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2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 582, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953510

RESUMO

Reconstructing diet is critical to understanding hominin adaptations. Isotopic and functional morphological analyses of early hominins are compatible with consumption of hard foods, such as mechanically-protected seeds, but dental microwear analyses are not. The protective shells surrounding seeds are thought to induce complex enamel surface textures characterized by heavy pitting, but these are absent on the teeth of most early hominins. Here we report nanowear experiments showing that the hardest woody shells - the hardest tissues made by dicotyledonous plants - cause very minor damage to enamel but are themselves heavily abraded (worn) in the process. Thus, hard plant tissues do not regularly create pits on enamel surfaces despite high forces clearly being associated with their oral processing. We conclude that hard plant tissues barely influence microwear textures and the exploitation of seeds from graminoid plants such as grasses and sedges could have formed a critical element in the dietary ecology of hominins.

3.
Acta Biomater ; 104: 17-27, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917293

RESUMO

In this study a high resolution structural analysis revealed that enamel prisms are surrounded by an interface that is discontinuous with frequent mineral to mineral contact separated by gaps. This contact manifests either by crystallites bridging the boundary between prismatic and interprismatic enamel or continuous crystallites curving and bridging the interprismatic enamel to the prisms. The geometrical resolution of this TEM investigation of the interfaces is ≤2 nm as a basis for micromechanical models. Within this resolution, contrary to existing structural descriptions of dental enamel structure in materials science literature, here the crystallites themselves are shown to be either in direct contact with each other, sometimes even fusing together, or are separated by gaps. Image analysis revealed that on average only 57 ± 15% of the interface consists of points of no contact between crystallites. This work reveals structural features of dental enamel that contribute important understanding to both the architecture and mechanical properties of this biological material. A new structural model is proposed and the implications for the mechanical properties of dental enamel are discussed. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study a high resolution structural analysis, employing focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy revealed that enamel prisms are surrounded by interfaces that are discontinuous with frequent mineral to mineral contact separated by gaps. Although the interfaces in enamel have been investigated previously, existing studies are lacking in detail considering the geometry and morphology of the interfaces. We think that this result is of great importance when it comes to the understanding of the mechanical properties. In our opinion the concept of soft sheaths is no longer feasible. The resulting observations are included in a new structural model which provides new qualitative insights into the mechanical behavior. Existing analytical models were applied to simulate the new geometrical structure.

4.
Dent Mater ; 36(3): 366-376, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the viscoelastic properties of dentine and resin-based dental materials by bulk compressive test and the Burgers model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sound dentine, three resin composites as well as a resin-based cement were prepared into cylindrical specimens (n = 8). A bulk compressive creep test was applied with a constant load of 300 N (23.9 MPa) for 2 h, followed by another 2 h recovery. The maximum strain, creep stain, percentage of recovery and permanent set was measured using a linear variable displacement transducer. The viscoelastic properties were characterized via the Burgers model, and the instantaneous elastic, viscous as well as elastic delayed deformation were separated from the total strain. Data were analysed via ANOVA (or Welch's Test) and Tukey (or Games-Howell Test) with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: Sound dentine presented the lowest maximum strain, creep strain, permanent set and the highest percentage of recovery, followed by 3 resin composites with comparable parameters, while the cement showed a significantly higher maximum strain, permanent set and lower percentage of recovery (p < 0.001). The Burgers model presented acceptable fits for characterization viscoelastic processes of both dentine and resin-based dental materials. Viscous and elastic delayed strain of dentine was significantly lower than those for tested materials (p < 0.001) with the highest instantaneous elastic strain percentage. Similar viscous and delayed strain was found among the 4 resin-based materials (p > 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Sound dentine exhibited superior creep stability compared to resin-based dental materials. The viscous deformation in sound dentine could be ignored when loading parallel to dentine tubules.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Materiais Dentários , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Dentina , Elasticidade , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
5.
Biomaterials ; 235: 119748, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978841

RESUMO

Understanding the pathways and mechanisms of human tooth decay is central to the development of both prophylaxes and treatments, but only limited information is presently available about the initiation of caries at the nanoscale. By combining atom probe tomography and high-resolution electron microscopy, we have found three distinct initial sites for human dental enamel dissolution: a) along the central dark line (CDL) within carbonated apatite nanocrystals, b) at organic-rich precipitates and c) along high-angle grain boundaries. 3D maps of the atoms within hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites in sound and naturally-decayed human dental enamel reveal a higher concentration of Mg and Na in the CDL. The CDL is therefore thought to provide a pathway for the exchange of ions during demineralization and remineralization. Mg and Na enrichment of the CDL also suggests that it is associated with the ribbon-like organic-rich precursor in amelogenesis. Organic-rich precipitates and high-angle grain boundaries were also shown to be more vulnerable to corrosion while low-angle grain boundaries remained intact. This is attributed to the lower crystallinity in these regions.

6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 104: 109757, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499987

RESUMO

Post-operative infection often occurs following orthopedic and dental implant placement requiring systemically administered antibiotics. However, this does not provide long-term protection. Over the last few decades, alternative methods involving slow drug delivery systems based on biodegradable poly-lactic acid and antibiotic loaded hydroxyapatite microspheres were developed to prevent post-operative infection. In this study, thermally anodised and untreated Ti6Al4V discs were coated with Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) containing Gentamicin (Gm) antibiotic-loaded coralline Hydroxyapatite (HAp) are investigated. Following chemical characterization, mechanical properties of the coated samples were measured using nanoindentation and scratch tests to determine the elastic modulus, hardness and bonding adhesion between film and substrate. It was found that PLA biocomposite multilayered films were around 400nm thick and the influence and effect of the substrate were clearly observed during the nanoindentation studies with heavier loads. Scratch tests of PLA coated samples conducted at ~160nm depth showed the minimal difference in the measured friction between Gm and non Gm containing films. It is also observed that the hardness values of PLA film coated anodised samples ranged from 0.45 to 1.9GPa (dependent on the applied loads) against untreated coated samples which ranged from 0.28 to 0.8GPa.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Teste de Materiais , Metais/química , Próteses e Implantes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/química , Poliésteres/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Titânio/farmacologia
8.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(154): 20190108, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039696

RESUMO

Orthodontic root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic therapy. It has been shown that high hydrostatic pressure in the periodontal ligament (PDL) generated by orthodontic forces will trigger recruitment of odontoclasts, leaving resorption craters on root surfaces. The patterns of resorption craters are the traces of odontoclast activity. This study aimed to investigate resorptive patterns by: (i) quantifying spatial root resorption under two different levels of in vivo orthodontic loadings using microCT imaging techniques and (ii) correlating the spatial distribution pattern of resorption craters with the induced mechanobiological stimulus field in PDL through nonlinear finite-element analysis (FEA) in silico. Results indicated that the heavy force led to a larger total resorption volume than the light force, mainly by presenting greater individual crater volumes ( p < 0.001) than increasing crater numbers, suggesting that increased mechano-stimulus predominantly boosted cellular resorption activity rather than recruiting more odontoclasts. Furthermore, buccal-cervical and lingual-apical regions in both groups were found to have significantly larger resorption volumes than other regions ( p < 0.005). These clinical observations are complemented by the FEA results, suggesting that root resorption was more likely to occur when the volume average compressive hydrostatic pressure exceeded the capillary blood pressure (4.7 kPa).

9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 96: 261-268, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare residual stress distribution of bilayered structures with a mismatch between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of framework and veneering ceramic. A positive mismatch, which is recommended for metal-ceramic dental crowns, was hypothesized to contribute to a greater chipping frequency in veneered Y-TZP structures. In addition, the multidirectional nature of residual stresses in bars and crowns is presented to explore some apparent contradictions among different studies. METHODS: Planar bar and crown-shaped bilayered specimens with 0.7 mm framework thickness and 1.5 mm porcelain veneer thickness were investigated using finite element elastic analysis. Eight CTE mismatch conditions were simulated, representing two framework materials (zirconia and metal) and six veneering porcelains (distinguished by CTE values). Besides metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic combinations indicated by the manufacturer, models presenting similar mismatch values (1 ppm/°C) with different framework materials (metal or zirconia) and zirconia-based models with metal-compatible porcelain veneers were also tested. A slow cooling protocol from 600 °C to room temperature was simulated. The distributions of residual maximum and minimum principal stresses, as well as stress components parallel to the long axis of the specimens, were analysed. RESULTS: Planar and crown specimens generated different residual stress distributions. When manufacturer recommended combinations were analysed, residual stresses obtained for zirconia models were significantly higher than those for metal-based models. When zirconia frameworks were combined with metal-compatible porcelains, the residual stress values were even higher. Residual stresses were not different between metal-based and zirconia-based models if the CTE mismatch was similar. SIGNIFICANCE: Some conclusions obtained with planar specimens cannot be extrapolated to clinical situations because specimen shape strongly influences residual stress patterns. Since positive mismatch generates compressive hoop stresses and tensile radial stresses and since zirconia-based crowns tend to be more vulnerable to chipping, a tensile stress-free state generated with a zero CTE mismatch could be advantageous.

10.
J Biomech ; 90: 1-8, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079877

RESUMO

The human masticatory system has received significant attention in the areas of biomechanics due to its sophisticated co-activation of a group of masticatory muscles which contribute to the fundamental oral functions. However, determination of each muscular force remains fairly challenging in vivo; the conventional data available may be inapplicable to patients who experience major oral interventions such as maxillofacial reconstruction, in which the resultant unsymmetrical anatomical structure invokes a more complex stomatognathic functioning system. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) establish an inverse identification procedure by incorporating the sequential Kriging optimization (SKO) algorithm, coupled with the patient-specific finite element analysis (FEA) in silico and occlusal force measurements at different time points over a course of rehabilitation in vivo; and (2) evaluate muscular functionality for a patient with mandibular reconstruction using a fibula free flap (FFF) procedure. The results from this study proved the hypothesis that the proposed method is of certain statistical advantage of utilizing occlusal force measurements, compared to the traditionally adopted optimality criteria approaches that are basically driven by minimizing the energy consumption of muscle systems engaged. Therefore, it is speculated that mastication may not be optimally controlled, in particular for maxillofacially reconstructed patients. For the abnormal muscular system in the patient with orofacial reconstruction, the study shows that in general, the magnitude of muscle forces fluctuates over the 28-month rehabilitation period regardless of the decreasing trend of the maximum muscular capacity. Such finding implies that the reduction of the masticatory muscle activities on the resection side might lead to non-physiological oral biomechanical responses, which can change the muscular activities for stabilizing the reconstructed mandible.

11.
Dent Mater ; 35(4): e83-e95, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the conditions under which fabrication pore defects within veneering porcelain in bilayered lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) crowns will influence and jeopardize the mechanical integrity of the structure. METHODS: Thirty standardized molar crowns (IPS e.max Press) were fabricated and microCT scanned to 3D-analyze the size, morphology and distribution of pores in veneering porcelain, followed by in vitro fracture test and SEM fractographic observation. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the microCT reconstructed models was used to evaluate the stress state. RESULTS: The volumes of pores in samples ranged from 3241µm3 to 1.29×109µm3 with the equivalent radius between 10µm to 680µm. Deviation of sphericity of pores ranged from 0.10 to 0.81 and the average of 99.97% pores was near 0.63. For the smaller pores their distribution tended to be uniform, while the larger pores were irregular with elongated ellipsoidal form and located at or near the veneer-core interface. During wedge loading blunt contact fracture testing 21 crowns failed from the fissure on the occlusal surface, of which 16 failed from surface or near surface pores, 2 from the midpoint of the oblique ridge, and 7 from larger interfacial pores. FEA analysis indicated that defects were detrimental to veneer integrity only in regions of tensile stress and where the pore radius associated with crack initiation ranged from 30 to 50µm. Pore morphology appeared to have only a minor effect on fracture. SIGNIFICANCE: Within the limitation of the microCT resolution and FEA, it suggests that pores radius large than 30-50µm and located in the tensile stress area like grooves and fissures on the occlusal surface or near surface as well as cervical margins of veneering porcelain will jeopardize the bilayered structure and mechanical integrity of LDG.


Assuntos
Coroas , Porcelana Dentária , Cerâmica , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Facetas Dentárias , Teste de Materiais
12.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 94: 200-210, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To elucidate the bioactivity and bone regeneration of porous titanium surfaces treated using acid-alkali combination, and to define the optimal alkali reaction time. METHODS: Ten groups of porous Ti with at least 3 per group undergoing different acid-alkali treated time were prepared. The surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), bicinchoninic acid method (BCA), optical contact angle measurement and Raman spectrometry. Compression testing was performed with a universal testing machine. The bioactivity and osteoinduction were evaluated by a series of biological tests using a simulated body fluid (SBF) test, cell proliferation test, vinculin, ALP and OCN expression, and cell mineralization. RESULTS: The acid-alkali treatment formed micro- and nano-scale structures on the sample surfaces. The alkali treatment for 12 h achieved the sharpest nano-scale surface relief and the most protein absorption. The treated porous surface was coated with a NaHTiO3 layer. The acid-alkali etching did not compromise the elastic modulus and compressive strength of the porous Ti samples. In addition to hydroxyapatite, a perovskite phase was also formed on the treated porous samples in SBF. Non-treated dense Ti showed more cell adhesion and proliferation (P < 0.05), while osteoinduction and mineralization were more pronounced on the treated porous sample (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Acid-alkali treatment is an effective means of generating nano-scale relief on porous Ti surface, and is beneficial for bioactivity and bone regeneration. The 15 min acid and 12 h alkali etching is the optimal combination. The osteoinductive efficacy may be attributable to the surface physical chemistry and the formation of hydroxyapatite and perovskite layers, rather than direct cell adhesion and proliferation.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidróxido de Sódio/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfúricos/farmacologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Adsorção , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/química , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular , Força Compressiva , Camundongos , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Espectrometria por Raios X , Análise Espectral Raman , Propriedades de Superfície , Água
13.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 89: 150-161, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop a simple and efficient numerical modeling approach for characterizing strain and total strain energy in bone scaffolds implanted in patient-specific anatomical sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A simplified homogenization technique was developed to substitute a detailed scaffold model with the same size and equivalent orthotropic material properties. The effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach was compared with two other common homogenization methods based on periodic boundary conditions and the Hills-energy theorem. Moreover, experimental digital image correlation (DIC) measurements of full-field surface strain were conducted to validate the numerical results. RESULTS: The newly proposed simplified homogenization approach allowed for fairly accurate prediction of strain and total strain energy in tissue scaffolds implanted in a large femur mid-shaft bone defect subjected to a simulated in-vivo loading condition. The maximum discrepancy between the total strain energy obtained from the simplified homogenization approach and the one obtained from detailed porous scaffolds was 8.8%. Moreover, the proposed modeling technique could significantly reduce the computational cost (by about 300 times) required for simulating an in-vivo bone scaffolding scenario as the required degrees of freedom (DoF) was reduced from about 26 million for a detailed porous scaffold to only 90,000 for the homogenized solid counterpart in the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The simplified homogenization approach has been validated by correlation with the experimental DIC measurements. It is fairly efficient and comparable with some other common homogenization techniques in terms of accuracy. The proposed method is implicating to different clinical applications, such as the optimal selection of patient-specific fixation plates and screw system.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/citologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Estresse Mecânico , Tecidos Suporte , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fêmur/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Porosidade
14.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(5): 171699, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892367

RESUMO

Mammalian tooth wear research reveals contrasting patterns seemingly linked to diet: irregularly pitted enamel surfaces, possibly from consuming hard seeds, versus roughly aligned linearly grooved surfaces, associated with eating tough leaves. These patterns are important for assigning diet to fossils, including hominins. However, experiments establishing conditions necessary for such damage challenge this paradigm. Lucas et al. (Lucas et al. 2013 J. R. Soc. Interface10, 20120923. (doi:10.1098/rsif.2012.0923)) slid natural objects against enamel, concluding anything less hard than enamel would rub, not abrade, its surface (producing no immediate wear). This category includes all organic plant matter. Particles harder than enamel, with sufficiently angular surfaces, could abrade it immediately, prerequisites that silica/silicate particles alone possess. Xia et al. (Xia, Zheng, Huang, Tian, Chen, Zhou, Ungar, Qian. 2015 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA112, 10 669-10 672. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1509491112)) countered with experiments using brass and aluminium balls. Their bulk hardness was lower than enamel, but the latter was abraded. We examined the ball exteriors to address this discrepancy. The aluminium was surfaced by a thin rough oxide layer harder than enamel. Brass surfaces were smoother, but work hardening during manufacture gave them comparable or higher hardness than enamel. We conclude that Xia et al.'s results are actually predicted by the mechanical model of Lucas et al. To explain wear patterns, we present a new model of textural formation, based on particle properties and presence/absence of silica(tes).

15.
Dent Mater ; 34(3): 551-559, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different pH media on zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic and how they interact with opposing dentition after being aged in different pH cycling and high temperature conditions. METHODS: Twenty-five rectangular shaped specimens were prepared from lithium silicate reinforced with zirconia blanks (Suprinity, Vita Zahnfabrick) and stored in different pH media (3 & 7.2) for different periods (24h & 7 days) at temperature (55°C). After their surface roughness (Ra) evaluation, aged ceramic specimens were subjected to cyclic abrasive wear with opposing natural teeth enamel for 150,000 cycles using a chewing simulator. Weight loss and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images were used to evaluate the cyclic wear results. RESULTS: After different pH storage, ceramic group stored at 3 pH for 1-W (1 week) gave significantly higher mean Ra value (0.618µm±0.117) than control lowest mean value (0.357µm±0.054) before cyclic wear. On the other hand, it caused the least significant weight loss value (0.004gm±0.001) to opposing tooth enamel. There was significant tooth enamel weight loss (0.043gm±0.004) when opposed with ceramic group stored in 3 pH media for 24h (24-H). Their SEM images showed a prominent wear scar on enamel cusp tip. There was a significant increase in surface roughness Ra of ceramic material after abrasive cyclic wear. SIGNIFICANCE: Great attention should be paid to Ra of this type of glass ceramic even if it is considered as minimal values. It can induce a significant amount of enamel tooth wear after a period equivalent to one year of intra-oral function rather than the significantly higher surface Ra of such ceramic type can do.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Lítio/química , Silicatos/química , Desgaste dos Dentes , Zircônio/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Dureza , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Dent Mater ; 33(4): e178-e185, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and characterize the distribution of fabrication defects in bilayered lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) crowns using micro-CT and 3D reconstruction. METHODS: Ten standardized molar crowns (IPS e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) were fabricated by heat-pressing on a core and subsequent manual veneering. All crowns were scanned by micro-CT and 3D reconstructed. Volume, position and sphericity of each defect was measured in every crown. Each crown was divided into four regions-central fossa (CF), occlusal fossa (OF), cusp (C) and axial wall (AW). Porosity and number density of each region were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using Welch two sample t-test, Friedman one-way rank sum test and Nemenyi post-hoc test. The defect volume distribution type was determined based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). RESULTS: The core ceramic contained fewer defects (p<0.001) than the veneer layer. The size of smaller defects, which were 95% of the total, obeyed a logarithmic normal distribution. Region CF showed higher porosity (p<0.001) than the other regions. Defect number density of region CF was higher than region C (p<0.001) and region AW (p=0.029), but no difference was found between region CF and OF (p>0.05). Four of ten specimens contained the largest pores in region CF, while for the remaining six specimens the largest pore was in region OF. SIGNIFICANCE: LDG core ceramic contained fewer defects than the veneer ceramic. LDG strength estimated from pore size was comparable to literature values. Large defects were more likely to appear at the core-veneer interface of occlusal fossa, while small defects also distributed in every region of the crowns but tended to aggregate in the central fossa region. Size distribution of small defects in veneer obeyed a logarithmic normal distribution.


Assuntos
Coroas , Porcelana Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Cerâmica , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Dente Molar
17.
Connect Tissue Res ; 58(5): 414-423, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657550

RESUMO

AIMS: The structural organization of collagen from mineralized tissues, such as dentin and bone, has been a topic of debate in the recent literature. Recent reports have presented novel interpretations of the complexity of collagen type I at different hierarchical levels and in different tissues. Here, we investigate the nanostructural organization of demineralized dentin collagen following the digestion of non-collagenous components with a trypsin enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin specimens were obtained from healthy third-molars, cut into small cubes, and polished down to 1 µm roughness. Samples were then demineralized with 10% citric acid for 2 min. Selected specimens were further treated with a solution containing 1 mg/ml trypsin for 48 hours at 37 °C (pH 7.9-9.0). Both untreated and trypsin digested samples were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and nanoindentation, where surface hardness and creep properties were compared before and after treatments. RESULTS: FE-SEM images of demineralized dentin showed the banded morphology of D-periodical collagen type I, which upon enzymatic digestion with trypsin appeared to dissociate longitudinally, consistently unraveling ~20 nm structures (microfibril bundles). Such nanoscale structures, to the best of our knowledge, have not been characterized in dentin previously. Mechanical characterization via nanoindentation showed that the unraveling of such microfibril bundles affected the creep displacement and creep rate of demineralized dentin. CONCLUSION: In summary, our results provide novel evidence of the organization of collagen type I from dentin, which may have important implications for the interaction of dental materials with the organic dentin matrix and the mechanical properties of mineralized tissues.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/química , Dentina/química , Matriz Extracelular/química , Dente Molar/química , Matriz Extracelular/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Dente Molar/ultraestrutura
18.
Biomech Model Mechanobiol ; 16(2): 411-423, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27628910

RESUMO

This paper aimed to develop a clinically validated bone remodeling algorithm by integrating bone's dynamic properties in a multi-stage fashion based on a four-year clinical follow-up of implant treatment. The configurational effects of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) were explored using a multi-stage remodeling rule. Three-dimensional real-time occlusal loads during maximum voluntary clenching were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer and were incorporated into a computerized tomography-based finite element mandibular model. Virtual X-ray images were generated based on simulation and statistically correlated with clinical data using linear regressions. The strain energy density-driven remodeling parameters were regulated over the time frame considered. A linear single-stage bone remodeling algorithm, with a single set of constant remodeling parameters, was found to poorly fit with clinical data through linear regression (low [Formula: see text] and R), whereas a time-dependent multi-stage algorithm better simulated the remodeling process (high [Formula: see text] and R) against the clinical results. The three-implant-supported and distally cantilevered FPDs presented noticeable and continuous bone apposition, mainly adjacent to the cervical and apical regions. The bridged and mesially cantilevered FPDs showed bone resorption or no visible bone formation in some areas. Time-dependent variation of bone remodeling parameters is recommended to better correlate remodeling simulation with clinical follow-up. The position of FPD pontics plays a critical role in mechanobiological functionality and bone remodeling. Caution should be exercised when selecting the cantilever FPD due to the risk of overloading bone resorption.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Simulação por Computador , Prótese Parcial Fixa/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916052

RESUMO

Design of prosthetic implants to ensure rapid and stable osseointegration remains a significant challenge, and continuous efforts have been directed to new implant materials, structures and morphology. This paper aims to develop and characterise a porous titanium dental implant fabricated by metallic powder injection-moulding. The surface morphology of the specimens was first examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), followed by microscopic computerised tomography (µ-CT) scanning to capture its 3D microscopic features non-destructively. The nature of porosity and pore sizes were determined statistically. A homogenisation technique based on the Hills-energy theorem was adopted to evaluate its directional elastic moduli, and the conservation of mass theorem was employed to quantify the oxygen diffusivity for bio-transportation feature. This porous medium was found to have pore sizes varying from 50 to 400 µm and the average porosity of 46.90 ± 1.83%. The anisotropic principal elastic moduli were found fairly close to the upper range of cortical bone, and the directional diffusivities could potentially enable radial osseous tissue ingrowth and vascularisation. This porous titanium successfully reduces the elastic modulus mismatch between implant and bone for dental and orthopaedic applications, and provides improved capacity for transporting oxygen, nutrient and waste for pre-vascular network formation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Titânio , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Difusão , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osseointegração , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
J Dent ; 56: 105-111, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the mineral density parameters through natural enamel brown spot lesions (BSLs) and to visualize and map their mineral distribution pattern in comparison to enamel whitespot lesions (WSLs). METHODS: Study specimens included seventeen proximal WSLs (ICDAS 1, 2), seventeen proximal BSLs and seventeen sound proximal specimens (ICDAS 0) collected from The Oral Surgery Department at Sydney Dental Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Imaging was undertaken using a high resolution, desktop micro-computed tomography system. A calibration equation was used to transform the grey level values of the images into true mineral density values. The qualitative analysis and the quantification of the lesion parameters including the mineral density and the thickness of the enamel lesion surface layer were performed using mineral density profiles plotted in FIJI and the visualized mineral maps in MATLAB respectively. RESULTS: The maps of brownspot lesions revealed irregular demineralization patterns with faint boundaries and outlines. The regular triangular shape of proximal lesions was recognizable only in some parts of individual BSLs or was completely unrecognizable within the entire lesion. Scattered free-form areas of high density enamel were observed within or close to the surface of BSLs. A layer of high density enamel with a mineral density close to that of sound enamel was observed in all of the BSLs. The mean mineral density of the body of BSLs, including the scattered areas of high mineral density, was significantly higher than the corresponding values in white-spot lesions. The mean thickness of the surface layer in BSLs (79±15µm) was also significantly higher than white-spot lesions (51±11µm) (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the mineralization parameters such as density and the thickness of the surface layer as well as distribution patterns through natural enamel brown spot lesions (BSLs) are different from enamel white-spot lesions (WSLs). The higher mineral density of the body of the lesion and the increased thickness of the surface layer in brown spot enamel lesions may suggest possible subsurface remineralization in the majority of naturally arrested BSLs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Adolescente , Austrália , Densidade Óssea , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Dentina/ultraestrutura , Durapatita/química , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Minerais/análise , Propriedades de Superfície , Desmineralização do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Descoloração de Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Descoloração de Dente/patologia , Remineralização Dentária
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