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1.
EuroIntervention ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on outcomes in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), as pivotal randomised trials excluded patients with BAV pathology due to anatomic complexity. AIMS: The aim of the study was to compare early outcomes between TAVI and SAVR in patients with BAV stenosis. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) between 2016 and 2018 to identify adults who underwent TAVI or SAVR for BAV stenosis. The study's primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day and six-month major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We matched both cohorts using propensity score matching, and applied logistic and Cox-proportional hazard regression to compute the odds ratio (OR), the hazard ratio (HR), and the 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Out of 17,068 patients with BAV stenosis, 1,629 (9.5%) patients underwent TAVI and 15,439 (90.5%) underwent SAVR. After propensity score matching (PSM), we found 1,393 matched pairs. Of the matched pairs, 848 had complete six-month follow-ups. In the PSM cohort, TAVI was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (0.7% vs 1.8%, OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.93; p=0.035), and a similar rate of MACE at 30 days (1% vs 1.5%, OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.27-1.58; p=0.343) and at six months (4.2% vs 4.9%, HR 0.86, 95% CI: 0.44-1.69; p=0.674), compared with SAVR. CONCLUSIONS: In the propensity score-matched cohort, TAVI was associated with reduced odds of in-hospital mortality and a similar risk of 30-day and six-month MACE, supporting the feasibility of TAVI in BAV patients without a need for concurrent aortic root repair.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMMENCE trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of aortic valve replacement (AVR) using a bioprosthesis with novel RESILIA tissue. RESILIA tissue is incorporated in the INSPIRIS RESILIA aortic valve. METHODS: Patients underwent clinically indicated surgical AVR with a bovine pericardial bioprosthesis, model 11000A in a prospective, multinational, multicenter (n = 27), Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trial. Events were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee, and echocardiograms were analyzed by an independent core laboratory. Outcomes through an observational period of 5 years are reported. RESULTS: Between January 2013 and March 2016, 689 patients received the study valve. Mean age was 66.9±11.6 years, STS PROM was 2.0±1.8%, and 23.8%, 49.9%, and 24.4% were NYHA Functional Class I, II, and III at baseline, respectively. Through December 11, 2020, follow-up duration was 4.3±1.4 years, and the completeness of follow up over the observational period was 95.5%. Early (<30 days) all-cause mortality was 1.2%, stroke 1.6%, and major paravalvular leak 0.1%. Five-year actuarial freedom from all-cause mortality, structural valve deterioration, and all-cause re-intervention were 89.2%, 100%, and 98.7%, respectively. At 5 years, effective orifice area was 1.6±0.5 cm2, mean gradient was 11.5±6.0 mmHg, 97.8% of patients were Class I/II, and 97.8% and 96.3% of patients had none/trace paravalvular and transvalvular regurgitation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The safety and hemodynamic performance of this aortic bioprosthesis with RESILIA tissue through 5 years are encouraging, with clinically stable hemodynamics, minimal regurgitation, and no evidence of structural valve deterioration.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the optimal temperature for moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients undergoing elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons adult cardiac surgery database was queried for elective hemiarch replacements using antegrade brain perfusion for aneurysmal disease (2014-2019). Generalized estimating equations and restricted cubic splines were used to determine the risk-adjusted relationships between temperature as a continuous variable and outcomes. RESULTS: Elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion occurred in 3898 patients at 374 centers with a median nadir temperature of 24.9 °C (first quartile, third quartile = 22.0 °C, 27.5 °C) and median circulatory arrest time of 19 minutes (first quartile, third quartile = 14.0 minutes, 27.0 minutes). After adjustment for comorbidities, circulatory arrest time, and individual surgeon, patients cooled between 25 and 28 °C had an early survival advantage compared with 24 °C, whereas those cooled between 21 and 23 °C had higher risks of mortality compared with 24 °C. A nadir temperature of 27 °C was associated with the lowest risk-adjusted odds of mortality (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.91). A nadir temperature of 21 °C had the highest risk of mortality (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73). Risk of experiencing a major morbidity was elevated in patients cooled between 21 and 23 °C, with the highest risk occurring in patients cooled to 21 °C (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with aneurysmal disease undergoing elective hemiarch with antegrade brain perfusion, circulatory arrest with a nadir temperature of 27 °C confers the greatest early survival benefit and smallest risk of postoperative morbidity.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now frequently performed for severe aortic stenosis. Data regarding cardiac operations after TAVR are limited, however. Therefore, we investigated patient characteristics, operative timing and indications, and outcomes of these operations in a single-center experience. METHODS: From 1/2012-7/2020, 59 patients (median age 70) underwent cardiac operations after TAVR, 38 (64%) of the latter performed outside our center. Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS-PROM) was calculated at time of prior TAVRs and at applicable index cardiac operations. RESULTS: From 2012-2018, there were fewer than 10 operations after TAVR, but 18 in 2019. Interval between prior TAVR and cardiac surgery decreased exponentially from 7 to less than 1 year over the experience. In applicable cases (n=19; 32%), median STS-PROM was 5.5% (15th-85th percentiles, 3.1%-25%); 40 (68%) were complex operations with no calculable STS-PROM. The TAVR valve was explanted in 46 (78%); 5 were isolated surgical AVRs. TAVR valve stenosis/regurgitation (n=34; 58%) was the leading indication, followed by paravalvular leak (14; 24%) and endocarditis (n=10/17%). When the TAVR valve was not explanted, mitral regurgitation was the leading indication for operation. Operative mortality was 5 (8.5%), postoperative stroke 2 (3.4%), and postoperative dialysis 6 (10%). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac operations after TAVR are increasing and interval between TAVR and operation decreasing. Most cardiac operations are complex, high-risk reoperations and isolated AVR rare. These findings should be considered when TAVR is selected for low-intermediate risk patients, particularly with multiple cardiac pathologies not addressed by TAVR.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between institutional volume and operative mortality following SAVR remains unclear. METHODS: From 1/2013 to 6/2018, 234,556 patients underwent isolated SAVR (n=144,177) or SAVR+CABG (n=90,379) within the STS ACSD. The association between annualized SAVR volume [Group 1 (1-25 SAVR), Group 2 (26-50 SAVR), Group 3 (51-100 SAVR), and Group 4 (>100 SAVR)] and operative mortality and composite major morbidity/mortality was assessed. Random effects models were used to evaluate whether historic (2013-2015) SAVR volume or risk-adjusted outcomes explained future (2016-2018) risk-adjusted outcomes. RESULTS: The annualized median number of SAVRs per site was 35 [IQR: 22-59, isolated AVR: 20, AVR+CABG: 13]. Among isolated SAVR cases, the mean operative mortality and composite morbidity/mortality were 1.5% and 9.7%, respectively, at the highest volume sites (Group 4); with significantly higher rates among progressively lower volume groups (p-trend<0.001). After adjustment, lower volume centers experienced increased odds of operative mortality [Group 1 vs. 4 (Ref): AOR (SAVR), 2.24 (1.91-2.64); AOR (SAVR+CABG), 1.96 (1.67-2.30)] and major morbidity/mortality [AOR (SAVR), 1.53 (1.39-1.69); AOR (SAVR+CABG), 1.46 (1.32-1.61)] compared to the highest volume institutions. Substantial variation in outcomes was observed across hospitals within each volume category and prior outcomes explained a greater proportion of hospital operative outcomes than prior volume. CONCLUSIONS: Operative outcomes following SAVR±CABG is inversely associated with institutional procedure volumes; however, prior outcomes are more predictive than prior volume of future outcomes. Given excellent outcomes observed at many lower volume hospitals, procedural outcomes may be preferable to procedural volumes as a quality metric.

6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite living closer to high-performing centers, minority patients reportedly receive care at lower-quality hospitals. Investigating opportunities for improvement at minority-serving hospitals may help attenuate disparities in care among cardiothoracic surgery patients. We sought to investigate the relationship between hospital quality and failure-to-rescue (FTR). METHODS: Over 451,000 cardiac surgery patients from 2000-2011 at minority-serving hospitals (MSH) were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. After stratifying patients by hospital mortality quartile, outcomes at poorly performing MSH were compared to those at high-performing MSH. Propensity-score matching was used for comparisons. RESULTS: Though patients at poorly performing centers were more likely black, there were no significant differences in admission status (urgent vs elective), income, insurance, or risk before matching. There were no differences in comorbidities between low- and high-performing MSH including chronic lung disease, coagulopathy, hypertension, and renal failure. While complications remained similar across mortality quartiles (29%, 32%, 31%, 36% respectively; p<0.0001), FTR increased in a stepwise manner (5.4%, 8.7%, 11.2%, 15.5%; p<0.0001). The same was true after propensity-score matching - FTR nearly tripled in the highest-mortality centers (14.4% vs 5.3%; p<0.0001) while complications only increased 1.2-fold from 31.1% to 36.7% (p=0.0058). This finding persisted even when stratified by procedure type and by complication. CONCLUSIONS: Improving timely management of complications after cardiac surgery may serve as a promising opportunity for increasing quality of care at MSH. When considering centralization of care in cardiac surgery, equal emphasis should be placed on collaboration between tertiary care centers and low-quality MSH to mitigate disparities in care.

7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reoperative cardiac surgery in patients with patent bilateral internal thoracic arteries (ITA) grafts is technically challenging. METHODS: From 2008-2017, of 7,640 patients undergoing reoperative cardiac surgery, 116 (1.5%) had patent bilateral ITA grafts, including 28 with a right ITA crossing the midline. Mean age was 70±9.6 years, and 111 patients (96%) were male. Reoperations included isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; n=11), isolated valve (n=55), valve+CABG (n=26), and other procedures (n=24). Clinical details, intraoperative management, and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Aortic cannulation was central in 64 patients (56%) and via femoral or axillary artery in 50 (44%). Four patients (3.4%) had planned transection and reattachment of ITAs crossing the midline, and 4 (3.4%) had ITA injuries, all right ITAs, 3 crossing the midline; 3 were repaired with an interposition vein graft, and 1 was managed by translocating the right ITA as a Y-graft off another graft. Patent ITAs were managed by atraumatic occlusion during aortic clamping in 90 patients (78%) and by systemic cooling without ITA occlusion in 19. There were 6 operative deaths, all due to low cardiac output syndrome (5.2%), 4 strokes (3.4%), and 5 cases of new postoperative dialysis (4.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Risk of injury to bilateral ITA grafts during reoperation is high, and right ITAs crossing the midline present a particular risk of injury and should inform planning for primary CABG. Risk of low cardiac output syndrome underscores the challenge of ensuring adequate myocardial protection.

10.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery bypass grafting using bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) maximizes long-term survival, knowledge of the effect of different right ITA (RITA) inflow configurations on graft patency is limited. We have compared RITA occlusion among these configurations and identified its risk factors while adjusting for outflow coronary target location. METHODS: From 1/1972-1/2016, of 7,092 patients undergoing BITA grafting at a single center, 1,331 received 1 ITA to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and had ≥1 evaluable postoperative coronary angiograms: 835 (63%) in-situ, 496 free-RITA grafts (311 [63%] originating from aorta, 98 [20%] left internal thoracic artery (LITA), 76 [15%] saphenous vein graft [SVG], 11 [2%] radial graft). RITA occlusion reported on 1,983 angiograms performed a median of 5.8 years later was estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects longitudinal modeling. RESULTS: RITA patency was 90% at 1 year, 87% at 5 years, and 86% at 10 and 15 years. At 15 years, in-situ RITA patency was 91% and free RITA patency from aorta 91%, LITA 89%, and SVG 77%. After adjusting for coronary target location and degree of stenosis, occlusion was similar in free RITAs from aorta (P=.15), LITA (P=.4), SVG (P=.13), and in-situ RITAs. However, RITAs grafted to the LAD had fewer occlusions (P<.001), with patency similar to LITAs. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with BITA grafting requiring interval coronary angiography, long-term RITA patency was high and independent of its inflow configuration. Therefore, priority should be a RITA configuration optimizing its reach to important coronary targets, including the LAD.

11.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding clinical outcomes of valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) following the United States Food and Drug Administration approval of ViV TAVI in 2015. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate in-hospital, 30-day, and 6-month outcomes of ViV TAVI versus repeat surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with a failed aortic bioprosthetic valve. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study identified patients who underwent ViV TAVI or repeat SAVR utilising the Nationwide Readmission Database from 2016 to 2018. Primary outcomes were all-cause readmission (at 30 days and 6 months) and in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital stroke, pacemaker implantation, 30-day/6-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and mortality during readmission. Propensity score-matching (inverse probability of treatment weighting) analyses were implemented. RESULTS: Out of 6,769 procedures performed, 3,724 (55%) patients underwent ViV TAVI, and 3,045 (45%) underwent repeat SAVR. ViV TAVI was associated with lower in-hospital all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20-0.90, p=0.026) and a higher rate of 30-day (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI: 1.13-1.90, p=0.004) and 6-month all-cause readmission (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.10, p=0.006) compared with repeat SAVR. All secondary outcomes were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: ViV TAVI was associated with lower in-hospital mortality but higher 30-day and 6-month all-cause readmission. However, there was no difference in risk of in-hospital stroke, post-procedure pacemaker implantation, MACE, and mortality during 30-day and 6-month readmission compared with repeat SAVR, suggesting that ViV TAVI can be performed safely in carefully selected patients.

12.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 3(4): e200496, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505060

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes. © 2021 Jointly between the RSNA, the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bicuspid Aortic Valve, Aortopathy, Nomenclature, Classification.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of data on how race affects the clinical presentation and short-term outcome among hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2, the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19). METHODS: Hospitalized patients ≥ 18 years, testing positive for COVID-19 from March 13, 2020 to May 13, 2020 in a United States (U.S.) integrated healthcare system with multiple facilities in two states were evaluated. We documented racial differences in clinical presentation, disposition, and in-hospital outcomes for hospitalized patients with COIVD-19. Multivariable regression analysis was utilized to evaluate independent predictors of outcomes by race. RESULTS: During the study period, 3678 patients tested positive for COVID-19, among which 866 were hospitalized (55.4% self-identified as Caucasian, 29.5% as Black, 3.3% as Hispanics, and 4.7% as other racial groups). Hospitalization rates were highest for Black patients (36.6%), followed by other (28.3%), Caucasian patients (24.4%), then Hispanic patients (10.7%) (p < 0.001). Caucasian patients were older, and with more comorbidities. Absolute lymphocyte count was lowest among Caucasian patients. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that compared to Caucasians, there was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality among Black patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26-1.09; p = 0.08) or other races (adjusted OR 1.62; 95% CI 0.80-3.27; p = 0.18). Black and Hispanic patients were admitted less frequently to the intensive care unit (ICU), and Black patients were less likely to require pressor support or hemodialysis (HD) compared with Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: This observational analysis of a large integrated healthcare system early in the pandemic revealed that patients with COVID-19 did exhibit some racial variations in clinical presentation, laboratory data, and requirements for advanced monitoring and cardiopulmonary support, but these nuances did not dramatically alter in-hospital outcomes.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e018435, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533040

RESUMO

Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and aortic stenosis can cause obstruction to the flow of blood out of the left ventricular outflow tract into the aorta, with obstructive HCM resulting in dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and moderate or severe aortic stenosis causing fixed obstruction caused by calcific degeneration. We sought to report the characteristics and longer-term outcomes of patients with severe obstructive HCM who also had concomitant moderate or severe aortic stenosis requiring surgical myectomy and aortic valve replacement. Methods and Results We studied 191 consecutive patients (age 67±6 years, 52% men) who underwent myectomy and aortic valve (AV) replacement (90% bioprosthesis) at our center between June 2002 and June 2018. Clinical and echo data including left ventricular outflow tract gradient and indexed AV area were recorded. The primary outcome was death. Prevalence of hypertension (63%) and hyperlipidemia (75%) were high, with a Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of 5±4, and 70% of participants had no HCM-related sudden death risk factors. Basal septal thickness and indexed AV area were 1.9±0.4 cm and 0.72±0.2 cm2/m2, respectively, while 100% of patients had dynamic left ventricular outflow tract gradient >50 mm Hg. At 6.5±4 years, 52 (27%) patients died (1.5% in-hospital deaths). One-, 2-, and 5-year survival in the current study sample was 94%, 91%, and 83%, respectively, similar to an age-sex-matched general US population. On multivariate Cox survival analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.65; 95% CI, 1.24-2.18), chronic kidney disease (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.21-2.32), and right ventricular systolic pressure on preoperative echocardiography (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.57) were associated with longer-term mortality, but traditional HCM risk factors did not. Conclusions In symptomatic patients with severely obstructive HCM and moderate or severe aortic stenosis undergoing a combined surgical myectomy and AV replacement at our center, the observed postoperative mortality was significantly lower than the expected mortality, and the longer-term survival was similar to a normal age-sex-matched US population.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437862
18.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 11(3): 770-780, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295704

RESUMO

Background: Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms (SVAs) are rare. We assessed the role of multimodality imaging in guiding the contemporary management. Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort study over a 20-year period was performed. Results: Between January 1997 and June 2017, 103 patients were diagnosed with SVAs (median age: 58 years). Eighty patients presented with non-ruptured SVAs, and 23 with ruptured SVAs. Seventy-six patients underwent surgery, and 27 were conservatively managed. The median durations of follow-up were: 48 months (surgical group) vs. 37.5 months (conservative group). There was no mortality directly attributable to SVA surgery. There were no late complications in the conservative group. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was the first-line imaging investigation (100.0% in surgical group vs. 92.6% in conservative group, P=0.019). Additional imaging studies included: (I) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): 93.4% in surgical group vs. 22.2% in conservative group, P<0.001; (II) multi-detector cardiac computed tomography (MDCT): 61.8% in surgical group vs. 37.0% in conservative group, P=0.041; (III) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR): 22.4% in surgical group vs. 14.8% in conservative group, P=0.579. At diagnosis, SVA diameters were: TTE: 4.80 cm (range, 3.30 cm); TEE: 5.40 cm (range, 4.00 cm); MDCT: 5.20 cm (range, 3.90 cm); CMR: 4.80 cm (range, 3.70 cm). Conclusions: In a 20-year cohort, proper selection for surgery and conservative management resulted in excellent outcomes for SVAs. TTE was the first-line imaging investigation for assessment of SVAs, although many patients underwent an additional imaging investigation. The contemporary outcomes of imaging-guided SVA management were excellent.

19.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 11(3): 939-953, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295715

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, is now a pandemic, having already spread to 188 countries, with more than 28,280,000 infections worldwide. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the responsible infectious agent, and similar to other human coronaviruses, uses membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (membrane-bound ACE2) for entry into the host cells. COVID-19 has important cardiovascular implications, especially for patients with pre-existing cardiovascular co-morbidities, potentially mediated through several mechanisms, including direct myocardial injury, worsening of those pre-existing cardiovascular co-morbidities, and adverse cardiovascular effects of potential therapies for COVID-19. The disease is causing a significant burden on health systems worldwide. Elective surgeries and procedures were postponed for a considerable period of time, and many patients with known cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors presented late to hospitals, for fear of contracting COVID-19, with serious adverse consequences. Significant negative impact on a population level is highlighted by prolonged isolation, decreased exercise and physical activity, and higher levels of depression and anxiety, all predisposing to elevated cardiovascular risk. This article provides a timely overview of COVID-19 and its impact on the cardiovascular system, focusing on the pathogenesis, potential adverse cardiovascular events, the potential treatment options, protection for health care providers and patients, and what the cardiovascular community could do to mitigate the impact of COVID-19.

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