). A common missense variant in the COL11A1 gene also associates with hip osteoarthritis (rs3753841, frequency 61%, P = 5.2 × 10-10, OR = 1.08, p.Pro1284Leu). In addition, using a recessive model, we confirm an association between hip osteoarthritis and a variant of CHADL1 (rs117018441, P = 1.8 × 10-25, OR = 5.9). Furthermore, we observe a complex relationship between height and risk of osteoarthritis.

9.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(8): e002151, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an important cause of heart failure. Variants in >50 genes have been reported to cause DCM, but causative variants have been found in less than half of familial cases. Variants causing DCM in Iceland have not been reported before. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study on DCM based on whole genome sequencing. We tested the association of 32.5 million sequence variants in 424 cases and 337 689 population controls in Iceland. RESULTS: We identified 2 DCM variants in established cardiomyopathy genes, a missense variant p.Phe145Leu in NKX2-5 carried by 1 in 7100 Icelanders ( P=7.0×10-12) and a frameshift variant p.Phe1626Serfs*40 in FLNC carried by 1 in 3600 Icelanders ( P=2.1×10-10). Both variants associate with heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Additionally, p.Phe145Leu in NKX2-5 associates with high degree atrioventricular block and atrial septal defect ( P<1.4×10-4). The penetrance of serious heart disease among carriers of the NKX2-5 variant is high and higher than that of the FLNC variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two rare variants in NKX2-5 and FLNC, carried by 1 in 2400 Icelanders, cause familial DCM in Iceland. These genes have recently been associated with DCM. Given the serious consequences of these variants, we suggest screening for them in individuals with DCM and their family members, with subsequent monitoring of carriers, offering early intervention.

10.
Commun Biol ; 1: 49, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271932

RESUMO

The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO), signalling through the EPO receptor (EPO-R), is essential for the formation of red blood cells. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) testing 32.5 million sequence variants for association with serum EPO levels in a set of 4187 individuals. We detect an association between a rare and well imputed stop-gained variant rs370865377[A] (p.Gln82Ter) in EPOR, carried by 1 in 550 Icelanders, and increased serum EPO levels (MAF = 0.09%, Effect = 1.47 SD, P = 3.3 × 10-7). We validated these findings by measuring serum EPO levels in 34 additional pairs of carriers and matched controls and found carriers to have 3.23-fold higher EPO levels than controls (P = 1.7 × 10-6; P combined = 1.6 × 10-11). In contrast to previously reported EPOR mutations, p.Gln82Ter does not associate with haemoglobin levels (Effect = -0.045 SD, P = 0.32, N = 273,160), probably due to a compensatory EPO upregulation in response to EPO-R hypo-responsiveness.

11.
Commun Biol ; 1: 68, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271950

RESUMO

Most sequence variants identified hitherto in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of atrial fibrillation are common, non-coding variants associated with risk through unknown mechanisms. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of atrial fibrillation among 29,502 cases and 767,760 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank with follow-up in samples from Norway and the US, focusing on low-frequency coding and splice variants aiming to identify causal genes. We observe associations with one missense (OR = 1.20) and one splice-donor variant (OR = 1.50) in RPL3L, the first ribosomal gene implicated in atrial fibrillation to our knowledge. Analysis of 167 RNA samples from the right atrium reveals that the splice-donor variant in RPL3L results in exon skipping. We also observe an association with a missense variant in MYZAP (OR = 1.38), encoding a component of the intercalated discs of cardiomyocytes. Both discoveries emphasize the close relationship between the mechanical and electrical function of the heart.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3636, 2018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194396

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyomas are common benign tumors of the myometrium. We performed a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of leiomyoma in European women (16,595 cases and 523,330 controls), uncovering 21 variants at 16 loci that associate with the disease. Five variants were previously reported to confer risk of various malignant or benign tumors (rs78378222 in TP53, rs10069690 in TERT, rs1800057 and rs1801516 in ATM, and rs7907606 at OBFC1) and four signals are located at established risk loci for hormone-related traits (endometriosis and breast cancer) at 1q36.12 (CDC42/WNT4), 2p25.1 (GREB1), 20p12.3 (MCM8), and 6q26.2 (SYNE1/ESR1). Polygenic score for leiomyoma, computed using UKB data, is significantly correlated with risk of cancer in the Icelandic population. Functional annotation suggests that the non-coding risk variants affect multiple genes, including ESR1. Our results provide insights into the genetic background of leiomyoma that are shared by other benign and malignant tumors and highlight the role of hormones in leiomyoma growth.

13.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1234-1239, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061737

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, we performed a genome-wide association study of >1,000,000 people, including 60,620 atrial fibrillation cases and 970,216 controls. We identified 142 independent risk variants at 111 loci and prioritized 151 functional candidate genes likely to be involved in atrial fibrillation. Many of the identified risk variants fall near genes where more deleterious mutations have been reported to cause serious heart defects in humans (GATA4, MYH6, NKX2-5, PITX2, TBX5)1, or near genes important for striated muscle function and integrity (for example, CFL2, MYH7, PKP2, RBM20, SGCG, SSPN). Pathway and functional enrichment analyses also suggested that many of the putative atrial fibrillation genes act via cardiac structural remodeling, potentially in the form of an 'atrial cardiomyopathy'2, either during fetal heart development or as a response to stress in the adult heart.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3456, 2018 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150678

RESUMO

Discovery of coding variants in genes that confer risk of neurodevelopmental disorders is an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of these disorders. Whole-genome sequencing of 31,463 Icelanders uncovers a frameshift variant (E712KfsTer10) in microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) that associates with ID/low IQ in a large pedigree (genome-wide corrected P = 0.022). Additional stop-gain variants in MAP1B (E1032Ter and R1664Ter) validate the association with ID and IQ. Carriers have 24% less white matter (WM) volume (ß = -2.1SD, P = 5.1 × 10-8), 47% less corpus callosum (CC) volume (ß = -2.4SD, P = 5.5 × 10-10) and lower brain-wide fractional anisotropy (P = 6.7 × 10-4). In summary, we show that loss of MAP1B function affects general cognitive ability through a profound, brain-wide WM deficit with likely disordered or compromised axons.

15.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 87, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies conducted on QRS duration, an electrocardiographic measurement associated with heart failure and sudden cardiac death, have led to novel biological insights into cardiac function. However, the variants identified fall predominantly in non-coding regions and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, we identify putative functional coding variation associated with changes in the QRS interval duration by combining Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data from 77,898 participants of European ancestry and 7695 of African descent in our discovery cohort, followed by replication in 111,874 individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank and deCODE cohorts. We identify ten novel loci, seven within coding regions, including ADAMTS6, significantly associated with QRS duration in gene-based analyses. ADAMTS6 encodes a secreted metalloprotease of currently unknown function. In vitro validation analysis shows that the QRS-associated variants lead to impaired ADAMTS6 secretion and loss-of function analysis in mice demonstrates a previously unappreciated role for ADAMTS6 in connexin 43 gap junction expression, which is essential for myocardial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identifies novel coding and non-coding variants underlying ventricular depolarization and provides a possible mechanism for the ADAMTS6-associated conduction changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Conexina 43/genética , Exoma , Loci Gênicos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Eur Heart J ; 39(34): 3243-3249, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590334

RESUMO

Aims: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) accounts for 4-8% of congenital heart defects (CHDs) and confers substantial morbidity despite treatment. It is increasingly recognized as a highly heritable condition. The aim of the study was to search for sequence variants that affect the risk of CoA. Methods and results: We performed a genome-wide association study of CoA among Icelanders (120 cases and 355 166 controls) based on imputed variants identified through whole-genome sequencing. We found association with a rare (frequency = 0.34%) missense mutation p.Arg721Trp in MYH6 (odds ratio = 44.2, P = 5.0 × 10-22), encoding the alpha-heavy chain subunit of cardiac myosin, an essential sarcomere protein. Approximately 20% of individuals with CoA in Iceland carry this mutation. We show that p.Arg721Trp also associates with other CHDs, in particular bicuspid aortic valve. We have previously reported broad effects of p.Arg721Trp on cardiac electrical function and strong association with sick sinus syndrome and atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: Through a population approach, we found that a rare missense mutation p.Arg721Trp in the sarcomere gene MYH6 has a strong effect on the risk of CoA and explains a substantial fraction of the Icelanders with CoA. This is the first mutation associated with non-familial or sporadic form of CoA at a population level. The p.Arg721Trp in MYH6 causes a cardiac syndrome with highly variable expressivity and emphasizes the importance of sarcomere integrity for cardiac development and function.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(17): 2157-2168, 2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded variants at >30 loci that associate with atrial fibrillation (AF), including rare coding mutations in the sarcomere genes MYH6 and MYL4. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search for novel AF associations and in doing so gain insights into the mechanisms whereby variants affect AF risk, using electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements. METHODS: The authors performed a GWAS of 14,255 AF cases and 374,939 controls, using whole-genome sequence data from the Icelandic population, and tested novel signals in 2,002 non-Icelandic cases and 12,324 controls. They then tested the AF variants for effect on cardiac electrical function by using measurements in 289,297 ECGs from 62,974 individuals. RESULTS: The authors discovered 2 novel AF variants, the intergenic variant rs72700114, between the genes LINC01142 and METTL11B (risk allele frequency = 8.1%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.26; p = 3.1 × 10-18), and the missense variant p.Gly4098Ser in PLEC (frequency = 1.2%; OR: 1.55; p = 8.0 × 10-10), encoding plectin, a cytoskeletal cross-linking protein that contributes to integrity of cardiac tissue. The authors also confirmed 29 reported variants. p.Gly4098Ser in PLEC significantly affects various ECG measurements in the absence of AF. Other AF variants have diverse effects on the conduction system, ranging from none to extensive. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of a missense variant in PLEC affecting AF combined with recent discoveries of variants in the sarcomere genes MYH6 and MYL4 points to an important role of myocardial structure in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diverse associations between AF variants and ECG measurements suggest fundamentally different categories of mechanisms contributing to the development of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Plectina/genética , Risco , Sarcômeros
19.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1182-1191, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628107

RESUMO

Immunoglobulins are the effector molecules of the adaptive humoral immune system. In a genome-wide association study of 19,219 individuals, we found 38 new variants and replicated 5 known variants associating with IgA, IgG or IgM levels or with composite immunoglobulin traits, accounted for by 32 loci. Variants at these loci also affect the risk of autoimmune diseases and blood malignancies and influence blood cell development. Notable associations include a rare variant at RUNX3 decreasing IgA levels by shifting isoform proportions (rs188468174[C>T]: P = 8.3 × 10-55, ß = -0.90 s.d.), a rare in-frame deletion in FCGR2B abolishing IgG binding to the encoded receptor (p.Asn106del: P = 4.2 × 10-8, ß = 1.03 s.d.), four IGH locus variants influencing class switching, and ten new associations with the HLA region. Our results provide new insight into the regulation of humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Islândia , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Switching de Imunoglobulina/genética , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suécia
20.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1251-1254, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628109

RESUMO

Thus far, a handful of highly penetrant mutations conferring risk of psychosis have been discovered. Here we used whole-genome sequencing and long-range phasing to investigate an Icelandic kindred containing ten individuals with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or psychotic bipolar disorder). We found that all affected individuals carry RBM12 (RNA-binding-motif protein 12) c.2377G>T (P = 2.2 × 10-4), a nonsense mutation that results in the production of a truncated protein lacking a predicted RNA-recognition motif. We replicated the association in a Finnish family in which a second RBM12 truncating mutation (c.2532delT) segregates with psychosis (P = 0.020). c.2377G>T is not fully penetrant for psychosis; however, we found that carriers unaffected by psychosis resemble patients with schizophrenia in their non-psychotic psychiatric disorder and neuropsychological test profile (P = 0.0043) as well as in their life outcomes (including an increased chance of receiving disability benefits, P = 0.011). As RBM12 has not previously been linked to psychosis, this work provides new insight into psychiatric disease.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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