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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 56: 103285, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662846

RESUMO

Disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are effective, but frequently cost $70,000+/year and can predispose patients to serious infections. This retrospective cohort analysis (N = 3,204) compared rates of infections over a 24-month period by MS medication route of administration and antimicrobial use. Infection rates were: 38.7% (oral), 37.3% (infused), and 36.8% (injectable). Of those infections, antimicrobials were prescribed in 86.5% (oral), 84.3% (infused), and 85.5% (injectable) cases. We found differences within bacterial and herpes zoster infection rates (and antimicrobial use) among new users by medication route of administration. Our findings suggest that pharmacovigilance may inform the shared-decision processes when choosing MS medications.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444744

RESUMO

South Africa (SA) is facing a rising prevalence of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. The government is seeking to develop effective, evidence-based policy measures to address this. A well-designed, fit-for-purpose nutrient profiling model (NPM) can aid policy development. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-purpose NPM in SA. Steps included: (1) determining the purpose and target population; (2) selecting appropriate nutrients and other food components to include; (3) selecting a suitable NPM type, criteria and base; and (4) selecting appropriate numbers and thresholds. As part of the evaluation, the nutritional composition of packaged foods containing nutritional information (n = 6747) in the SA food supply chain was analyzed, a literature review was undertaken and various NPMs were evaluated. Our findings indicated that it is most appropriate to adapt an NPM and underpin regulation with a restrictive NPM that limits unhealthy food components. The Chile 2019 NPM was identified as suitable to adapt, and total sugar, saturated fat, sodium and non-sugar sweetener were identified as appropriate to restrict. This NPM has the potential to underpin restrictive policies, such as front-of-package labelling and child-directed marketing regulations in SA. These policies will support the fight against obesity and NCDs in the country.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Nutrientes , Política Nutricional , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Dieta , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Marketing , Formulação de Políticas , África do Sul
3.
Obes Rev ; 22(9): e13301, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060197

RESUMO

In 2016, the South African government proposed a 20% sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax. Protracted consultations with beverage manufacturers and the sugar industry followed. This resulted in a lower sugar-based beverage tax, the Health Promotion Levy (HPL), of approximately 10% coming into effect in April 2018. We provide a synthesis of findings until April 2021. Studies show that despite the lower rate, purchases of unhealthy SSBs and sugar intake consumption from SSBs fell. There were greater reductions in SSB purchases among both lower socioeconomic groups and in subpopulations with higher SSB consumption. These subpopulations bear larger burdens from obesity and related diseases, suggesting that this policy improves health equity. The current COVID-19 pandemic has impacted food and nutritional security. Increased pandemic mortality among people with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension highlight the importance of intersectoral public health disease-prevention policies like the HPL, which should be strengthened.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos , Comorbidade , Comportamento do Consumidor , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
4.
Med Care ; 59(9): 789-794, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe national changes in utilization and associated costs of antidiabetic medications in the United States from 2014 to 2019, across different drug classes and insurance plans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined administrative claims from a large national pharmacy benefits manager from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019. Patients aged 18 years and above enrolled in commercial, Medicare, or Medicaid health plans who filled ≥1 prescription claim for an antidiabetic medication(s) during the 6-year period were included. Utilization was examined as the total number of 30-day adjusted prescription fills per user per month (PUPM). Gross costs were calculated as the sum of plan costs (net of rebates) and member out-of-pocket costs. Differences in mean utilization and costs PUPM between 2014 and 2019 for each medication class were calculated. RESULTS: The final analytic sample increased from 745,290 patients in 2014 to 1,596,006 in 2019. Antidiabetic medication utilization increased by 8.8% from 2014 to 2019, driven by increases in sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (48.7%; P<0.001), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (11.8%; P<0.001), insulin (8.1%; P<0.001), and metformin (2.9%; P<0.05) utilization. Average costs PUPM rose 47.5% (P<0.001), from $126.52 in 2014 to $186.58 in 2019. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, and combination drugs contributed significantly to these increased costs, with 6-year cost differences of 57.3%, 46.9%, and 47.2%, respectively (all P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates a shift in antidiabetic medication class utilization from 2014 to 2019, where associated costs net of rebates significantly increased to a disproportionately greater extent than the significant increase in utilization PUPM.

5.
PLoS Med ; 18(5): e1003574, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to prevent and reduce the prevalence rate of people with obesity and diabetes, South Africa implemented a sugar-content-based tax called the Health Promotion Levy in April 2018, one of the first sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes to be based on each gram of sugar (beyond 4 g/100 ml). This before-and-after study estimated changes in taxed and untaxed beverage intake 1 year after the tax, examining separately, to our knowledge for the first time, the role of reformulation distinct from behavioral changes in SSB intake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected single-day 24-hour dietary recalls from repeat cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18-39 years in Langa, South Africa. Participants were recruited in February-March 2018 (pre-tax, n = 2,459) and February-March 2019 (post-tax, n = 2,489) using door-to-door sampling. We developed time-specific food composition tables (FCTs) for South African beverages before and after the tax, linked with the diet recalls. By linking pre-tax FCTs only to dietary intake data collected in the pre-tax and post-tax periods, we calculated changes in beverage intake due to behavioral change, assuming no reformulation. Next, we repeated the analysis using an updated FCT in the post-tax period to capture the marginal effect of reformulation. We estimated beverage intake using a 2-part model that takes into consideration the biases in using ordinary least squares or other continuous variable approaches with many individuals with zero intake. First, a probit model was used to estimate the probability of consuming the specific beverage category. Then, conditional on a positive outcome, a generalized linear model with a log-link was used to estimate the continuous amount of beverage consumed. Among taxed beverages, sugar intake decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) from 28.8 g/capita/day (95% CI 27.3-30.4) pre-tax to 19.8 (95% CI 18.5-21.1) post-tax. Energy intake decreased (p < 0.0001) from 121 kcal/capita/day (95% CI 114-127) pre-tax to 82 (95% CI 76-87) post-tax. Volume intake decreased (p < 0.0001) from 315 ml/capita/day (95% CI 297-332) pre-tax to 198 (95% CI 185-211) post-tax. Among untaxed beverages, sugar intake increased (p < 0.0001) by 5.3 g/capita/day (95% CI 3.7 to 6.9), and energy intake increased (p < 0.0001) by 29 kcal/capita/day (95% CI 19 to 39). Among total beverages, sugar intake decreased significantly (p = 0.004) by 3.7 (95% CI -6.2 to -1.2) g/capita/day. Behavioral change accounted for reductions of 24% in energy, 22% in sugar, and 23% in volume, while reformulation accounted for additional reductions of 8% in energy, 9% in sugar, and 14% in volume from taxed beverages. The key limitations of this study are an inability to make causal claims due to repeat cross-sectional data collection, and that the magnitude of reduction in taxed beverage intake may not be generalizable to higher income populations. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large sample of a high-consuming, low-income population, we found large reductions in taxed beverage intake, separating the components of behavioral change from reformulation. This reduction was partially compensated by an increase in sugar and energy from untaxed beverages. Because policies such as taxes can incentivize reformulation, our use of an up-to-date FCT that reflects a rapidly changing food supply is novel and important for evaluating policy effects on intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Energia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/análise , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(7): 462-470, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865500

RESUMO

The global surges in obesity and nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have created a need for decisive new food policy initiatives. A major concern has been the impact of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) and ultra-processed drinks on weight gain and on the risk of several NCDs. These foods, generally high in calories, added sugar, sodium, and unhealthy fats, and poor in fibre, protein, and micronutrients, have extensive negative effects on human health and on the environment (due to their associated carbon emission and water use). There is a growing tendency worldwide, and especially in South America, for food companies to add micronutrients to UPFs to make health claims regarding these products, to which food-regulating authorities refer to fake foods. Although more than 45 countries and smaller subregional or urban entities have created taxes on ultra-processed drinks, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, only a few have adopted taxes on snacks and other UPFs, and none have added major subsidies for truly healthy, fresh or minimally processed food for people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Another major focus has been on developing effective package labelling. A smaller number of countries have selected the most impactful warning labels and linked them with other measures to create a mutually reinforcing set of policies; a few other countries have developed effective school food policies. We herein present in-depth results from key countries involved in all these actions and in comprehensive marketing controls, and conclude with our recommendations for the future. This field is quite new; progress to date is substantial, but much more is left to learn.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Política Nutricional/tendências , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(4): e200-e208, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, South Africa announced an intention to levy a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). In 2018, the country implemented an SSB tax of approximately 10%, known as the Health Promotion Levy (HPL). We aimed to assess changes in the purchases of beverages before and after the HPL announcement and implementation. METHODS: We used Kantar Europanel data on monthly household purchases between January, 2014, and March, 2019, among a sample of South African households (n=113 653 household-month observations) from all nine provinces to obtain per-capita sugar, calories, and volume from taxable and non-taxable beverages purchased before and after the HPL announcement and implementation. We describe survey-weighted means for each period, and regression-controlled predictions of outcomes and counterfactuals based on pre-HPL announcement trends, with bootstrapped 95% CIs, and stratify results by socioeconomic status. FINDINGS: Mean sugar from taxable beverage purchases fell from 16·25 g/capita per day (95% CI 15·80-16·70) to 14·26 (13·85-14·67) from the pre-HPL announcement to post-announcement period, and then to 10·63 g/capita per day (10·22-11·04) in the year after implementation. Mean volumes of taxable beverage purchases fell from 518·99 mL/capita per day (506·90-531·08) to 492·16 (481·28-503·04) from pre-announcement to post announcement, and then to 443·39 mL/capita per day (430·10-456·56) after implementation. Across these time periods, there was a small increase in the purchases of non-taxable beverages, from 283·45 mL/capita per day (273·34-293·56) pre-announcement to 312·94 (296·29-329·29) post implementation. When compared with pre-announcement counterfactual trends, reductions in taxable beverage purchase outcomes were significantly larger than the unadjusted survey-weighted observed reductions. Households with lower socioeconomic status purchased larger amounts of taxable beverages in the pre-announcement period than did households with higher socioeconomic status, but demonstrated bigger reductions after the tax was implemented. INTERPRETATION: The announcement and introduction of South Africa's HPL were followed by reductions in the sugar, calories, and volume of beverage purchases. FUNDING: Bloomberg Philanthropies, International Development Research Centre, South African Medical Research Council, and the US National Institutes of Health.

8.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(4): 435-443, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of improved clinical outcomes, recent American Diabetes Association guidelines recommend the use of newer antidiabetic agents-glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i)-by those with cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, how switching to these newer agents affects health care utilization and costs. OBJECTIVE: To compare health care utilization and costs between users of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) who switch to GLP-1RA or SGLT2i and nonswitchers. METHODS: We used claims data from a large pharmacy benefit manager. Patients included were commercially insured adults with type 2 diabetes and a prescription claim for DPP-4i in 2016 or 2017. Using propensity score methods, we matched patients who switched to SGLT2i or GLP-1RA with those who remained on DPP-4i. Among matched samples, we conducted multivariable negative binomial regression to examine differences in the incidence of inpatient and emergency room (ER) visits and generalized linear regression to examine differences in health care costs. RESULTS: Among 47,953 patients who used DPP-4i in 2016 and 2017, 507 switched to SGLT2i and 808 switched to GLP-1RA. Propensity score matching of 1:6 resulted in 3,042 nonswitchers/507 switchers for the SGLT2i cohort and 4,848 nonswitchers/808 switchers for the GLP-1RA cohort. Switchers to SGLT2i experienced a 39% reduction (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.38-0.96), and GLP-1RA switchers experienced a 29% reduction (IRR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.52-0.97) in inpatient hospitalizations. ER visit rates did not differ significantly between switchers and nonswitchers. Switchers to SGLT2i did not have statistically significant differences in medical or pharmacy costs compared with DPP-4i users, while switchers to GLP-1RA had significantly higher total pharmacy costs (adjusted difference of $2,453.10, 95% CI = $1,837.20-$3,069.00). CONCLUSIONS: Switching from DPP-4i to GLP-1RA or SGLT2i was associated with fewer hospitalizations; however, higher pharmacy costs may outweigh savings from reduced hospitalizations, especially for GLP-1RAs. As newer diabetes guidelines steer specific populations to these drug classes, it is important to optimize drug pricing to realize their true value. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. Neilson, Good, Swart, and Huang are employees of UPMC Center for Value-Based Pharmacy Initiatives and High-Value Care. Parekh reports employment at UPMC until July 2019. Munshi and Henderson are employed by Express Scripts. Newman has no disclosures to report.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/economia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/economia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 454, 2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa was the first sub-Saharan African country to implement a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax called the Health Promotion Levy (HPL) in April 2018. Given news media can increase public awareness and sway opinions, this study analyzed how the media represented the HPL, including expressions of support or challenge, topics associated with the levy, and stakeholder views of the HPL. METHODS: We performed a quantitative content analysis of online South African news articles related to the HPL published between January 1, 2017 and June 30, 2019. We coded the presence or absence of mentions related to health and economic effects of the HPL and HPL support or opposition. Prevalence of these mentions, overall and by source (industry, government, academics, other), were analyzed with Pearson χ2 and post-hoc Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: Across all articles, 81% mentioned health, and 65% mentioned economics topics. 54% of articles expressed support, 26% opposition, and 20% a balanced view of the HPL. All sources except industry expressed majority support for the HPL. Health reasons were the most common justifications for support, and economic harms were the most common justifications for opposition. Statements that sugar intake is not related to obesity, the HPL will not reduce SSB intake, and the HPL will cause industry or economic harm were all disproportionately high in industry sources (92, 80, and 81% vs 25% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.001). Statements that sugar intake is related to obesity and non-communicable diseases were disproportionately high in both government (46 and 54% vs 31% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.001) and academics (33 and 38% vs 25% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.05). Statements that the HPL will improve health and the HPL will reduce health care costs were disproportionately high in government (47% vs 31% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.001) and academics (44% vs 25% prevalence in total sample) (p < 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Industry expressed no support for the HPL, whereas academics, government, and other sources mainly expressed support. Future studies would be improved by linking news media exposure to SSB intake data to better understand the effects news media may have on individual behavior change.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Açúcares , Bebidas , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Impostos
10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given efforts to reduce opioid use, and because marijuana potentially offers a lower-risk alternative for treating chronic pain, there is interest in understanding the public health impact of marijuana legalization on opioid-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Assess the impact of recreational and medical marijuana legalization on opioid utilization among patients receiving pharmacotherapy for pain. DESIGN: Retrospective claims-based study of commercially insured patients continuously eligible for pharmacy and medical benefits from July 8, 2014 to June 30, 2017. Index pain prescription period was defined between January 8, 2015 and June 30, 2015, and longer-term opioid use examined during 2-year follow-up. Marijuana state policy on July 1, 2015, was assigned: none; medical only; or medical and recreational. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18-62 without cancer diagnosis. MAIN MEASURES: Patient receiving (1) opioid at index; (2) > 7 days' supply of index opioid; (3) opioid during follow-up; and (4) ≥ 90 days' opioid supply during follow-up. Multivariable regression assessed associations between opioid utilization and state marijuana policy, adjusting for age, gender, overall disease burden, mental health treatment, concomitant use of benzodiazepine or muscle relaxant, and previous pain prescription. KEY RESULTS: Of 141,711 patients, 80,955 (57.1%) resided in states with no policy; 56,494 (39.9%) with medical-only; and 4262 (3.0%) with medical and recreational. Patients in states with both policies were more likely to receive an index opioid (aOR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.61-1.85; aOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.77-2.03; P < 0.001) but less likely to receive > 7 days' index supply (aOR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.77-0.91; aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.70-0.83; P < 0.001) than patients in states with no policy or medical-only, respectively. Those in states with both policies were more likely to receive a follow-up opioid (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.71-2.05; aOR = 2.20, 95% CI = 2.01-2.42; P < 0.001) than those in states with no policy or medical-only, respectively, and more likely to receive ≥ 90 cumulative follow-up opioid days' supply (aOR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.07-1.29; P < 0.001) than those in states with no policy. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis does not support the supposition that access to marijuana lowers use of chronic opioids for pain.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272942

RESUMO

In South Africa (SA), exclusive breast feeding remains rare, with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) commonly being used in ways that are detrimental to infant and young child nutrition, health and survival. The use of internet, digital and mobile platforms has increased, including in low-income and middle-income countries, like SA and these platforms are avenues for BMS marketing. SA has national legislation (Regulation R991) to enforce the International Code of Marketing of BMS. This paper aims to provide pertinent examples of how BMS manufacturers in SA use social media to market their products thus violating national regulations. A digital (and social media) ethnography approach was used to study BMS organisations' activity on Facebook and Instagram. Purposively selected examples of social media posts observed (from 2015 to 2019) were included, and content analysed in terms of national legislation. Several examples of BMS social media marketing are presented and interpreted according to provisions of national regulations that they violate. BMS manufacturers have found ways on social media to market their products in a media space that is complex to regulate, and where it is difficult to enforce national regulations. It is necessary to engage with stakeholders, notably social media companies, to alert them to relevant regulations applicable to their platforms. Monitoring the marketing of products for infants and young children by national governments needs to include online and digital platforms especially social media.


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite , Mídias Sociais , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Marketing , África do Sul
12.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(11): 1385-1389, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119437

RESUMO

In an effort to demonstrate measurable value of pharmaceuticals in the United States, many payers and drug manufacturers have entered into value-based purchasing contracts that link payment for prescription medications to patient outcomes, creating shared risk between the 2 entities. These agreements have emerged as part of a larger movement within the health care landscape to transition away from volume-based payment models and towards value-based designs that promote high-quality and affordable care. Key to the success of pharmaceutical value-based contracting is agreement on meaningful and measurable outcomes that reflect drug performance. Traditional value-based contracts are developed by pharmaceutical companies and payers and may not reflect values of other important stakeholders, such as patients, providers, and employers (when applicable). One approach to more effectively align the interests of all key stakeholders and to maximize the effect and transparency of value-based pharmaceutical contracts is to use the validated Delphi surveying technique, which can gather information and build stakeholder consensus on key elements before contract development. In this Viewpoints article, we describe our experience conducting Delphi studies in 5 disease contexts to inform pharmaceutical value-based contract development, including insights learned and practical considerations for real-world application. In addition, we outline advantages to using this validated consensus-building tool to solicit vital and underrepresented stakeholder input, foster transparency in the contract development process, and promote shared learning for future value-based initiatives. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this project. All authors are or were employed by UPMC Health Plan at the time of this study and have no other disclosures to declare.

13.
Headache ; 60(10): 2139-2151, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify meaningful migraine outcome measures among key stakeholders to inform value-based contracts for migraine medications. BACKGROUND: Value-based contracts linking medication payments to predefined performance metrics aim to promote value through aligned incentives and shared risk between manufacturers and payers. The emergence of new and expensive pharmaceuticals for migraine presents an opportunity for value-based contract development. However, uncertainty remains around which outcomes are most meaningful to all migraine stakeholders. METHODS: This study utilized a Delphi survey to incorporate views from 82 stakeholders, including patients (n = 21), providers (n = 23), payers (n = 10), employers (n = 18), and pharmaceutical company representatives (n = 10). A list of 15 migraine-related outcomes was created from a literature review and subject matter expert consultation. Stakeholders reported on the value of these outcomes through a 5-point Likert scale and selection of their top 3 most meaningful outcomes. All participants except patients and employers also used a 5-point Likert scale to rate the feasibility of collecting each outcome measure. Consensus was defined as ≥75% agreement on the importance and feasibility of an outcome (Likert scores ≥4/5 or selection of an outcome as most meaningful). RESULTS: After 2 rounds, consensus was achieved for importance of 9 outcomes on the Likert scale. "Decrease in migraine frequency" reached 100% agreement (82/82), followed by "increased ability to resume normal activities" (96%, 79/82). When asked to choose the 3 most meaningful outcomes, stakeholders selected "decrease in migraine frequency" (88%, 72/82) followed by "decrease in migraine severity" (80%, 66/82). The 2 measures rated as most feasibly collected were "decrease in emergency department/urgent care visits" (95%, 40/42) and "decrease in migraine frequency" (90%, 38/42). There were statistically significant differences between non-patient and patient stakeholders in selection of "decrease in emergency department/urgent care visits" [20% (12/61) vs 0% (0/21), P = .031]; and employer and patient stakeholders in selection of "decrease in work days missed" [44% (8/18) vs 5% (1/21), P = .006] and "decrease in emergency department/urgent care visits" [22% (4/18) vs 0% (0/21), P = .037] as most meaningful outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The measures "decrease in migraine frequency" followed by "decrease in migraine severity" were identified as top priority migraine outcome measures.

14.
BMC Nutr ; 6: 21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489671

RESUMO

Background: Overweight and obesity have become threats to public health in all regions across the globe including sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence used to be low. Policies to regulate the food environment and promote healthy food consumption look promising to reducing the prevalence of obesity but in Ghana there is not enough data to elicit a policy response. This study assessed the association between dietary consumption, anthropometric measures, body composition and physical activity among rural and urban Ghanaian adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 565 Ghanaian adults. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect information on socio-demographics. Dietary consumption was assessed using household food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body composition of all participants were determined. The World Health Organization's Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to assess physical activity levels. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze differences in anthropometric measures, body composition and consumption among rural and urban participants. Principal component analysis was used to analyze household food frequency data and nutrient analysis template was used to analyze 24-h recall. Chi-square was used to measure differences in obesity prevalence by community and gender. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the risk factors associated with obesity. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity using BMI were 29.9 and 22.9% respectively. Use of waist circumference measurement resulted in the highest overall obesity prevalence of 41.5%. Prevalence of obesity was higher among females compared to males across all measures with the exception of visceral fat that showed no significant difference. Four different patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Among urban participants, the staple pattern showed a significant negative correlation with visceral fat (r - 0.186, p-value 0.013) and BMI (r - 0.163, p-value 0.029). Multinomial logistic regression revealed that males (AOR 19.715, CI 9.723-39.978, p-value < 0.001) had higher odds of being of normal weight compared to females. Conclusion: Prevalence of overweight and obesity continue to rise in Ghana, especially among females. Public education and screening as well as interventions that regulate the food environment and make affordable and available healthy food options are needed to control the rise in obesity prevalence.

15.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 16(9): 1155-1165, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic disease represents a significant burden to the United States (US) health care system, with approximately 50% of all adults in the US having one or more chronic disease conditions. Pharmacist-led chronic disease management interventions are of special interest since 80% of medical treatments involve the use of prescription drugs. Moreover, community pharmacists are among the most accessible health care professionals to provide care for populations with chronic diseases. The impact of care provided by community pharmacists isn't well defined, with interventions taking on diverse forms with varied effects on outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize evidence from secondary literature on community pharmacist-led chronic disease management interventions and the impact on clinical, utilization, and economic outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and narrative reviews using MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE.com and Cochrane Library databases published between January 1, 2007 and October 17, 2017. The following data were extracted: citation details, review type, number of primary studies included, disease state, description of the intervention, outcomes assessed, and results. RESULTS: Our search strategy retrieved 2296 titles and abstracts of which 15 references met our inclusion criteria. Selected articles covered 7 main diseases -diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension, heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Community pharmacist-led interventions mostly consisted of patient consultations and education. In diabetes, interventions achieved significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Reviews also reported favorable reductions in blood pressure, improved medication adherence and reduced readmission rates in patients with heart failure, improved lung function in patients with respiratory conditions, and increased medication adherence in those with HIV/AIDs. Literature reporting economic and utilization outcomes were limited and mostly focused on pharmacy interventions in diabetes. In some cases, community pharmacy services demonstrated a decrease in medical and health care costs in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: We found that community pharmacists can improve clinical outcomes in a wide array of chronic diseases, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. More robust studies are needed to further assess the impact of specific interventions on economic and utilization outcomes.

16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(4): 1276-1284, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As healthcare reimbursement shifts from being volume to value-focused, new delivery models aim to coordinate care and improve quality. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model is one such model that aims to deliver coordinated, accessible healthcare to improve outcomes and decrease costs. It is unclear how the types of delivery systems in which PCMHs operate differentially impact outcomes. We aim to describe economic, utilization, quality, clinical, and patient satisfaction outcomes resulting from PCMH interventions operating within integrated delivery and finance systems (IDFS), government systems including Veterans Administration, and non-integrated delivery systems. METHODS: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase from 2004 to 2017. Observational studies and clinical trials occurring within the USA that met PCMH criteria (as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality), addressed ambulatory adults, and reported utilization, economic, clinical, processes and quality of care, or patient satisfaction outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty-four studies were included. Twenty-four percent were within IDFS, 29% were within government systems, and 47% were within non-IDFS. IDFS studies reported decreased emergency department use, primary care use, and cost relative to other systems after PCMH implementation. Government systems reported increased primary care use relative to other systems after PCMH implementation. Clinical outcomes, processes and quality of care, and patient satisfaction were assessed heterogeneously or infrequently. DISCUSSION: Published articles assessing PCMH interventions generally report improved outcomes related to utilization and cost. IDFS and government systems exhibit different outcomes relative to non-integrated systems, demonstrating that different health systems and populations may be particularly sensitive to PCMH interventions. Both the definition of PCMH interventions and outcomes measured are heterogeneous, limiting the ability to perform direct comparisons or meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
17.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(9): 995-1000, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456493

RESUMO

The shift to a value-based health care system has incentivized providers to implement strategies that improve population health outcomes while minimizing downstream costs. Given their accessibility and expanded clinical care models, community pharmacists are well positioned to join interdisciplinary care teams to advance efforts in effectively managing the health of populations. In this Viewpoints article, we discuss the expanded role of community pharmacists and potential barriers limiting the uptake of these services. We then explore strategies to integrate, leverage, and sustain these services in a value-based economy. Although community pharmacists have great potential to improve population health outcomes because of their accessibility and clinical interventions that have demonstrated improved outcomes, pharmacists are not recognized as merit-based incentive eligible providers and, as a result, may be underutilized in this role. Additional barriers include lack of formal billing codes, which limits patient access to services such as hormonal contraception; fragmentation of Medicare, which prevents alignment of medical and pharmaceutical costs; and continued fee-for-service payment models, which do not incentivize quality. Despite these barriers, there are several opportunities for continued pharmacist involvement in new care models such as patient-centered medical homes (PCMH), accountable care organizations, and other value-based payment models. Community pharmacists integrated within PCMHs have demonstrated improved hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure control, and immunization rates. Likewise, other integrated, value-based models that used community pharmacists to provide medication therapy management services have reported a positive return on investment in overall health care costs. To uphold these efforts and effectively leverage community pharmacist services, we recommend the following: (a) recognition of pharmacists as providers to facilitate full participation in performance-based models, (b) increased integration of pharmacists in emerging delivery and payment models with rapid cycle testing to further clarify the role and value of pharmacists, and (c) enhanced collaborative relationships between pharmacists and other providers to improve interdisciplinary care. DISCLOSURES: This article was funded by the National Association of Chain Drug Stores. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to report.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/normas , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/organização & administração , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/normas , Redução de Custos/normas , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/normas , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Medicare/organização & administração , Medicare/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Papel Profissional , Estados Unidos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212657

RESUMO

Landfill and street waste pickers in South Africa are responsible for collecting substantial volumes of recyclable material, saving municipalities millions and contributing to a generally healthier and cleaner environment. Yet waste pickers continue to operate on the fringes of the economy and are exposed to many risks, particularly health risks which have a direct impact on the sustainability of their livelihoods. This article, using a mixed-methods approach, explores the health risks to which waste pickers working on nine different landfills in the country are exposed. The socio-ecological framework was used to analyse and present the results. A key finding was that waste picking, by its very nature, lends itself to innumerable health risks, but that these can be lessened through concerted and collaborative efforts on the part of landfill operators, local authorities and other stakeholders. Integrating the 'self-employed' waste pickers into the formal waste management system should be comprehensive in order to limit health risks. Waste pickers will never have a risk-free environment, but facilitative policies and supportive institutions can collaboratively help to mitigate these risks and create a more sustainable and dignified working environment towards sustaining their livelihoods.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Exposição Ocupacional , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Eliminação de Resíduos , África do Sul
19.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(7): 753-760, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Value-based contracts link medication payments to performance measures with the ultimate goal of lowering costs while improving patient outcomes. Previous multiple sclerosis (MS) value-based contracts have focused on indicators easily collected from claims or electronic health record data as their value-based outcomes, even though numerous other MS clinical indicators of interest exist. Uncertainty remains regarding which MS indicators are most meaningful to all stakeholders affected by a value-based contract. OBJECTIVE: To identify meaningful MS indicators among key stakeholders for the purpose of informing a value-based contract for MS medications. METHODS: Using a modified Delphi method, we surveyed 26 diverse stakeholders, including 8 patients and caregivers; 9 providers (neurologists, nurses, physician assistants, and specialty pharmacists); 2 pharmaceutical company representatives; 5 payers; and 2 pharmacy benefits managers. A list of 12 MS indicators was created from subject matter expert consultation and a literature review. All stakeholders reported on the meaningfulness and value of these 12 indicators through a 5-point Likert scale and forced selection of the 3 most meaningful indicators. All nonpatient stakeholders were additionally surveyed on collection feasibility of the same 12 indicators using a 5-point Likert scale. We defined consensus as ≥ 75% agreement on the meaningfulness and feasibility of an indicator (Likert scores 4 or 5). We performed a Fisher's exact test to assess differences between nonpatient and patient stakeholder rankings of indicators. RESULTS: Consensus was reached for at least 1 indicator for all questions after 2 rounds. "Worsening physical disability" and "functional impairment" achieved 92% agreement on a Likert-scale question assessing indicator value, and 100% of participants selected "worsening physical disability" when asked to choose the 3 most meaningful indicators. "MS flares requiring an emergency department visit" and "MS flares requiring inpatient admission" were rated as the 2 most feasibly collected indicators (both received 89% agreement). CONCLUSIONS: Using the Delphi method, we identified that disability and functional impairment are meaningful MS indicators to diverse stakeholders. These findings support the incorporation of important patient-reported outcomes into value-based contracts for MS medications. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by a grant from Express Scripts Holding Company, which provided research funding to the UPMC Center for Value-Based Pharmacy Initiatives for work on this study. Swart, Neilson, Good, and Parekh are employed by the UPMC Center for Value-Based Pharmacy Initiatives. Manolis is the Chief Pharmacy Officer of UPMC Health Plan, and Shrank was the Chief Medical Officer of UPMC Insurance Services Division at the time of this study. Henderson is employed by Express Scripts Holding Company.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/economia , Técnica Delfos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/economia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Cardiol Ther ; 8(1): 135-143, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Value-based contracts (VBCs) that link drug payments to disease-related performance metrics aim to increase the value and lower the cost of medications by aligning incentives and sharing risk between payers and pharmaceutical manufacturers. This study sought to identify outcome measures that are meaningful to key stakeholders to inform VBCs for coronary artery disease (CAD) medications. METHODS: We administered a modified Delphi survey to gather expert opinion from a diverse panel of patients (n = 9), cardiologists (n = 4), primary care physicians (n = 5), payers (n = 2), pharmacy benefits managers (n = 3), and pharmaceutical company representatives (n = 2). A list of 16 CAD-associated clinical indicators was generated from the literature and expert consultation. Delphi participants rated the importance of each outcome on a five-point Likert scale, and selected the three most meaningful outcomes. We defined consensus as ≥ 75% agreement on the importance of an outcome (Likert scores 4 or 5 or selection of an outcome as most meaningful). RESULTS: Eleven of 13 outcomes reached consensus for importance on the Likert scale. "Preventing heart attacks" was selected as the most meaningful outcome (80%) while "preventing death" ranked second (76%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study results verify the utility of a widely used clinical CAD outcome measure, myocardial infarction events, for the purpose of pharmaceutical value-based contracting.

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