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Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 2057-2066, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826802


BACKGROUND: Aerosol generating medical procedures (AGMPs) are common during newborn resuscitation. Neonates with respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may pose a risk to healthcare workers. International guidelines differ on methods to minimize the risk due to limited data. OBJECTIVE: We examined the expiratory airflow dispersion during common neonatal resuscitation AGMPs using infant simulators. METHODS: Expiratory airflow dispersion in term and preterm manikins was simulated (n = 288) using fine particle smoke at tidal volumes of 5 ml/kg. Using ImageJ, we quantified dispersion during common airway procedures including endotracheal tube (ETT) and T-piece ventilation. RESULTS: Maximal expiratory dispersion distances for the unsupported airway and disconnected uncuffed ETT scenarios were 30.2 and 22.7 cm (term); 22.1 and 17.2 cm (preterm), respectively. Applying T-piece positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) via an ETT (ETTPEEP ) generated no expiratory dispersion but increased tube leak during term simulation, while ventilation breaths (ETTVENT ) caused significant expiratory dispersion and leak. There was no measurable dispersion during face mask ventilation. For term uncuffed ETT ventilation, the particle filter eliminated expiratory dispersion but increased leak. No expiratory dispersion and negligible leak were observed when combining a cuffed ETT and filter. Angulated T-pieces generated the greatest median dispersion distances of 35.8 cm (ETTPEEP ) and 23.3 cm (ETTVENT ). CONCLUSIONS: Airflow dispersion during neonatal AGMPs is greater than previously postulated and potentially could contaminate healthcare providers during resuscitation of infants infected with contagious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. It is possible to mitigate this risk using particle filters and cuffed ETTs. Applicability in the clinical setting requires further evaluation.

Microbiologia do Ar , Expiração , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Ressuscitação/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Manequins , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Pressão , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
Palliat Med ; 35(2): 261-279, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339475


BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of qualitative studies examining parents' experiences of caring for a child with a life-limiting condition, coinciding with recent evidence that indicates an increasing incidence of paediatric life-limiting conditions. However, research focusing on fathers' needs remains sparse and is often diluted among a predominant 'mother's voice', raising questions about whether practices in clinical settings meet fathers' needs. AIM: To provide an in-depth assembly of the current state of knowledge around fathers' experiences of caring for their children diagnosed with life-limiting conditions and understand the implications for healthcare services and policies. DESIGN: A meta-ethnography was conducted to synthesise findings from existing qualitative studies exploring fathers' experiences of caring. DATA SOURCES: Four electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Science Direct) were searched up until April 2020. Qualitative studies exploring fathers' care experience and published in English language were included. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist was employed for study quality appraisal. No temporal limits were used. RESULTS: Sixty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty life-limiting conditions were included. Based on responses from 496 fathers, a conceptual model was developed which translates key experiences within the fathers' caregiving journeys. The overarching concepts identified were: the paradox of support, challenges in the caring process, 'nobody thinks of men', impact on family life and the fall of the curtain: an irrevocably altered world. These and associated sub-concepts are discussed, with recommendations for future research and practice provided. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate the value of a family-oriented approach to develop psychosocial interventions and support channels for fathers, thus empowering them whilst reducing the care-giving burden on the family unit.

Pai , Pais , Antropologia Cultural , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
Arch Dis Child ; 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655262
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 23(9): 1085-95, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23051939


The synthetic cathinone derivative, mephedrone, is a controlled substance across Europe. Its effects have been compared by users to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but little data exist on its pharmacological properties. This study compared the behavioural and neurochemical effects of mephedrone with cathinone and MDMA in rats. Young-adult male Lister hooded rats received i.p. cathinone (1 or 4 mg/kg), mephedrone (1, 4 or 10mg/kg) or MDMA (10mg/kg) on two consecutive days weekly for 3 weeks or as a single acute injection (for neurochemical analysis). Locomotor activity (LMA), novel object discrimination (NOD), conditioned emotional response (CER) and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) were measured following intermittent drug administration. Dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their major metabolites were measured in striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus by high performance liquid chromatography 7 days after intermittent dosing and 2h after acute injection. Cathinone (1, 4 mg/kg), mephedrone (10mg/kg) and MDMA (10mg/kg) induced hyperactivity following the first and sixth injections and sensitization to cathinone and mephedrone occurred with chronic dosing. All drugs impaired NOD and mephedrone (10mg/kg) reduced freezing in response to contextual re-exposure during the CER retention trial. Acute MDMA reduced hippocampal 5-HT and 5-HIAA but the only significant effect on dopamine, 5-HT and their metabolites following chronic dosing was altered hippocampal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), following mephedrone (4, 10mg/kg) and MDMA. At the doses examined, mephedrone, cathinone, and MDMA induced similar effects on behaviour and failed to induce neurotoxic damage when administered intermittently over 3 weeks.

Alcaloides/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Condicionamento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos