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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948025

RESUMO

In 2019, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) convened a panel of experts specializing in nutrition, microbial physiology, gastroenterology, paediatrics, food science and microbiology to review the definition and scope of postbiotics. The term 'postbiotics' is increasingly found in the scientific literature and on commercial products, yet is inconsistently used and lacks a clear definition. The purpose of this panel was to consider the scientific, commercial and regulatory parameters encompassing this emerging term, propose a useful definition and thereby establish a foundation for future developments. The panel defined a postbiotic as a "preparation of inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confers a health benefit on the host". Effective postbiotics must contain inactivated microbial cells or cell components, with or without metabolites, that contribute to observed health benefits. The panel also discussed existing evidence of health-promoting effects of postbiotics, potential mechanisms of action, levels of evidence required to meet the stated definition, safety and implications for stakeholders. The panel determined that a definition of postbiotics is useful so that scientists, clinical triallists, industry, regulators and consumers have common ground for future activity in this area. A generally accepted definition will hopefully lead to regulatory clarity and promote innovation and the development of new postbiotic products.

2.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923841

RESUMO

The response of a coeliac and a healthy gut microbiota to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was evaluated using an in vitro continuous, pH controlled, gut model system, which simulated the human colon. The effect of C. pyrenoidosa on the microbial structure was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and inferred metagenomics, whereas the metabolic activitywas determined by1H-nuclear magnetic resonancespectroscopic analysis. The addition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased the abundance of the genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus and Faecalibacterium in the healthy donor, while an increase in Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium and Megasphaera and a decrease in Enterobacteriaceae were observed in the coeliac donor. C. pyrenoidosa also altered several microbial pathways including those involved in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. At the metabolic level, a significant increase from baseline was seen in butyrate and propionate (p < 0.0001) in the healthy donor, especially in vessels 2 and 3. While acetate was significantly higher in the healthy donor at baseline in vessel 3 (p < 0.001) compared to the coeliac donor, this was markedly decreased after in vitro fermentation with C. pyrenoidosa. This is the first in vitro fermentation study of C. pyrenoidosa and human gut microbiota, however, further in vivo studies are needed to prove its efficacy.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Fermentação/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817774

RESUMO

Despite the progress in characterising the pharmacological profile of drugs of abuse, their precise biochemical impact remains unclear. The metabolome reflects the multifaceted biochemical processes occurring within a biological system. This includes those encoded in the genome but also those arising from environmental/exogenous exposures and interactions between the two. Using metabolomics, the biochemical derangements associated with substance abuse can be determined as the individual transitions from recreational drug to chronic use (dependence). By understanding the biomolecular perturbations along this time course and how they vary across individuals, metabolomics can elucidate biochemical mechanisms of the addiction cycle (dependence/withdrawal/relapse) and predict prognosis (recovery/relapse). In this review, we summarise human and animal metabolomic studies in the field of opioid and psychostimulant addiction. We highlight the importance of metabolomics as a powerful approach for biomarker discovery and its potential to guide personalised pharmacotherapeutic strategies for addiction targeted towards the individual's metabolome.

4.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(5): 1020-1031, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901398

RESUMO

Developing effective therapeutics or preventive interventions for important health threats is greatly enhanced whenever accessible models can enable the assessment of clinically important outcomes. While no non-human model is ever perfect, inexpensive in vivo small animal models in such as mice are often of great help in assessing the relevant efficacy of potential interventions. In addition to acute diarrhea, the long-term growth and developmental effects of enteric infections, with or without overt diarrhea, are increasingly recognized. To address these diverse effects, inexpensive animal models are proving to be very helpful. Herein, we review the major clinical concerns with enteric parasitic and bacterial infections that are extremely common worldwide, especially in vulnerable young children living in impoverished areas, and the recently published murine models of these infections and their outcomes. We find that common dietary deficiencies seen in children in developing areas have striking effects on diarrhea and enteropathy outcomes in mice. However, these effects differ with different pathogens. Specifically, the effects of protein or zinc deficiency differ considerably with different major protozoal and bacterial pathogens, suggesting different pathogenetic pathways and intervention effects. The pathogens reviewed are the seven top parasitic and bacterial pathogens seen in children, namely, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, Shigella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC).

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1185-1198, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child stunting remains a poorly understood, prevalent public health problem. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is hypothesized to be an important underlying cause. OBJECTIVES: Within a subgroup of 1169 children enrolled in the SHINE (Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy) trial in rural Zimbabwe, followed longitudinally from birth to 18 mo of age, we evaluated associations between the concentration of 11 EED biomarkers and linear growth velocity. METHODS: At infant ages 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo, nurses measured child length and collected stool and blood; the lactulose-mannitol urine test was also conducted at all visits except at 1 mo. Stool neopterin, α-1 antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, and regenerating gene 1ß protein; urinary lactulose and mannitol; and plasma kynurenine, tryptophan, C-reactive protein, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), soluble CD14, intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and citrulline were measured. We analyzed the change in relative [∆ length-for-age z score (LAZ)/mo] and absolute (∆ length/mo) growth velocity during 4 age intervals (1-3 mo; 3-6 mo; 6-12 mo; and 12-18 mo) per SD increase in biomarker concentration at the start of each age interval. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, we observed only 3 small, statistically significant associations: kynurenine:tryptophan ratio at 12 mo was associated with decreased mean LAZ velocity during the 12-18 mo interval (-0.015 LAZ/mo; 95% CI: -0.029, -0.001 LAZ/mo); mannitol excretion at 6 mo was associated with increased LAZ velocity during the 6-12 mo interval (0.013 LAZ/mo; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.025 LAZ/mo), and plasma IGF-1 at 1 mo was associated with increased LAZ velocity during the 1-3 mo interval (0.118 LAZ/mo; 95% CI: 0.024, 0.211 LAZ/mo). Results for absolute growth velocity were similar, except IGF-1 was also associated with growth during the 12-18 mo interval. We found no other associations between any EED biomarker and linear growth velocity. CONCLUSIONS: None of 11 biomarkers of EED were consistently associated with linear growth among Zimbabwean children.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01824940.

6.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(8): e2001018, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599094

RESUMO

SCOPE: Iron deficiency (ID) compromises the health of infants worldwide. Although readily treated with iron, concerns remain about the persistence of some effects. Metabolic and gut microbial consequences of infantile ID were investigated in juvenile monkeys after natural recovery (pID) from iron deficiency or post-treatment with iron dextran and B vitamins (pID+Fe). METHODS AND RESULTS: Metabolomic profiling of urine and plasma is conducted with 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Gut microbiota are characterized from rectal swabs by amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Urinary metabolic profiles of pID monkeys significantly differed from pID+Fe and continuously iron-sufficient controls (IS) with higher maltose and lower amounts of microbial-derived metabolites. Persistent differences in energy metabolism are apparent from the plasma metabolic phenotypes with greater reliance on anaerobic glycolysis in pID monkeys. Microbial profiling indicated higher abundances of Methanobrevibacter, Lachnobacterium, and Ruminococcus in pID monkeys and any history of ID resulted in a lower Prevotella abundance compared to the IS controls. CONCLUSIONS: Lingering metabolic and microbial effects are found after natural recovery from ID. These long-term biochemical derangements are not present in the pID+Fe animals emphasizing the importance of the early detection and treatment of early-life ID to ameliorate its chronic metabolic effects.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460909

RESUMO

Tyrosine plays a key role in mammalian biochemistry and defects in its metabolism (e.g., tyrosinemia, alkaptonuria etc.) have significant adverse consequences for those affected if left untreated. In addition, gut bacterially-derived p-cresol and its metabolites are of interest as a result of various effects on host xenobiotic metabolism. A fit-for-purpose quantitative ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed to target and quantify tyrosine and eleven metabolites in urine and plasma. Dansylation, using dansyl chloride, was used to improve chromatographic and mass spectral properties for tyrosine and nine phenolic metabolites, with detection using positive electrospray ionisation (ESI). The sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of p-cresol, where the phenol group was blocked, were quantified intact, using negative ESI via polarity switching during the same run. Sample preparation for urine and plasma involved deproteinization by solvent precipitation (of acetonitrile:isopropyl alcohol (1:1 v/v)) followed by in situ dansylation in 96 well plates. To minimize sample and solvent usage, and maximize sensitivity, analysis was performed using microbore reversed-phase gradient UPLC on a C8 phase with a 7.5 min. cycle time. The coefficients of variation obtained were <15%, with lower limits of quantification ranging from 5 to 250 nM depending upon the analyte. The method was applied to plasma and urine samples obtained from mice placed on a high tyrosine diet with one subgroup of animals subsequently receiving antibiotics to suppress the gut microbiota. Whilst plasma profiles were largely unaffected by antibiotic treatment clear reductions in the amount of p-cresol sulfate and p-cresol glucuronide excreted in the urine were observed for these mice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tirosina , Animais , Cresóis/sangue , Cresóis/metabolismo , Cresóis/urina , Compostos de Dansil , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tirosina/sangue , Tirosina/metabolismo , Tirosina/urina
8.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 20, 2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both serotonergic signalling disruption and systemic inflammation have been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The common denominator linking the two is the catabolism of the essential amino acid, tryptophan. Metabolism via tryptophan hydroxylase results in serotonin synthesis, whilst metabolism via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) results in kynurenine and its downstream derivatives. IDO is reported to be activated in times of host systemic inflammation and therefore is thought to influence both pathways. To investigate metabolic alterations in AD, a large-scale metabolic phenotyping study was conducted on both urine and serum samples collected from a multi-centre clinical cohort, consisting of individuals clinically diagnosed with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-matched controls. METHODS: Metabolic phenotyping was applied to both urine (n = 560) and serum (n = 354) from the European-wide AddNeuroMed/Dementia Case Register (DCR) biobank repositories. Metabolite data were subsequently interrogated for inter-group differences; influence of gender and age; comparisons between two subgroups of MCI - versus those who remained cognitively stable at follow-up visits (sMCI); and those who underwent further cognitive decline (cMCI); and the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication on metabolite concentrations. RESULTS: Results revealed significantly lower metabolite concentrations of tryptophan pathway metabolites in the AD group: serotonin (urine, serum), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (urine), kynurenine (serum), kynurenic acid (urine), tryptophan (urine, serum), xanthurenic acid (urine, serum), and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (urine). For each listed metabolite, a decreasing trend in concentrations was observed in-line with clinical diagnosis: control > MCI > AD. There were no significant differences in the two MCI subgroups whilst SSRI medication status influenced observations in serum, but not urine. CONCLUSIONS: Urine and serum serotonin concentrations were found to be significantly lower in AD compared with controls, suggesting the bioavailability of the neurotransmitter may be altered in the disease. A significant increase in the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio suggests that this may be a result of a shift to the kynurenine metabolic route due to increased IDO activity, potentially as a result of systemic inflammation. Modulation of the pathways could help improve serotonin bioavailability and signalling in AD patients.

10.
Cell ; 182(6): 1460-1473.e17, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916129

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been implicated in multiple human chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Determining its mechanistic role in disease has been difficult due to apparent disconnects between animal and human studies and lack of an integrated multi-omics view of disease-specific physiological changes. We integrated longitudinal multi-omics data from the gut microbiome, metabolome, host epigenome, and transcriptome in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) host physiology. We identified IBS subtype-specific and symptom-related variation in microbial composition and function. A subset of identified changes in microbial metabolites correspond to host physiological mechanisms that are relevant to IBS. By integrating multiple data layers, we identified purine metabolism as a novel host-microbial metabolic pathway in IBS with translational potential. Our study highlights the importance of longitudinal sampling and integrating complementary multi-omics data to identify functional mechanisms that can serve as therapeutic targets in a comprehensive treatment strategy for chronic GI diseases. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

11.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(5): 100077, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904427

RESUMO

Supplementation with members of the early-life microbiota as "probiotics" is increasingly used in attempts to beneficially manipulate the preterm infant gut microbiota. We performed a large observational longitudinal study comprising two preterm groups: 101 infants orally supplemented with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus (Bif/Lacto) and 133 infants non-supplemented (control) matched by age, sex, and delivery method. 16S rRNA gene profiling on fecal samples (n = 592) showed a predominance of Bifidobacterium and a lower abundance of pathobionts in the Bif/Lacto group. Metabolomic analysis showed higher fecal acetate and lactate and a lower fecal pH in the Bif/Lacto group compared to the control group. Fecal acetate positively correlated with relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, consistent with the ability of the supplemented Bifidobacterium strain to metabolize human milk oligosaccharides into acetate. This study demonstrates that microbiota supplementation is associated with a Bifidobacterium-dominated preterm microbiota and gastrointestinal environment more closely resembling that of full-term infants.

12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1397-1404, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783799

RESUMO

Recurrent enteric infections and micronutrient deficiencies, including deficiencies in the tryptophan-kynurenine-niacin pathway, have been associated with environmental enteric dysfunction, potentially contributing to poor child growth and development. We are conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial interventional trial in a rural population in Haydom, Tanzania, to determine the effect of 1) antimicrobials (azithromycin and nitazoxanide) and/or 2) nicotinamide, a niacin vitamer, on attained length at 18 months. Mother/infant dyads were enrolled within 14 days of the infant's birth from September 2017 to September 2018, with the follow-up to be completed in February 2020. Here, we describe the baseline characteristics of the study cohort, risk factors for low enrollment weight, and neonatal adverse events (AEs). Risk factors for a low enrollment weight included being a firstborn child (-0.54 difference in weight-for-age z-score [WAZ] versus other children, 95% CI: -0.71, -0.37), lower socioeconomic status (-0.28, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.12 difference in WAZ), and birth during the preharvest season (November to March) (-0.22, 95% CI: -0.33, -0.11 difference in WAZ). The most common neonatal serious AEs were respiratory tract infections and neonatal sepsis (2.2 and 1.4 events per 100 child-months, respectively). The study cohort represents a high-risk population for whom interventions to improve child growth and development are urgently needed. Further analyses are needed to understand the persistent impacts of seasonal malnutrition and the interactions between seasonality, socioeconomic status, and the study interventions.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Pobreza , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14079, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826922

RESUMO

Obesity is accompanied by dysfunction of many organs, but effects on the skin have received little attention. We studied differences in epithelial thickness by histology and gene expression by Affymetrix gene arrays and PCR in the skin of 10 obese (BMI 35-50) and 10 normal weight (BMI 18.5-26.9) postmenopausal women paired by age and ethnicity. Epidermal thickness did not differ with obesity but the expression of genes encoding proteins associated with skin blood supply and wound healing were altered. In the obese, many gene expression pathways were broadly downregulated and subdermal fat showed pronounced inflammation. There were no changes in skin microbiota or metabolites. African American subjects differed from European Americans with a trend to increased epidermal thickening. In obese African Americans, compared to obese European Americans, we observed altered gene expression that may explain known differences in water content and stress response. African Americans showed markedly lower expression of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator characteristic of the disease cystic fibrosis. The results from this preliminary study may explain the functional changes found in the skin of obese subjects and African Americans.

14.
J Proteome Res ; 19(8): 3326-3339, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544340

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent that can cause a range of toxic side effects including gastrointestinal damage, hepatotoxicity, myelosuppression, and nephrotoxicity and has potentially complex interactions with the gut microbiome. Following untargeted UPLC-qtof-MS analysis of urine and fecal samples from male Sprague-Dawley rats administered at either 0, 10, 40, or 100 mg/kg of MTX, dose-dependent changes in the endogenous metabolite profiles were detected. Semiquantitative targeted UPLC-MS detected MTX excreted in urine as well as MTX and two metabolites, 2,4-diamino-N-10-methylpteroic acid (DAMPA) and 7-hydroxy-MTX, in the feces. DAMPA is produced by the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase glutamate 2 (CPDG2) in the gut. Microbiota profiling (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) of fecal samples showed an increase in the relative abundance of Firmicutes over the Bacteroidetes at low doses of MTX but the reverse at high doses. Firmicutes relative abundance was positively correlated with DAMPA excretion in feces at 48 h, which were both lower at 100 mg/kg compared to that seen at 40 mg/kg. Overall, chronic exposure to MTX appears to induce community and functionality changes in the intestinal microbiota, inducing downstream perturbations in CPDG2 activity, and thus may delay MTX detoxication to DAMPA. This reduction in metabolic clearance might be associated with increased gastrointestinal toxicity.

15.
Metabolites ; 10(5)2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344839

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is recognized to exert a wide-ranging influence on host health and disease, including brain development and behavior. Commensal bacteria can produce bioactive molecules that enter the circulation and impact host physiology and homeostasis. However, little is known about the potential for these metabolites to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the developing brain under normal physiological conditions. In this study, we used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to characterize the developmental profiles of microbial-derived metabolites in the forebrains of mice across three key postnatal developmental stages, co-occurring with the maturation of the gut microbiota. We demonstrate that direct metabolites of the gut microbiome (e.g., imidazole propionate) or products of the combinatorial metabolism between the microbiome and host (e.g., 3-indoxyl-sulfate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and phenylacetylglycine) are present in the forebrains of mice as early as the neonatal period and remain into adulthood. These findings demonstrate that microbial-associated molecules can cross the BBB either in their detected form or as precursor molecules that undergo further processing in the brain. These chemical messengers are able to bind receptors known to be expressed in the brain. Alterations in the gut microbiome may therefore influence neurodevelopmental trajectories via the regulation of these microbial-associated metabolites.

16.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126484, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199166

RESUMO

An increased risk of developing colorectal cancer has been associated with exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and alteration in the gut bacterial community. However, there is limited understanding about the impact of maternal exposure to POPs on colorectal cancer and gut microbiota. This study characterized the influence of exposure to a human relevant mixture of POPs during gestation and lactation on colorectal cancer, intestinal metabolite composition and microbiota in the A/J Min/+ mouse model. Surprisingly, the maternal POP exposure decreased colonic tumor burden, as shown by light microscopy and histopathological evaluation, indicating a restriction of colorectal carcinogenesis. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis identified alterations in the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, glycerophospholipids and energy in intestinal tissue. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing of gut microbiota indicated that maternal exposure modified fecal bacterial composition. In conclusion, the results showed that early-life exposure to a mixture of POPs reduced colorectal cancer initiation and promotion, possibly through modulation of the microbial and biochemical environment. Further studies should focus on the development of colorectal cancer after combined maternal and dietary exposures to environmentally relevant low-dose POP mixtures.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactação , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 7374-7381, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170007

RESUMO

Irinotecan treats a range of solid tumors, but its effectiveness is severely limited by gastrointestinal (GI) tract toxicity caused by gut bacterial ß-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes. Targeted bacterial GUS inhibitors have been shown to partially alleviate irinotecan-induced GI tract damage and resultant diarrhea in mice. Here, we unravel the mechanistic basis for GI protection by gut microbial GUS inhibitors using in vivo models. We use in vitro, in fimo, and in vivo models to determine whether GUS inhibition alters the anticancer efficacy of irinotecan. We demonstrate that a single dose of irinotecan increases GI bacterial GUS activity in 1 d and reduces intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in 5 d, both blocked by a single dose of a GUS inhibitor. In a tumor xenograft model, GUS inhibition prevents intestinal toxicity and maintains the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan. Remarkably, GUS inhibitor also effectively blocks the striking irinotecan-induced bloom of Enterobacteriaceae in immune-deficient mice. In a genetically engineered mouse model of cancer, GUS inhibition alleviates gut damage, improves survival, and does not alter gut microbial composition; however, by allowing dose intensification, it dramatically improves irinotecan's effectiveness, reducing tumors to a fraction of that achieved by irinotecan alone, while simultaneously promoting epithelial regeneration. These results indicate that targeted gut microbial enzyme inhibitors can improve cancer chemotherapeutic outcomes by protecting the gut epithelium from microbial dysbiosis and proliferative crypt damage.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucuronidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007963, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) may be an important modifiable cause of child stunting. We described the evolution of EED biomarkers from birth to 18 months in rural Zimbabwe and tested the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF), on EED. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial was a 2x2 factorial cluster-randomised trial of improved IYCF and improved WASH on child stunting and anaemia at 18 months of age. 1169 infants born to HIV-negative mothers provided plasma and faecal specimens at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of age. We measured EED biomarkers that reflect all domains of the hypothesized pathological pathway. Markers of intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation declined over time, while markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation increased between 1-18 months. Markers of intestinal damage (I-FABP) and repair (REG-1ß) mirrored each other, and citrulline (a marker of intestinal epithelial mass) increased from 6 months of age, suggesting dynamic epithelial turnover and regeneration in response to enteric insults. We observed few effects of IYCF and WASH on EED after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The WASH intervention decreased plasma IGF-1 at 3 months (ß:0.89, 95%CI:0.81,0.98) and plasma kynurenine at 12 months (ß: 0.92, 95%CI:0.87,0.97), and increased plasma IGF-1 at 18 months (ß:1.15, 95%CI:1.05,1.25), but these small WASH effects did not translate into improved growth. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we observed dynamic trends in EED but few effects of IYCF or WASH on biomarkers during the first 18 months after birth, suggesting that these interventions did not impact EED. Transformative WASH interventions are required to prevent or ameliorate EED in low-income settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Higiene , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estudos de Coortes , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento , Água , Qualidade da Água , Zimbábue
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 595266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392105

RESUMO

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are recognized as one of the leading bacterial causes of infantile diarrhea worldwide. Weaned C57BL/6 mice pretreated with antibiotics were challenged orally with wild-type EPEC or escN mutant (lacking type 3 secretion system) to determine colonization, inflammatory responses and clinical outcomes during infection. Antibiotic disruption of intestinal microbiota enabled efficient colonization by wild-type EPEC resulting in growth impairment and diarrhea. Increase in inflammatory biomarkers, chemokines, cellular recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed in intestinal tissues. Metabolomic changes were also observed in EPEC infected mice with changes in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, increased creatine excretion and shifts in gut microbial metabolite levels. In addition, by 7 days after infection, although weights were recovering, EPEC-infected mice had increased intestinal permeability and decreased colonic claudin-1 levels. The escN mutant colonized the mice with no weight loss or increased inflammatory biomarkers, showing the importance of the T3SS in EPEC virulence in this model. In conclusion, a murine infection model treated with antibiotics has been developed to mimic clinical outcomes seen in children with EPEC infection and to examine potential roles of selected virulence traits. This model can help in further understanding mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of EPEC infections and potential outcomes and thus assist in the development of potential preventive or therapeutic interventions.

20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007851, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730639

RESUMO

Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is associated with chronic undernutrition. Efforts to identify minimally invasive biomarkers of EED reveal an expanding number of candidate analytes. An analytic strategy is reported to select among candidate biomarkers and systematically express the strength of each marker's association with linear growth in infancy and early childhood. 180 analytes were quantified in fecal, urine and plasma samples taken at 7, 15 and 24 months of age from 258 subjects in a birth cohort in Peru. Treating the subjects' length-for-age Z-score (LAZ-score) over a 2-month lag as the outcome, penalized linear regression models with different shrinkage methods were fitted to determine the best-fitting subset. These were then included with covariates in linear regression models to obtain estimates of each biomarker's adjusted effect on growth. Transferrin had the largest and most statistically significant adjusted effect on short-term linear growth as measured by LAZ-score-a coefficient value of 0.50 (0.24, 0.75) for each log2 increase in plasma transferrin concentration. Other biomarkers with large effect size estimates included adiponectin, arginine, growth hormone, proline and serum amyloid P-component. The selected subset explained up to 23.0% of the variability in LAZ-score. Penalized regression modeling approaches can be used to select subsets from large panels of candidate biomarkers of EED. There is a need to systematically express the strength of association of biomarkers with linear growth or other outcomes to compare results across studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Doença Ambiental/diagnóstico , Doença Ambiental/patologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/patologia , Bioestatística , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Peru
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