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1.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609530

RESUMO

AIMS: To systematically review the literature on the efficacy and tolerability of the major chronotherapeutic treatments of bipolar disorders (BD) - bright light therapy (LT), dark therapy (DT), treatments utilizing sleep deprivation (SD), melatonergic agonists (MA), interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) and cognitive behavioral therapy adapted for BD (CBTI-BP) - and propose treatment recommendations based on a synthesis of the evidence. METHODS: PRISMA-based systematic review of the literature. RESULTS: The acute antidepressant (AD) efficacy of LT was supported by several open-label studies, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 1 pseudorandomized controlled trial. SD showed rapid, acute AD response rates of 43.9%, 59.3% and 59.4% in 8 case series, 11 uncontrolled, studies, and 1 RCT respectively. Adjunctive DT obtained significant, rapid anti-manic results in one RCT and one controlled study. The 7 studies on MA yielded very limited data on acute antidepressant activity, conflicting evidence of both antimanic and maintenance efficacy, and support from two case series of improved sleep in both acute and euthymic states. IPSRT monotherapy for bipolar II depression had acute response rates of 41%, 67% and 67.4% in two open studies and one RCT, respectively; as adjunctive therapy for bipolar depression in one RCT, and efficacy in reducing relapse in 2 RCTs. Among euthymic BD subjects with insomnia, a single RCT found CBTI-BP effective in delaying manic relapse and improving sleep. Chronotherapies were generally safe and well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome literature on the adjunctive use of chronotherapeutic treatments for BP is variable, with evidence bases that differ in size, study quality, level of evidence, and non-standardized treatment protocols. Evidence-informed practice recommendations are offered.

2.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper was to present Social Rhythm Therapy, which has been modified from Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy, by drawing on implementation science to describe a process that for integrating this into routine clinical practice. METHOD: On the basis of the principles of user-centred design, we aimed to modify an existing psychosocial therapy for bipolar disorder to make this readily translatable into a range of clinical practice models which could be further modified based on feedback from end users. RESULTS: Social Rhythm Therapy has been adapted from Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy which has demonstrated efficacy in research settings. The adaptation was developed in order to facilitate implementation of some of the key components in routine clinical practice. It is short, relatively simple, easily learned and intended to be flexible. CONCLUSIONS: Social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder has many characteristics which may make it translatable into clinical practice in different settings. There is a need for studies into the clinical effectiveness of this intervention that has been modified from an evidence-based intervention.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 258: 151-158, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressed individuals often perceive neutral facial expressions as emotional. Neurobiological underpinnings of this effect remain unclear. We investigated the differences in prefrontal cortical (PFC) activation in depressed individuals vs. healthy controls (HC) during recognition of emotional and neutral facial expressions using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). METHOD: In Experiment 1, 33 depressed individuals and 20 HC performed the Emotion Intensity Rating task in which they rated intensity of facial emotional expressions. In Experiment 2, a different set of participants (18 depressed individuals and 16 HC) performed the same task while their PFC activation was measured using fNIRS. RESULTS: Both experiments showed that depressed individuals were slower and less accurate in recognizing neutral, but not happy or fearful, facial emotional expressions. Experiment 2 revealed that lower accuracy for neutral facial emotional expressions was associated with lower right PFC activation in depressed individuals, but not HC. In addition, depressed individuals, compared to HC, had lower right PFC activation during recognition of happy facial expressions. LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size CONCLUSIONS: Recognition of neutral facial expressions is impaired in depressed individuals. Greater impairment corresponds to lower right PFC activation during neutral face processing. Recognition of happy facial expressions is comparable for depressed individuals and HC, but the former have significantly lower right PFC activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ability of depressed individuals to discriminate neutral and emotional signals in the environment may be affected by aberrant functioning of right PFC.

5.
Am J Psychother ; 72(2): 47-57, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070452

RESUMO

Bipolar II disorder causes significant suffering among patients and their families, some of which may be alleviated by psychotherapy alone or as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Psychotherapies may be more effective if modified to meet the specific needs of patients with bipolar II disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Humanos
8.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 27(3): 165-180, 2019 May/Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is an affect- and relationally focused, time-limited treatment supported by research spanning >4 decades. IPT focuses on stressful interpersonal experiences of loss, life changes, disputes, and social isolation. It emphasizes the role of relationships in recovery. This scoping review describes, within a historical perspective, IPT's evolution as an evidence-supported treatment of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: English-language publications (n = 1119) identified via EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases (1974-2017), augmented with manual reference searches, were coded for clinical focus, population demographics, format, setting, publication type, and research type. Quantitative and qualitative analyses identified IPT publications' characteristics and trends over four epochs of psychotherapy research. RESULTS: IPT literature primarily focused on depression (n = 772 articles; 69%), eating disorders (n = 135; 12%), anxiety disorders (n = 68; 6%), and bipolar disorder (n = 44; 4%), with rising publication rates and numbers of well-conducted randomized, controlled trials over time, justifying inclusion in consensus treatment guidelines. Research trends shifted from efficacy trials to effectiveness studies and population-based dissemination initiatives. Process research examined correlates of improvement and efficacy moderators. Innovations included global initiatives, prevention trials, and digital, web-based training and treatment. CONCLUSION: Sparked by clinical innovations and scientific advances, IPT has evolved as an effective treatment of psychiatric disorders across the lifespan for diverse patients, including underserved clinical populations. Future research to elucidate mechanisms of change, improve access, and adapt to changing frameworks of psychopathology and treatment planning is needed. IPT addresses the universal centrality of relationships to mental health, which is as relevant today as it was over 40 years ago.

10.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867418808382, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: To derive new criteria sets for defining manic and hypomanic episodes (and thus for defining the bipolar I and II disorders), an international Task Force was assembled and termed AREDOC reflecting its role of Assessment, Revision and Evaluation of DSM and other Operational Criteria. This paper reports on the first phase of its deliberations and interim criteria recommendations. METHOD:: The first stage of the process consisted of reviewing Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and recent International Classification of Diseases criteria, identifying their limitations and generating modified criteria sets for further in-depth consideration. Task Force members responded to recommendations for modifying criteria and from these the most problematic issues were identified. RESULTS:: Principal issues focussed on by Task Force members were how best to differentiate mania and hypomania, how to judge 'impairment' (both in and of itself and allowing that functioning may sometimes improve during hypomanic episodes) and concern that rejecting some criteria (e.g. an imposed duration period) might risk false-positive diagnoses of the bipolar disorders. CONCLUSION:: This first-stage report summarises the clinical opinions of international experts in the diagnosis and management of the bipolar disorders, allowing readers to contemplate diagnostic parameters that may influence their clinical decisions. The findings meaningfully inform subsequent Task Force stages (involving a further commentary stage followed by an empirical study) that are expected to generate improved symptom criteria for diagnosing the bipolar I and II disorders with greater precision and to clarify whether they differ dimensionally or categorically.

11.
Psychiatry Res ; 269: 681-687, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273892

RESUMO

Childhood emotional abuse impairs emotion regulation and increases risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Mounting evidence suggests that decreased resting-state high-frequency heart rate variability, an index of parasympathetic function, represents a transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation. We propose that adults with histories of major depressive disorder and childhood emotional abuse represent a subpopulation at particularly high risk to exhibit deficits in parasympathetic control. The current report compared resting-state high-frequency heart rate variability across three groups: (1) depressed women who endorsed childhood emotional abuse (N = 11); (2) depressed women without childhood emotional abuse (N = 19), and (3) never-depressed women without childhood emotional abuse (N = 22). Participants completed childhood trauma self-reports and assessment of resting-state high-frequency heart rate variability. ANCOVAs comparing the three groups after controlling for health-related, psychiatric, and respiratory factors were significant. Depressed women with childhood emotional abuse exhibited lower high-frequency heart rate variability than both groups without childhood emotional abuse (d's ranging from 0.81-0.92). Surprisingly, psychiatric factors were non-significant predictors, indicating that childhood emotional abuse may have a unique impact on autonomic functioning. Future research on larger samples is needed to disentangle the relative and synergistic burdens of depression and childhood trauma on physiologic indicators of emotion dysregulation.

12.
Compr Psychiatry ; 86: 123-130, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment of maternal depression with psychotherapy has been shown to confer indirect benefits to school-age offspring with psychiatric disorders. The current study sought to understand mechanisms by which improvement in depressed mothers, with and without histories of trauma and treated with psychotherapy, produce changes in children who struggle with psychiatric illnesses themselves. We hypothesized that maternal history of childhood trauma would moderate the relationship between maternal and child outcomes and that increased positive and decreased negative parenting behaviors would mediate the relationship between maternal and child outcomes. We also examined whether maternal history of trauma would moderate the mediational effects of parenting behaviors. METHODS: Participants were dyads (n = 62) of mothers with major depressive disorder and their children, ages 7-18, with at least one internalizing disorder. Mothers were treated with nine sessions of psychotherapy and children were treated openly in the community. Dyads were evaluated every three months over one year. RESULTS: Maternal improvement in depressive symptoms was associated, in a lagged fashion, with child improvement in functioning six months later. There was a significant interaction of time and change in maternal symptoms [F(1, 45) = 5.84, p = 0.02], where change in maternal depressive symptoms from baseline to six months was robustly associated with change in child functioning from baseline to 12 months (ß = 0.49, p = 0.0002). Maternal history of childhood sexual abuse moderated the association between change in maternal and child depressive symptoms [F(1,87) = 5.8, p = 0.02], and maternal history of physical neglect moderated the relationship between improvement in maternal depression and improvement in child functioning [F(1,36) = 4.34, p = 0.04], where significant associations between maternal and child outcomes were only found in mothers without histories of sexual abuse or physical neglect. Increase in positive parenting strategies (acceptance) by mothers mediated 6-month lagged associations between maternal and child outcomes, but reduction in negative parenting strategies (psychological control) did not. Maternal history of childhood emotional neglect moderated the mediational model, such that improved positive parenting did not explain lagged improvement in child depression among the subset of mothers with childhood histories of emotional neglect. CONCLUSIONS: In dyads comprised of depressed mothers and school-age children with internalizing disorders, children improved when mothers improved, but not among those whose mothers who had histories of sexual abuse or physical neglect. Increased use of positive parenting strategies among mothers accounted for lagged relationships between improvement in maternal depressive symptoms and improvement in child functioning. This pattern was not, however, observed among mothers with childhood histories of emotional neglect. Interventions that directly enhance positive parenting and more rapidly change these behaviors may hasten improvement in offspring. Offspring of depressed mothers with histories of early trauma are at high risk for poor outcomes, even when their mothers receive depression treatment.

13.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 21(5): 543-551, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536256

RESUMO

To elucidate (1) the challenges associated with under-recognition of bipolar disorder in obstetric settings, (2) barriers pregnant and postpartum women with bipolar disorder face when trying to access psychiatric care, and (3) how obstetric settings can identify such women and connect them with mental health services. Structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 pregnant and postpartum women recruited from obstetric practices who scored ≥ 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder I, II, or not otherwise specified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics. Interviews were transcribed, and resulting data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Most participants (n = 19, 79.17%) did not have a clinical diagnosis of bipolar disorder documented in their medical records nor had received referral for treatment during pregnancy (n = 15, 60%). Of participants receiving pharmacotherapy (n = 14, 58.33%), most were treated with an antidepressant alone (n = 10, 71.42%). Most medication was prescribed by an obstetric (n = 4, 28.57%) or primary care provider (n = 7, 50%). Qualitative interviews indicated that participants want their obstetric practices to proactively screen for, discuss and help them obtain mental health treatment. Women face challenges in securing mental health treatment appropriate to their bipolar illness. Obstetric providers provide the bulk of medical care for these women and need supports in place to (1) better recognize bipolar disorder, (2) avoid inappropriate prescribing practices for women with undiagnosed bipolar disorder, and (3) ensure women are referred to specialized treatment when needed.

14.
Psychiatr Q ; 89(1): 183-190, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28699029

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder among pregnant women has deleterious effects on birth and child outcomes and is currently under-detected, not addressed effectively, or exacerbated through inappropriate treatment. The goal of this study was to identify perspectives of pregnant and postpartum women with bipolar disorder on barriers and facilitators to psychiatric treatment during pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted with pregnant and postpartum women who scored ≥ 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder I, II or not otherwise specified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5.0. Interviews were transcribed, and resulting data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to identify barriers and facilitators to bipolar disorder treatment access in pregnancy. Participant identified barriers included perception that psychiatric providers lack training and experience in the treatment of psychiatric illness during pregnancy, are reluctant to treat bipolar disorder among pregnant women, and believe that pharmacotherapy is not needed for psychiatric illness during pregnancy. Facilitators included participants' perception that providers' acknowledge risks associated with untreated or undertreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and provide psycho-education about the risks, benefits and alternatives to pharmacotherapy. Psychiatric providers are critically important to the treatment of bipolar disorder and need knowledge and skills necessary to provide care during the perinatal period. Advancing psychiatric providers' knowledge/skills may improve access to pharmacotherapy for pregnant women with bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
15.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(2)2018 Mar/Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28703949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is associated with marked morbidity and mortality. Quetiapine, the treatment with greatest evidence for efficacy in BP-II depression, is associated with metabolic burden. Psychotherapy, a treatment with few side effects, has not been systematically evaluated in BP-II. This study compared psychotherapy plus placebo to psychotherapy plus pharmacotherapy as treatments for BP-II depression. METHODS: From 2010 to 2015, unmedicated adults (n = 92) with DSM-IV-TR BP-II depression were randomly assigned to weekly sessions of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT) plus placebo or IPSRT plus quetiapine and followed for 20 weeks. RESULTS: For primary outcomes, IPSRT + quetiapine yielded significantly faster improvement on 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (F1,115.4 = 3.924, P = .048) and greater improvement on Young Mania Rating Scale (F58.5 = 4.242, P = .044) scores. Both groups, however, improved significantly over time with comparable response rates (≥ 50% reduction in depression scores): 67.4% (62/92) in the entire sample, with no between-group differences. Those randomly assigned to their preferred treatment were 4.5 times more likely to respond (OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.20-16.77, P = .026). IPSRT + quetiapine assignment was associated with significantly higher body mass index over time (F67.96 = 6.671, P = .012) and rates of dry mouth (79% v. 58%; χ² = 4.0, P = .046) and a trend toward more complaints of oversedation (100% vs 92%; χ² = 3.4, P = .063). CONCLUSIONS: IPSRT plus quetiapine resulted in greater symptomatic improvement but also more side effects than IPSRT alone. A subset of participants improved with IPSRT alone, although absence of an inactive comparator limits interpretation of this finding. Receipt of preferred treatment was associated with better outcomes. Harms, benefits, and preferences should be considered when recommending treatments for BP-II depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01133821.

16.
J Psychother Integr ; 27(3): 381-394, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225450

RESUMO

Psychotherapists routinely use both specific and non-specific strategies to deliver empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Psychotherapy adherence monitoring has traditionally focused on assessing therapist use of EST-specific strategies (to distinguish between ESTs), paying less attention to non-specific techniques common to multiple psychotherapies. This study used the Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale (CSPRS) to evaluate therapist use of both specific and non-specific techniques in two affect-focused ESTs for depression. Blinded raters evaluated 180 recorded sessions of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP). Because IPT and BSP both emphasize attention to affective states and developing a warm therapy relationship, we expected overlap across scales measuring therapist warmth, empathy, and focus on feelings. In contrast, we expected differences in scales measuring therapist directiveness, as well as IPT- and BST-specific interventions. Results showed raters displayed good inter-rater reliability on primary subscales and could discriminate between two treatments with considerable overlap. Both IPT and BSP therapists used similarly high levels of non-specific, facilitative interventions. Expectedly, IPT therapists were more directive and used more IPT-specific strategies, while BSP therapists utilized more non-directive, supportive strategies. Unexpectedly, BSP therapists showed greater focus on feelings than IPT therapists. Exploratory analyses suggested that greater focus on feelings in early sessions was associated with greater depressive symptom reduction in the first eight weeks of treatment for both ESTs. Additional treatment adherence research is needed to investigate both shared and distinctive features of ESTs, as well as the effect of the relative use of specific versus non-specific interventions on psychotherapy outcomes.

17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 78: 98-106, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social relationships play important roles in emotional health, and are common targets of psychotherapeutic interventions. To better evaluate social relationship structure and function in the context of psychotherapy trials, this study introduces and psychometrically evaluates the Social Network Quality (SNQ) scales, which supplement the Social Network Index (SNI). The original SNI evaluates social network structure (i.e., extent of participation in diverse social roles and number of social relationships). The SNQ adds two social network quality scales evaluating levels of: (a) positivity/support, and (b) negativity/stress, within and across specific social roles. METHOD: Participants included 168 depressed mothers of psychiatrically-ill children participating in a psychotherapy treatment trial utilizing interpersonal therapy (IPT) and brief supportive therapy (BSP). The SNI, SNQ, and measures of social functioning and psychopathology were collected at baseline and at 3-month intervals over a one-year period. RESULTS: SNQ scores showed meaningful concurrent relationships with measures of social support and interpersonal distress, as well as incremental utility in explaining variance in relationship and mood outcomes above and beyond the SNI. SNQ scores also detected global and relationship-specific changes in social relationship quality following psychotherapy treatment. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates that SNQ scales reliably assess psychotherapy-induced changes in relationship quality.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Mães/psicologia , Psicoterapia Breve , Apoio Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Depress Anxiety ; 34(2): 118-126, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28060443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother-child interactions-and never among mother-adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother-daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother-daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. RESULTS: While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. CONCLUSIONS: Vagal responses observed in control mother-daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother-daughter dyads.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Affect Disord ; 208: 363-368, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are substantial gaps in understanding near-term precursors of suicidal ideation in bipolar II disorder. We evaluated whether repeated patient-reported mood and energy ratings predicted subsequent near-term increases in suicide ideation. METHODS: Secondary data were used from 86 depressed adults with bipolar II disorder enrolled in one of 3 clinical trials evaluating Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy and/or pharmacotherapy as treatments for depression. Twenty weeks of daily mood and energy ratings and weekly Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were obtained. Penalized regression was used to model trajectories of daily mood and energy ratings in the 3 week window prior to HDRS Suicide Item ratings. RESULTS: Participants completed an average of 68.6 (sd=52) days of mood and energy ratings. Aggregated across the sample, 22% of the 1675 HDRS Suicide Item ratings were non-zero, indicating presence of at least some suicidal thoughts. A cross-validated model with longitudinal ratings of energy and depressed mood within the three weeks prior to HDRS ratings resulted in an AUC of 0.91 for HDRS Suicide item >2, accounting for twice the variation when compared to baseline HDRS ratings. Energy, both at low and high levels, was an earlier predictor than mood. LIMITATIONS: Data derived from a heterogeneous treated sample may not generalize to naturalistic samples. Identified suicidal behavior was absent from the sample so it could not be predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Prediction models coupled with intensively gathered longitudinal data may shed light on the dynamic course of near-term risk factors for suicidal ideation in bipolar II disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Affect Disord ; 203: 265-274, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals diagnosed with bipolar 1 disorder (BP1), bipolar 2 disorder (BP2), or major depressive disorder (MDD) experience varying levels of depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms. Clarifying symptom heterogeneity is meaningful, as even subthreshold symptoms may impact quality of life and treatment outcome. The MOODS Lifetime self-report instrument was designed to capture the full range of depressive and (hypo)manic characteristics. METHODS: This study applied clustering methods to 347 currently depressed adults with MDD, BP2, or BP1 to reveal naturally occurring MOODS subgroups. Subgroups were then compared on baseline clinical and demographic characteristics and as well as depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms over twenty weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Four subgroups were identified: (1) high depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms (N=77, 22%), (2) moderate depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms (N=115, 33%), (3) low depressive and moderate (hypo)manic symptoms (N=82, 24%), and (4) low depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms (N=73, 21%). Individuals in the low depressive/moderate (hypo)manic subgroup had poorer quality of life and greater depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. Individuals in the high and moderate severity subgroups had greater substance use, longer duration of illness, and greater (hypo)manic symptoms throughout treatment. Treatment outcomes were primarily driven by individuals diagnosed with MDD. LIMITATIONS: The sample was drawn from three randomized clinical trials. Validation is required for this exploratory study. CONCLUSIONS: After validation, these subgroups may inform classification and personalized treatment beyond categorical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Adulto , Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
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