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1.
Environ Int ; 146: 106306, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To characterize air pollution exposure at a fine spatial scale, different exposure assessment methods have been applied. Comparison of associations with health from different exposure methods are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of air pollution based on hybrid, land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models with natural cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We followed a Dutch national cohort of approximately 10.5 million adults aged 29+ years from 2008 until 2012. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as underlying time scale and adjusted for several potential individual and area-level socio-economic status confounders to evaluate associations of annual average residential NO2, PM2.5 and BC exposure estimates based on two stochastic models (Dutch LUR, European-wide hybrid) and deterministic Dutch dispersion models. RESULTS: Spatial variability of PM2.5 and BC exposure was smaller for LUR compared to hybrid and dispersion models. NO2 exposure variability was similar for the three methods. Pearson correlations between hybrid, LUR and dispersion modeled NO2 and BC ranged from 0.72 to 0.83; correlations for PM2.5 were slightly lower (0.61-0.72). In general, all three models showed stronger associations of air pollutants with respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality than with natural cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Associations of air pollutants estimated by LUR were generally weaker compared to associations of air pollutants estimated by hybrid and dispersion models. For natural cause mortality, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.030 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.019, 1.041) per 10 µg/m3 for hybrid modeled NO2, a HR of 1.003 (95% CI: 0.993, 1.013) per 10 µg/m3 for LUR modeled NO2 and a HR of 1.015 (95% CI: 1.005, 1.024) per 10 µg/m3 for dispersion modeled NO2. CONCLUSION: Air pollution was positively associated with natural cause and cause-specific mortality, but the strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Our study documents that the selected exposure model may contribute to heterogeneity in effect estimates of associations between air pollution and health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 67, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211425

RESUMO

Two vector-borne infections have emerged and spread throughout the north-western part of Europe in the last decade: Bluetongue virus serotype-8 (BTV-8) and the Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The objective of the current study was to compare three statistical methods when applied in a syndromic surveillance context for the early detection of emerging diseases in cattle in the Netherlands. Since BTV-8 and SBV both have a negative effect on milk production in dairy cattle, routinely collected bulk milk recordings were used to compare the three statistical methods in their potential to detect drops in milk production during a period of seven years in which BTV-8 and SBV emerged. A Cusum algorithm, Bayesian disease mapping model, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis using the space-time scan statistic were performed and their performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity was compared. Spatiotemporal cluster analysis performed best for early detection of SBV in cattle in the Netherlands with a relative sensitivity of 71% compared to clinical surveillance and 100% specificity in a year without major disease outbreaks. Sensitivity to detect BTV-8 was low for all methods. However, many alerts of reduced milk production were generated several weeks before the week in which first clinical suspicions were reported. It cannot be excluded that these alerts represent the actual first signs of BTV-8 infections in cattle in the Netherlands thus leading to an underestimation of the sensitivity of the syndromic surveillance methods relative to the clinical surveillance in place.

3.
Environ Int ; 134: 105237, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677802

RESUMO

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) has been shown in population-level studies to reduce anxiety and psychological distress. This study investigated how exposure to one's everyday natural outdoor environments over one week influenced mood among residents of four European cities including Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands) and Kaunas (Lithuania). Participants (n = 368) wore a smartphone equipped with software applications to track location and mood (using mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) software), for seven consecutive days. We estimated random-effects ordered logistic regression models to examine the association between mood (positive and negative affect), and exposure to green space, represented by two binary variables indicating exposure versus no exposure to NOE using GPS tracking and satellite and aerial imagery, 10 and 30 min prior to participants' completing the EMA. Models were adjusted for home city, day of the week, hour of the day, EMA survey type, residential NOE exposure, and sex, age, education level, mental health status and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In addition, we tested for heterogeneity of effect by city, sex, age, residential NOE exposure and mental health status. Within 10 min of NOE exposure, compared to non-exposure, we found that overall there was a positive relationship with positive affect (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.81) of EMA surveys, and non-significant negative association with negative affect (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10). When stratifying, associations were consistently found for Stoke-on-Trent inhabitants and men, while findings by age group were inconsistent. Weaker and less consistent associations were found for exposure 30 min prior to EMA. Our findings support increasing evidence of psychological and mental health benefits of exposure to natural outdoor environments, especially among urban populations such as those included in our study.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cidades , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Países Baixos , Espanha , Reino Unido
4.
Environ Int ; 134: 105173, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of studies on beneficial effects of the natural outdoor environment (NOE) on health, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relations between amount, quality, use and experience of the NOE; and physical activity, social contacts and mental well-being. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data on GIS-derived measures of residential surrounding greenness (NDVI), NOE within 300 m, and audit data on quality of the streetscape were combined with questionnaire data from 3947 adults in four European cities. These included time spent in NOE (use); and perceived greenness, and satisfaction with and importance given to the NOE (experience). Physical activity, social contacts and mental health were selected as key outcome indicators. Descriptive and multilevel analyses were conducted both on pooled data and for individual cities. RESULTS: More minutes spent in the NOE were associated with more minutes of physical activity, a higher frequency of social contacts with neighbors, and better mental well-being. Perceived greenness, satisfaction with and importance of the NOE, were other strong predictors of the outcomes, while GIS measures of NOE and streetscape quality were not. We found clear differences between the four cities. CONCLUSIONS: Use and experience of the natural outdoor environment are important predictors for beneficial effects of the natural outdoor environment and health. Future research should focus more on these aspects to further increase our understanding of these mechanisms, and needs to take the local context into account.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Fenótipo , Características de Residência
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 639: 75-83, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial research has shown that perceived exposure can influence symptom reporting, regardless of actual exposure. The impact of this phenomenon on the interpretation of results from epidemiological research on environmental determinants of symptoms is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare associations between modeled exposures, the perceived level of these exposures and reported symptoms (non-specific symptoms, sleep disturbances, and respiratory symptoms) for three different environmental exposures (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), noise, and air pollution). These environmental exposures vary in the degree to which they can be sensorially observed. METHODS: Participant characteristics, perceived exposures, and self-reported health were assessed with a baseline (n = 14,829, 2011/2012) and follow-up (n = 7905, 2015) questionnaire in the Dutch population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Cohort (AMIGO). Environmental exposures were estimated at the home address using spatial models. Cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models were used to examine the associations between modeled and perceived exposures, and reported symptoms. RESULTS: The extent to which exposure sources could be observed by participants likely influenced correlations between modeled and perceived exposure as correlations were moderate for air pollution (rSp = 0.34) and noise (rSp = 0.40), but less so for RF-EMF (rSp = 0.11). Perceived exposures were consistently associated with increased symptom scores (respiratory, sleep, non-specific). Modeled exposures, except RF-EMF, were associated with increased symptom scores, but these associations disappeared or strongly diminished when accounted for perceived exposure in the analyses. DISCUSSION: Perceived exposure has an important role in symptom reporting. When environmental determinants of symptoms are studied without acknowledging the potential role of both modeled and perceived exposures, there is a risk of bias in health risk assessment. However, the etiological role of exposure perceptions in relation to symptom reporting requires further research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído , Opinião Pública , Ondas de Rádio , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974010

RESUMO

This study investigated whether residential availability of natural outdoor environments (NOE) was associated with contact with NOE, overall physical activity and physical activity in NOE, in four different European cities using objective measures. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in Barcelona (Spain); Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Doetinchem (The Netherlands); and Kaunas (Lithuania). Smartphones were used to collect information on the location and physical activity (overall and NOE) of around 100 residents of each city over seven days. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to determine residential NOE availability (presence/absence of NOE within 300 m buffer from residence), contact with NOE (time spent in NOE), overall PA (total physical activity), NOE PA (total physical activity in NOE). Potential effect modifiers were investigated. Participants spent around 40 min in NOE and 80 min doing overall PA daily, of which 11% was in NOE. Having residential NOE availability was consistently linked with higher NOE contact during weekdays, but not to overall PA. Having residential NOE availability was related to NOE PA, especially for our Barcelona participants, people that lived in a city with low NOE availability.


Assuntos
Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Características de Residência , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Environ Res ; 159: 629-638, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Better mental health has been associated with exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE). However, comprehensive studies including several indicators of exposure and outcomes, potential effect modifiers and mediators are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We used novel, objective measures to explore the relationships between exposure to NOE (i.e. residential availability and contact) and different indicators of mental health, and possible modifiers and mediators. METHODS: A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in: Barcelona, Spain; Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; Doetinchem, Netherlands; Kaunas, Lithuania. Participants' exposure to NOE (including both surrounding greenness and green and/or blue spaces) was measured in terms of (a) amount in their residential environment (using Geographical Information Systems) and (b) their contact with NOE (using smartphone data collected over seven days). Self-reported information was collected for mental health (psychological wellbeing, sleep quality, vitality, and somatisation), and potential effect modifiers (gender, age, education level, and city) and mediators (perceived stress and social contacts), with additional objective NOE physical activity (potential mediator) derived from smartphone accelerometers. RESULTS: Analysis of data from 406 participants showed no statistically significant associations linking mental health and residential NOE exposure. However, NOE contact, especially surrounding greenness, was statistically significantly tied to better mental health. There were indications that these relationships were stronger for males, younger people, low-medium educated, and Doetinchem residents. Perceived stress was a mediator of most associations, and physical activity and social contacts were not. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that contact with NOE benefits mental health. Our results also suggest that having contact with NOE that can facilitate stress reduction could be particularly beneficial.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
8.
Vet Rec ; 181(9): 236, 2017 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823993

RESUMO

The work reported here is an initial attempt to find an alternative method by which the safety of live-attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines for the respiratory tract of young chickens can be assessed. The current recommended methods involve either the subjective assessment of respiratory signs, or raise ethical concerns, as in the case of the intracerebral pathogenicity index. The two methods considered here were the use of tracheal organ cultures to assess the level of ciliostasis which the vaccines caused to the ciliated epithelium of the trachea and the incorporation of a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli in the inoculum in order to induce colibacillosis. Both methods were successful in confirming the safety of the two vaccines. However, these results are only preliminary and more studies need to be performed to determine whether one or both methods have potential, either to replace the existing statutory tests, or provide a test which might be useful during the development stages of a new live-attenuated NDV vaccine.


Assuntos
Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Galinhas , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos
9.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(11): 830-837, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We followed up, in 2013, the subjects who lived near the Athens International Airport and had participated in the cross-sectional multicountry HYENA study in 2004-2006. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise with the incidence of hypertension and other cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: From the 780 individuals who participated in the cross-sectional study, 537 were still living in the same area and 420 accepted to participate in the follow-up. Aircraft and road traffic noise exposure was based on the estimations conducted in 2004-2006, linking geocoded residential addresses of the participants to noise levels. We applied multiple logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The incidence of hypertension was significantly associated with higher aircraft noise exposure during the night. Specifically, the OR for hypertension per 10 dB increase in Lnight aircraft noise exposure was 2.63 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.71). Doctor-diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia was significantly associated with Lnight aircraft noise exposure, when prevalent and incident cases were considered with an OR of 2.09 (95% CI 1.07 to 4.08). Stroke risk was also increased with increasing noise exposure but the association was not significant. Twenty-four-hour road traffic noise associations with the outcomes considered were weaker and less consistent. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our cohort study suggests that long-term exposure to aircraft noise, particularly during the night, is associated with incident hypertension and possibly, also, cardiovascular effects.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia , Habitação , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
10.
Noise Health ; 19(88): 154-164, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615546

RESUMO

Environmental noise and health studies seldom address the positive effect of environments with high acoustic quality. Sound quality, in turn, is influenced by a large number of factors, including the spatial-physical characteristics of a neighborhood. In general, these characteristics cannot be retrieved from existing databases. In this article, we describe the design of an audit instrument and demonstrate its value for gathering information about these characteristics of neighborhoods. The audit instrument used was derived from research in other fields than environmental health. The instrument was tested in 33 neighborhoods in the Dutch cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Arnhem. In these neighborhoods, more or less homogeneous subareas were identified that were subject of the audit. The results show that the audit approach is suitable to gather neighborhood data that are relevant for the sound quality of neighborhoods. Together with survey data, they provide information that could further the field of soundscape and health. Several suggestions for improvement of the audit instrument were made.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Características de Residência , Som , Cidades , Humanos , Países Baixos , Ruído
11.
Int J Health Geogr ; 16(1): 16, 2017 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recognises the importance of natural environments for human health. Evidence for natural environment-health associations comes largely from single countries or regions, with varied approaches to measuring natural environment exposure. We present a standardised approach to measuring neighbourhood natural environment exposure in cities in different regions of Europe. METHODS: The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in TYPical populations of different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) study aimed to explore the mechanisms linking natural environment exposure and health in four European cities (Barcelona, Spain; Doetinchem, the Netherlands; Kaunas, Lithuania; and Stoke-on-Trent, UK). Common GIS protocols were used to develop a hierarchy of natural environment measures, from simple measures (e.g., NDVI, Urban Atlas) using Europe-wide data sources, to detailed measures derived from local data that were specific to mechanisms thought to underpin natural environment-health associations (physical activity, social interaction, stress reduction/restoration). Indicators were created around residential addresses for a range of straight line and network buffers (100 m-1 km). RESULTS: For simple indicators derived from Europe-wide data, we observed differences between cities, which varied with different indicators (e.g., Kaunas and Doetinchem had equal highest mean NDVI within 100 m buffer, but mean distance to nearest natural environment in Kaunas was more twice that in Doetinchem). Mean distance to nearest natural environment for all cities suggested that most participants lived close to some kind of natural environments (64 ± 58-363 ± 281 m; mean 180 ± 204 m). The detailed classification highlighted marked between-city differences in terms of prominent types of natural environment. Indicators specific to mechanisms derived from this classification also captured more variation than the simple indicators. Distance to nearest and count indicators showed clear differences between cities, and those specific to the mechanisms showed within-city differences for Barcelona and Doetinchem. CONCLUSIONS: This paper demonstrates the feasibility and challenges of creating comparable GIS-derived natural environment exposure indicators across diverse European cities. Mechanism-specific indicators showed within- and between-city variability that supports their utility for ecological studies, which could inform more specific policy recommendations than the traditional proxies for natural environment access.


Assuntos
Cidades/epidemiologia , Planejamento Ambiental/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur Heart J ; 38(13): 983-990, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417138

RESUMO

Aims: We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results: We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Conclusion: Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
13.
Environ Res ; 150: 8-13, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232297

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded "absolutely agree" to the statement "I am sensitive to noise", comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Comportamento de Doença , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato
14.
Scand J Public Health ; 44(2): 159-67, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26573907

RESUMO

AIMS: In this study, the aim was to develop and test an urban green space indicator for public health, as proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, in order to support health and environmental policies. METHODS: We defined the indicator of green space accessibility as a proportion of an urban population living within a certain distance from a green space boundary. We developed a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based method and tested it in three case studies in Malmö, Sweden; Kaunas, Lithuania; and Utrecht, The Netherlands. Land use data in GIS from the Urban Atlas were combined with population data. Various population data formats, maximum distances to green spaces, minimum sizes of green spaces, and different definitions of green spaces were studied or discussed. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that with increasing size of green space and decreased distance to green space, the indicator value decreased. As compared to Malmö and Utrecht, a relatively bigger proportion of the Kaunas population had access to large green spaces, at both shorter and longer distances. Our results also showed that applying the method of spatially aggregated population data was an acceptable alternative to using individual data. CONCLUSIONS: Based on reviewing the literature and the case studies, a 300 m maximum linear distance to the boundary of urban green spaces of a minimum size of 1 hectare are recommended as the default options for the indicator. The indicator can serve as a proxy measure for assessing public accessibility to urban green spaces, to provide comparable data across Europe and stimulate policy actions that recognise the importance of green spaces for sustainable public health.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lituânia , Países Baixos , Suécia
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 123(8): 785-91, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25816055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter air pollution (PM) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: In this study we evaluated whether annual exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with systemic inflammation, which is hypothesized to be an intermediate step to cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Six cohorts of adults from Central and Northern Europe were used in this cross-sectional study as part of the larger ESCAPE project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects). Data on levels of blood markers for systemic inflammation-high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen-were available for 22,561 and 17,428 persons, respectively. Land use regression models were used to estimate cohort participants' long-term exposure to various size fractions of PM, soot, and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, traffic intensity on the closest street and traffic load within 100 m from home were used as indicators of traffic air pollution exposure. RESULTS: Particulate air pollution was not associated with systemic inflammation. However, cohort participants living on a busy (> 10,000 vehicles/day) road had elevated CRP values (10.2%; 95% CI: 2.4, 18.8%, compared with persons living on a quiet residential street with < 1,000 vehicles/day). Annual NOx concentration was also positively associated with levels of CRP (3.2%; 95% CI: 0.3, 6.1 per 20 µg/m3), but the effect estimate was more sensitive to model adjustments. For fibrinogen, no consistent associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Living close to busy traffic was associated with increased CRP concentrations, a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, it remains unclear which specific air pollutants are responsible for the association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Análise de Regressão , Fuligem/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Noise Health ; 16(73): 380-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25387534

RESUMO

Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.


Assuntos
Acústica , Cidades , Projetos de Pesquisa , Som , Planejamento de Cidades , Humanos , Ruído , Urbanização
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 122(9): 919-25, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24835336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collected, and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual air pollution exposures were predicted from land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). The exposures were: PM2.5 [particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter], coarse PM (PM between 2.5 and 10 µm), PM10 (PM ≤ 10 µm), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Random-effects meta-analysis was used for pooled effect estimation. RESULTS: A total of 99,446 study participants were included, 3,086 of whom developed stroke. A 5-µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 exposure was associated with 19% increased risk of incident stroke [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.62]. Similar findings were obtained for PM10. The results were robust to adjustment for an extensive list of cardiovascular risk factors and noise coexposure. The association with PM2.5 was apparent among those ≥ 60 years of age (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.87), among never-smokers (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.88), and among participants with PM2.5 exposure < 25 µg/m3 (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.77). CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ruído dos Transportes , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ ; 348: f7412, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24452269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). DESIGN: Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. SETTING: Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. PARTICIPANTS: 100 166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), 2.5-10 µm (PMcoarse), and <10 µm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. RESULTS: 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 µg/m(3) increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 µg/m(3) increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 µg/m(3) for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5) and below 40 µg/m(3) for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Angina Instável/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Health ; 12: 89, 2013 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24131577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a number of studies have found an association between aircraft noise and hypertension, there is a lack of evidence on associations with other cardiovascular disease. For road traffic noise, more studies are available but the extent of possible confounding by air pollution has not been established. METHODS: This study used data from the Hypertension and Environmental Noise near Airports (HYENA) study. Cross-sectional associations between self-reported 'heart disease and stroke' and aircraft noise and road traffic noise were examined using data collected between 2004 and 2006 on 4712 participants (276 cases), who lived near airports in six European countries (UK, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Greece, Italy). Data were available to assess potential confounding by NO2 air pollution in a subsample of three countries (UK, Netherlands, Sweden). RESULTS: An association between night-time average aircraft noise and 'heart disease and stroke' was found after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders for participants who had lived in the same place for ≥ 20 years (odds ratio (OR): 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.51) per 10 dB (A)); this association was robust to adjustment for exposure to air pollution in the subsample. 24 hour average road traffic noise exposure was associated with 'heart disease and stroke' (OR: 1.19 (95% CI 1.00, 1.41), but adjustment for air pollution in the subsample suggested this may have been due to confounding by air pollution. Statistical assessment (correlations and variance inflation factor) suggested only modest collinearity between noise and NO2 exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to aircraft noise over many years may increase risks of heart disease and stroke, although more studies are needed to establish how much the risks associated with road traffic noise may be explained by air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Aeronaves , Automóveis , Exposição Ambiental , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e54021, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23342063

RESUMO

Since 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands and goats were the most likely source of the human outbreaks in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Little was known about the consequences of these outbreaks for those professional care providers directly involved. The aim of this survey was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against C. burnetii among Dutch livestock veterinarians and to determine possible risk factors. Single blood samples from 189 veterinarians, including veterinary students in their final year, were collected at a veterinary conference and a questionnaire was filled in by each participant. The blood samples were screened for IgG antibodies against phase I and phase II antigen of C. burnetii using an indirect immunofluorescent assay, and for IgM antibodies using an ELISA. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 123 (65.1%) out of 189 veterinarians. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity were number of hours with animal contact per week, number of years graduated as veterinarian, rural or sub urban living area, being a practicing veterinarian, and occupational contact with swine. Livestock veterinarians should be aware of this risk to acquire an infection with C. burnetii. Physicians should consider potential infection with C. burnetii when treating occupational risk groups, bearing in mind that the burden of disease among veterinarians remains uncertain. Vaccination of occupational risk groups should be debated.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Gado/microbiologia , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Países Baixos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Febre Q/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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