Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 138
Filtrar
1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142343, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982156

RESUMO

Importance: Low-dose aspirin (LDA) is one of the few evidence-based interventions for preventing preeclampsia, which is a leading cause of maternal or fetal morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend LDA based on the presence of risk factors for preeclampsia, but the population-based prevalence of these factors is unknown. Objective: To estimate population-level prevalence of preeclampsia risk factors used in prophylactic LDA guidelines for pregnant patients and the association of these risk factors with reported rates of pregnancy-related hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data to describe the frequency of pregnant individuals with moderate to high-risk factors for preeclampsia and pregnancy-related hypertension rates. The study used all birth records in the United States for the 2019 calendar year. Exposures: Documentation of preeclampsia risk factors: multifetal gestation, pregestational diabetes, chronic hypertension (high-risk factors) and nulliparity, a body mass index greater than 30, African American race, a maternal age 35 years or older, an interval of more than 10-years since last birth, and having low socioeconomic status (moderate risk factors). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of each risk factor alone and in combinations leading to a recommendation for LDA; incidence of pregnancy-related hypertension by risk factor and combinations of risk factors. Results: There were 3 695 019 pregnancies in 2019, including 528 778 with no risk factors, 169 540 with 1 or more high-risk factors, and 2 996 701 with 1 or more moderate-risk factors. The mean (SD) of the cohort was 29.1 (5.8) years. Multifetal gestation was the most common high-risk factor and found in 123 995 pregnancies (3.4%), and low socioeconomic status was the most common moderate-risk factor and present in 1 732 729 pregnancies (46.9%). Based on 2021 criteria (a single high- or moderate-risk factors for preeclampsia), 3 166 241 pregnant patients (85.7%) were eligible for LDA. The incidence of pregnancy-related hypertension increased with the number of moderate-risk factors. The 2021 guidelines suggest considering or recommend LDA in 92.3% of pregnancies diagnosed with pregnancy-related hypertension. Conclusions and Relevance: These data support the recently published guidelines and suggest further simplified guidelines recommending LDA to patients with any single moderate-risk factors.

2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate race and ethnicity differences in cesarean birth and maternal morbidity in low-risk nulliparous people at term. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of expectant management compared with induction of labor in low-risk nulliparous people at term. The primary outcome was cesarean birth. Secondary outcome was maternal morbidity, defined as: transfusion of 4 or more units of red blood cells, any transfusion of other products, postpartum infection, intensive care unit admission, hysterectomy, venous thromboembolism, or maternal death. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to evaluate associations between race and ethnicity, cesarean birth, and maternal morbidity. Indication for cesarean birth was assessed using multivariable multinomial logistic regression. A mediation model was used to estimate the portion of maternal morbidity attributable to cesarean birth by race and ethnicity. RESULTS: Of 5,759 included participants, 1,158 (20.1%) underwent cesarean birth; 1,404 (24.3%) identified as non-Hispanic Black, 1,670 (29.0%) as Hispanic, and 2,685 (46.6%) as non-Hispanic White. Adjusted models showed increased relative risk of cesarean birth among non-Hispanic Black (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.42) and Hispanic (aRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46) people compared with non-Hispanic White people. Maternal morbidity affected 132 (2.3%) individuals, and was increased among non-Hispanic Black (aRR 2.05, 95% CI 1.21-3.47) and Hispanic (aRR 1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.14) people compared with non-Hispanic White people. Cesarean birth accounted for an estimated 15.8% (95% CI 2.1-48.7%) and 16.5% (95% CI 4.0-44.0%) of excess maternal morbidity among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic people, respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic nulliparous people who are low-risk at term undergo cesarean birth more frequently than low-risk non-Hispanic White nulliparous people. This difference accounts for a modest portion of excess maternal morbidity.

3.
BJOG ; 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) among low-risk nulliparous women expectantly managed at or after 39 weeks of gestation are associated with adverse outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomised trial. SETTING: Multicentre, USA. POPULATION: Individuals in the expectantly managed group who delivered on or after 39 weeks. METHODS: Multivariable analysis to estimate adjusted relative risks (aRR) for binomial outcomes, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for multinomial outcomes and 95% CI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite adverse maternal outcome including placental abruption, pulmonary oedema, postpartum haemorrhage, postpartum infection, venous thromboembolism or intensive care unit admission. Secondary outcomes included a composite of perinatal death or severe neonatal complications, mode of delivery, small and large for gestational age and neonatal intermediate or intensive unit length of stay. RESULTS: Of the 3044 women randomised to expectant management in the original trial, 2718 (89.3%) were eligible for this analysis, of whom 373 (13.7%) developed HDP. Compared with participants who remained normotensive, those who developed HDP were more likely to experience the maternal composite (12% versus 6%, aRR 1.84, 95% CI 1.33-2.54) and caesarean delivery (29% versus 23%, aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.71). Differences between the two groups were not significantly different for the adverse perinatal composite (7% versus 5%, aRR 1.38, 95% CI 0.92-2.07) or for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Almost 14% of low-risk nulliparous individuals expectantly managed at 39 weeks developed HDP, and were more likely to experience adverse maternal outcomes compared with those who did not develop HDP. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Almost 14% of low-risk nulliparous individuals expectantly managed at 39 weeks developed hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and were more likely to experience adverse maternal outcomes compared with those who did not develop hypertensive disorders.

4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-Hispanic Black birthing individuals are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In our clinical setting, we offer a tailored package of recommendations to reduce the risk of preterm birth known as an individualized prematurity prevention plan (IP3). Patient-centered, community engaged interventions that address patient-perceived barriers to preterm birth prevention are urgently needed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We engaged a group of stakeholders to develop a mutli-level (patient-centered and community-involved) intervention that will increase adherence to an individualized prematurity prevention plan (IP3) by addressing barriers identified during our prior qualitative studies. RESULTS: The intervention includes trained doulas from a community-led, Black owned doula group. The doulas will moderate group prenatal social support sessions. In between the group sessions, participants will be encouraged to continue interacting with one another and the doulas using a private Facebook™ group page. We will pilot test the intervention in a cohort of pregnant, self-identified non-Hispanic Black patients with a history of prior preterm birth. CONCLUSION: We present a novel, patient-centered, community engaged intervention to reduce preterm birth in high-risk non-Hispanic Black birthing individuals. If the intervention is feasible based on the pilot study findings, we anticipate conducting an appropriately powered study to determine whether the intervention achieves our goal of reducing preterm birth.

5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(1): 100487, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Northern Hemisphere, influenza season typically starts in December and lasts through March. Pregnant people are at increased risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Potentially, new viral strains or reduced provider suspicion leading to delayed diagnosis of late-season influenza could result in an increased risk of severe infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence and morbidity associated with late-season influenza in pregnancy, compared with influenza in other seasons. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study using the 2007-2018 National Inpatient Sample. Pregnant patients with discharge diagnosis codes consistent with influenza infection were compared on the basis of hospital admission quarter (quarter 1: October to December; quarter 2: January to March; quarter 3: April to June; quarter 4: July to September), with quarter 3 defined as "late-season." The primary outcome was the severe maternal morbidity composite defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcomes included sepsis, shock, acute renal failure, acute heart failure, temporary tracheostomy, and invasive mechanical ventilation. Associations between outcomes and quarter of infection were adjusted for age, hospitalization type (antepartum, delivery, or postpartum), and comorbid conditions using relative risk regression, weighted to reflect the National Inpatient Sample design. RESULTS: Of 7355 hospitalizations, corresponding to a weighted national estimate of 36,042, 2266 (30.8%) occurred in quarter 1, 4051 (55.0%) in quarter 2, 633 (8.6%) in quarter 3, and 405 (5.5%) in quarter 4. A nonsignificant trend toward higher rates of severe maternal morbidity was seen in the "late-season" compared with other quarters (13.9% [quarter 3] vs 10.5% [quarter 1] vs 12.1% [quarter 2] vs 13.6% [quarter 4]; P=.07). Moreover, sepsis was more common in patients with late-season influenza (8.0% [quarter 3] vs 4.8% [quarter 1] vs 5.8% [quarter 2] vs 5.9% [quarter 4]; P=.03). In the adjusted analyses, patients with late-season influenza had a 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.78) higher risk of severe maternal morbidity and 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.32) higher risk of sepsis than patients with influenza in quarter 1. CONCLUSION: Influenza infection between April and June, that is, late-season influenza, is associated with a higher risk of severe maternal morbidity and sepsis in pregnant patients. Obstetrical providers must continue to have awareness and suspicion for influenza infection during these months.

6.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes by method of cervical ripening for labor induction among low-risk nulliparous individuals. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial of labor induction at 39 weeks versus expectant management in low-risk nulliparous participants. Participants undergoing cervical ripening for labor induction in either group were included. Participants were excluded for preripening membrane rupture, abruption, chorioamnionitis, fetal demise, or cervical dilation ≥3.5 cm. Cervical ripening was defined by the initial method used: prostaglandin only (PGE; referent), Foley with concurrent prostaglandin (Foley-PGE), Foley only (Foley), and Foley with concurrent oxytocin (Foley-oxytocin). Coprimary outcomes were adverse maternal and neonatal composites. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery and length of labor and delivery (L&D) stay. Multivariable analysis was used to adjust for patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of 6,106 participants included in the trial, 2,376 (38.9%) met criteria for this analysis. Of these, 1,247 (52.4%) had cervical ripening with PGE, 290 (12.2%) had Foley-PGE, 385 (16.2%) had Foley, and 454 (19.1%) had Foley-oxytocin. The maternal composite outcome was similar among participants who received Foley-PGE (24.1%, adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.52), Foley (21.3%, aRR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.92-1.45), or Foley-oxytocin (19.4%, aRR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.83-1.29), compared with PGE (19.7%). The neonatal composite outcome was less frequent in participants who received the Foley-PGE (2.4%, aRR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16-0.75) or Foley (3.6%, aRR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29-0.89) but did not reach statistical significance for participants who received Foley-oxytocin (4.6%, aRR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-1.01) compared with PGE only (6.8%). Participants who received Foley-PGE or Foley-oxytocin had a shorter L&D stay (adjusted mean difference = -1.97 hours, 95% CI: -3.45 to -0.49 and -5.92 hours, 95% CI: -7.07 to -4.77, respectively), compared with PGE. CONCLUSION: In term low-risk nulliparous participants, Foley alone or concurrent with PGE is associated with a lower risk of adverse neonatal outcomes than with PGE alone. Length of L&D stay was the shortest with concurrent Foley-oxytocin. KEY POINTS: · Adverse maternal outcomes are similar among different methods of cervical ripening in low-risk women.. · Adverse neonatal outcomes are less frequent with use of Foley alone or in combination with PGE.. · The use of Foley alone, or in combination with other agents, appears to be beneficial..

7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 436-444, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy carries a risk of congenital infection and possible severe sequelae. There is no established intervention for preventing congenital CMV infection. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind trial, pregnant women with primary CMV infection diagnosed before 24 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to receive a monthly infusion of CMV hyperimmune globulin (at a dose of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo until delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of congenital CMV infection or fetal or neonatal death if CMV testing of the fetus or neonate was not performed. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2018, a total of 206,082 pregnant women were screened for primary CMV infection before 23 weeks of gestation; of the 712 participants (0.35%) who tested positive, 399 (56%) underwent randomization. The trial was stopped early for futility. Data on the primary outcome were available for 394 participants; a primary outcome event occurred in the fetus or neonate of 46 of 203 women (22.7%) in the group that received hyperimmune globulin and of 37 of 191 women (19.4%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80 to 1.72; P = 0.42). Death occurred in 4.9% of fetuses or neonates in the hyperimmune globulin group and in 2.6% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.66 to 5.41), preterm birth occurred in 12.2% and 8.3%, respectively (relative risk, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.81 to 2.67), and birth weight below the 5th percentile occurred in 10.3% and 5.4% (relative risk, 1.92; 95% CI, 0.92 to 3.99). One participant in the hyperimmune globulin group had a severe allergic reaction to the first infusion. Participants who received hyperimmune globulin had a higher incidence of headaches and shaking chills while receiving infusions than participants who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Among pregnant women, administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin starting before 24 weeks' gestation did not result in a lower incidence of a composite of congenital CMV infection or perinatal death than placebo. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01376778.).


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Doenças Fetais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Infusões Intravenosas , Gravidez , Falha de Tratamento
8.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the antenatal late preterm steroids (ALPS) trial betamethasone significantly decreased short-term neonatal respiratory morbidity but increased the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia, diagnosed only categorically (<40 mg/dL). We sought to better characterize the nature, duration, and treatment for hypoglycemia. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of infants from ALPS, a multicenter trial randomizing women at risk for late preterm delivery to betamethasone or placebo. This study was a reabstraction of all available charts from the parent trial, all of which were requested. Unreviewed charts included those lost to follow-up or from sites not participating in the reabstraction. Duration of hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL), lowest value and treatment, if any, were assessed by group. Measures of association and regression models were used where appropriate. RESULTS: Of 2,831 randomized, 2,609 (92.2%) were included. There were 387 (29.3%) and 223 (17.3%) with hypoglycemia in the betamethasone and placebo groups, respectively (relative risk [RR]: 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-1.96). Hypoglycemia generally occurred in the first 24 hours in both groups: 374/385 (97.1%) in the betamethasone group and 214/222 (96.4%) in the placebo group (p = 0.63). Of 387 neonates with hypoglycemia in the betamethasone group, 132 (34.1%) received treatment, while 73/223 (32.7%) received treatment in placebo group (p = 0.73). The lowest recorded blood sugar was similar between groups. Most hypoglycemia resolved by 24 hours in both (93.0 vs. 89.3% in the betamethasone and placebo groups, respectively, p = 0.18). Among infants with hypoglycemia in the first 24 hours, the time to resolution was shorter in the betamethasone group (2.80 [interquartile range: 2.03-7.03) vs. 3.74 (interquartile range: 2.15-15.08) hours; p = 0.002]. Persistence for >72 hours was rare and similar in both groups, nine (2.4%, betamethasone) and four (1.9%, placebo, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, hypoglycemia was transient and most received no treatment, with a quicker resolution in the betamethasone group. Prolonged hypoglycemia was uncommon irrespective of steroid exposure. KEY POINTS: · Hypoglycemia was transient and approximately two-thirds received no treatment.. · Neonates in the ALPS trial who received betamethasone had a shorter time to resolution than those with hypoglycemia in the placebo group.. · Prolonged hypoglycemia occurred in approximately 2 out of 100 late preterm newborns, irrespective of antenatal steroid exposure..

11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(2): 100295, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516986

RESUMO

As of December 1, 2020, nearly 64 million people have been infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 worldwide with nearly 1.5 million global deaths. The impact of this virus has continued to overwhelm hospital infrastructure and demanded remodeling of healthcare systems. With rising concerns for a third, and possibly the largest, wave of individuals infected with the virus, national leaders are continuing to seek avenues by which we can further limit disease transmission and prevent infection with the use of vaccination. To our knowledge, no clinical trial evaluating vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 has included pregnant women. In December 2020, it was anticipated that the Food and Drug Administration will approve at least 1 or 2 mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine under the Emergency Use Authorization based on phase 3 clinical trial efficacy data. Both Pfizer and Moderna have manufactured mRNA-based vaccines with 95% and 94.1% efficacy against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. AstraZeneca has manufactured a vaccine using a viral vector demonstrating early efficacy as well, and this next-generation platform has previously been utilized with the Ebola vaccine and safely administered during pregnancy with an acceptable safety profile. Approval of these vaccines will have a tremendous impact on the ongoing pandemic, yet there remains a lack of data for use of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine in pregnant women. In this article, we seek to discuss the available data regarding treatment and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy and address the growing questions regarding how best to approach vaccine access and administration in the pregnant population.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(2): 250-257, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare risks of maternal and perinatal outcomes by completed week of gestation from 39 weeks in low-risk nulliparous patients undergoing expectant management. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial of elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation compared with expectant management in low-risk nulliparous patients. Participants with nonanomalous neonates, who were randomized to and underwent expectant management and attained 39 0/7 weeks of gestation, were included. Delivery gestation was categorized by completed week: 39 0/7-39 6/7 (39 weeks), 40 0/7-40 6/7 (40 weeks), and 41 0/7-42 2/7 (41-42 weeks) (none delivered after 42 2/7). The coprimary outcomes were cesarean delivery and a perinatal composite (death, respiratory support, 5-minute Apgar score 3 or less, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, seizure, sepsis, meconium aspiration syndrome, birth trauma, intracranial or subgaleal hemorrhage, or hypotension requiring vasopressor support). Other outcomes included a maternal composite (blood transfusion, surgical intervention for postpartum hemorrhage, or intensive care unit admission), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, peripartum infection, and neonatal intermediate or intensive care unit admission. For multivariable analysis, P<.0125 was considered to indicate statistical significance for the coprimary outcomes. RESULTS: Of 2,502 participants who underwent expectant management, 964 (38.5%) delivered at 39 weeks of gestation, 1,111 (44.4%) at 40 weeks, and 427 (17.1%) at 41-42 weeks. The prevalence of medically indicated delivery was 37.9% overall and increased from 23.8% at 39 weeks of gestation to 80.3% at 41-42 weeks. The frequency of cesarean delivery (17.3%, 22.0%, 37.5%; P<.001) and the perinatal composite (5.1%, 5.9%, 8.2%; P=.03) increased with 39, 40, and 41-42 weeks of gestation, respectively, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy decreased (16.4%, 12.1%, 10.8%, P=.001). The adjusted relative risk, 95% CI (39 weeks as referent) was significant for cesarean delivery at 41-42 weeks of gestation (1.93, 1.61-2.32) and for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy at 40 weeks (0.71, 0.58-0.88) and 41-42 weeks (0.61, 0.45-0.82). None of the other outcomes were significant. CONCLUSION: In expectantly managed low-risk nulliparous participants, the frequency of medically indicated induction of labor, and the risks of cesarean delivery but not the perinatal composite outcome, increased significantly from 39 to 42 weeks of gestation.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Paridade , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(S 01): e239-e248, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between amniotomy at various time points during labor induction and maternal and neonatal outcomes among term, nulliparous women. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial of term labor induction versus expectant management in low-risk, nulliparous women (2014-2017) was conducted. Women met inclusion criteria if they underwent induction ≥38 weeks' gestation using oxytocin with documented time and type of membrane rupture. Women with antepartum stillbirth or fetal anomaly were excluded. The primary outcome was cesarean delivery. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal complications. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among women with amniotomy versus women with intact membranes and no amniotomy at six 2-hour time intervals: before oxytocin initiation, 0 to <2 hours after oxytocin, 2 to <4 hours after, 4 to <6 hours after, 6 to <8 hours after, and 8 to <10 hours after. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for maternal age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, modified Bishop score on admission, treatment group, and hospital (as a random effect). RESULTS: Of 6,106 women in the parent trial, 2,854 (46.7%) women met inclusion criteria. Of these 2,340 (82.0%) underwent amniotomy, and majority of the women had amniotomy performed between 2 and <6 hours after oxytocin. Cesarean delivery was less frequent among women with amniotomy 6 to <8 hours after oxytocin compared with women without amniotomy (21.9 vs. 29.7%; adjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.89). Amniotomy at time intervals ≥4 hours after oxytocin was associated with lower odds of labor duration >24 hours. Amniotomy at time intervals ≥2 hours and <8 hours after oxytocin was associated with lower odds of maternal hospitalization >3 days. Amniotomy was not associated with postpartum or neonatal complications. CONCLUSION: Among a contemporary cohort of nulliparous women undergoing term labor induction, amniotomy was associated with either lower or similar odds of cesarean delivery and other adverse outcomes, compared with no amniotomy.

15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 692-697, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate characteristics associated with adverse outcomes in low-risk nulliparous women randomized to elective labor induction at 39 weeks of gestation or expectant management. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of women randomized during the 38th week to induction at 39 weeks of gestation or expectant management. Deliveries before 39 weeks of gestation and those not adherent to study protocol or with fetal anomalies were excluded. A composite of adverse outcomes (perinatal death or severe neonatal complications), third- or fourth-degree lacerations, and postpartum hemorrhage were evaluated. Log binomial regression models estimated relative risks and 95% CIs for associations of outcomes with patient characteristics including randomly assigned treatment group. Interactions between patient characteristics and treatment group were tested. RESULTS: Of 6,096 women with outcome data, 5,007 (82.1%) met criteria for inclusion in this analysis. Frequency of the perinatal composite was 252 (5.0%), 166 (3.3%) for third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration, and 237 (4.7%) for postpartum hemorrhage. In multivariable analysis, intended labor induction at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with a reduced perinatal composite outcome (4.1% vs 6.0%; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.71; 95% CI 0.55-0.90), whereas increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with an increased perinatal composite outcome (aRR 1.04/unit increase; 95% CI 1.02-1.05). Decreased risk of third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration was observed with increasing BMI (aRR 0.96/unit increase; 95% CI 0.93-0.98) and in Black women compared with White women (1.2% vs 3.9%; aRR 0.34; 95% CI 0.19-0.60). Increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage was observed in Hispanic women compared with White women (6.3% vs 4.0%; aRR 1.64; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes were similar between treatment groups (P for interaction >.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with expectant management, intended induction at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with reduced risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes were few and similar between groups. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01990612.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Lacerações/diagnóstico , Lacerações/etnologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Parto Normal/efeitos adversos , Parto Normal/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paridade , Morte Perinatal , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etnologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 698-705, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop models to predict vaginal delivery in low-risk, nulliparous women contemplating elective induction of labor or expectant management at 39 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of planned elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation compared with expectant management for low-risk nulliparous women. Two groups were included for this analysis: 1) women who were randomized to the induction of labor group and underwent elective induction at 39 0/7-39 4/7 weeks of gestation and 2) women who were randomized to the expectant management group who experienced spontaneous labor or medically indicated delivery (including postterm). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for each group using patient characteristics that would be available at the time of counseling. Model selection was based on k-fold cross-validation using backward elimination and variables that remained significant at P<.05 were retained. To compare estimated with observed rates, the elective induction of labor model was then applied to each woman in both groups to estimate individualized predicted probabilities of vaginal delivery with elective induction of labor. RESULTS: Of 6,106 women enrolled in the trial, 4,661 met criteria for this analysis. Vaginal delivery occurred in 80.6% of the 2,153 women in the elective induction of labor group and 77.2% of the 2,508 women in the expectant management group (P=.005). The final elective induction of labor model included age, height, weight, and modified Bishop score (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] 0.72, 95% CI 0.70-0.75). The same variables were included in the final expectant management model (AUROC 0.70, 95% CI 0.67-0.72). Across the range of predicted probability deciles derived from the elective induction of labor model, almost all women who underwent elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation had a higher observed chance of vaginal delivery than expectant management. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the individual predicted chance of vaginal delivery from elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation, vaginal delivery is generally more frequent if elective induction of labor is undertaken rather than expectant management. These data can be used to counsel nulliparous women regarding their "customized" chances of vaginal delivery as they choose between elective induction of labor or expectant management at 39 weeks of gestation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01990612.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Adulto , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Parto Normal/efeitos adversos , Parto Normal/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Paridade , Gravidez , Prognóstico
17.
Vaccine ; 38(44): 6930-6940, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational trivalent group B streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in US pregnant women, transplacental serotype-specific antibody transfer and persistence in infants, and serotype-specific antibodies in breast milk. METHODS: This randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial administered one dose of trivalent GBS vaccine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 26) to healthy pregnant 18-40-year-old women at 240/7-346/7 weeks' gestation. Women were enrolled from March 2014 to August 2015. Safety follow-up continued through postpartum day 180. Primary immunogenicity objectives were to evaluate serotype Ia/Ib/III-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in sera from women on day 1 (pre-vaccination), day 31, delivery and postpartum days 42 and 90, and from infants at birth (cord blood), days 42 and 90. Antibody transfer ratios (cord blood/maternal sera at delivery) and serotype-specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IgG in breast milk after delivery and on postpartum days 42 and 90 were evaluated. The planned sample size was not based on statistical assumptions for this descriptive study. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Serious adverse events were reported for 16% of GBS-vaccinated women and 15% of their infants, and 15% of placebo recipients and 12% of their infants; none were fatal or deemed vaccine-related. Serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 13-23-fold higher in vaccine vs placebo recipients on day 31 and persisted until postpartum day 90. Median antibody concentrations were substantially higher in women with detectable pre-vaccination antibody concentrations. Antibody transfer ratios in the vaccine group were 0.62-0.82. Infant IgG GMCs and breast milk sIgA GMCs were higher in the vaccine vs the placebo group at all timepoints. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal immunization with the trivalent GBS vaccine in US women had a favorable safety profile, elicited antibodies that were transplacentally transferred and persisted in infants for a minimum of 3 months. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02046148.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas , Vacinas Estreptocócicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lactente , Gravidez , Gestantes , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 565, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with a history of preterm birth are at risk for recurrence, often requiring frequent prenatal visits for close monitoring and/or preventive therapies. Employment demands can limit uptake and adherence to recommended monitoring and preterm birth prevention therapies. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using in-depth interviews (IDIs) of pregnant women with a history of preterm birth. IDIs were conducted by trained qualitative interviewers following a semi-structured interview guide focused on uncovering barriers and facilitators to initiation of prenatal care, including relevant employment experiences, and soliciting potential interventions to improve prompt prenatal care initiation. The IDIs were analyzed via applied thematic analysis. RESULTS: We described the interview findings that address women's employment experiences. The current analysis includes 27 women who are majority self-described as non-Hispanic Black (74%) and publically insured (70%). Participants were employed in a range of professions; food services, childcare and retail were the most common occupations. Participants described multiple ways that being pregnant impacted their earning potential, ranging from voluntary work-hour reduction, involuntary duty hour reductions by employers, truncated promotions, and termination of employment. Participants also shared varying experiences with workplace accommodations to their work environment and job duties based on their pregnancy. Some of these accommodations were initiated by a collaborative employee/employer discussion, others were initiated by the employer's perception of safe working conditions in pregnancy, and some accommodations were based on medical recommendations. Participants described supportive and unsupportive employer reactions to requests for accommodations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel insights into women's experiences balancing a pregnancy at increased risk for preterm birth with employment obligations. While many women reported positive experiences, the most striking insights came from women who described negative situations that ranged from challenging to potentially unlawful. Many of the findings suggest profound misunderstandings likely exist at the patient, employer and clinical provider level about the laws surrounding employment in pregnancy, safe employment responsibilities during pregnancy, and the range of creative accommodations that often allow for continued workplace productivity even during high risk pregnancy.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Gravidez de Alto Risco/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco
19.
N Engl J Med ; 383(5): 426-439, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the dominant cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, with the most severe cases concentrated among younger infants. METHODS: Healthy pregnant women, at 28 weeks 0 days through 36 weeks 0 days of gestation, with an expected delivery date near the start of the RSV season, were randomly assigned in an overall ratio of approximately 2:1 to receive a single intramuscular dose of RSV fusion (F) protein nanoparticle vaccine or placebo. Infants were followed for 180 days to assess outcomes related to lower respiratory tract infection and for 364 days to assess safety. The primary end point was RSV-associated, medically significant lower respiratory tract infection up to 90 days of life, and the primary analysis of vaccine efficacy against the primary end point was performed in the per-protocol population of infants (prespecified criterion for success, lower bound of the 97.52% confidence interval [CI] of ≥30%). RESULTS: A total of 4636 women underwent randomization, and there were 4579 live births. During the first 90 days of life, the percentage of infants with RSV-associated, medically significant lower respiratory tract infection was 1.5% in the vaccine group and 2.4% in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, 39.4%; 97.52% CI, -1.0 to 63.7; 95% CI, 5.3 to 61.2). The corresponding percentages for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection with severe hypoxemia were 0.5% and 1.0% (vaccine efficacy, 48.3%; 95% CI, -8.2 to 75.3), and the percentages for hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection were 2.1% and 3.7% (vaccine efficacy, 44.4%; 95% CI, 19.6 to 61.5). Local injection-site reactions among the women were more common with vaccine than with placebo (40.7% vs. 9.9%), but the percentages of participants who had other adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: RSV F protein nanoparticle vaccination in pregnant women did not meet the prespecified success criterion for efficacy against RSV-associated, medically significant lower respiratory tract infection in infants up to 90 days of life. The suggestion of a possible benefit with respect to other end-point events involving RSV-associated respiratory disease in infants warrants further study. (Funded by Novavax and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02624947.).


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Injeções Intramusculares , Nanopartículas , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vacinação , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Vaccine ; 38(33): 5355-5363, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inactivated influenza virus vaccines (IIVs) are recommended for all pregnant women in the United States. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double blind study of three licensed seasonal trivalent IIVs (IIV3s) to assess their safety and immunogenicity in pregnant women and determine the level and persistence of passively transferred maternal antibody in infants. STUDY DESIGN: 139 pregnant women ages 18-39 years and 14-33 weeks' gestation, and 44 non-pregnant women, were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intramuscular dose of one of three licensed IIV3s (Agriflu®, Fluzone®, or Fluarix®) prior to the 2010-2011 influenza season. Reactogenicity, adverse events (AEs) and pregnancy outcomes were documented. Serum samples for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and neutralization antibody assays were collected prior to and 28 and 180 days after immunization. Maternal sera and cord blood were collected at the time of delivery and sera were obtained from 44 infants at 6 weeks of age. RESULTS: Pregnant and non-pregnant women experienced similar frequency of injection site (92% and 86%, respectively) and systemic (95% and 87%, respectively) reactions, the majority of which were mild. There were no vaccine-associated maternal or infant serious AEs. Antibody responses to the three vaccine antigens were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The ratios of cord blood (infant) to maternal HAI antibody titers at delivery ranged between 1.1 and 1.7 for each of the vaccine antigens. Influenza antibody concentrations in infants were 70-40% of the birth titer by 6 weeks of age. CONCLUSIONS: The three IIV3s were well tolerated in pregnant women. Antibody responses were comparable in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and after second or third trimester vaccination. Transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to the infant was efficient. However, antibody titers decline rapidly in the first 6 weeks of life.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...