Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
1.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(7): 929-933, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the natural history and management of pneumolabyrinth, with particular attention to illustrative cases where hearing improved after a fluid-filled vestibule was restored. PATIENTS: Adults at two academic medical centers with documented pneumolabyrinth on computed tomography (CT) imaging. INTERVENTION: Middle ear surgery or observation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cochlear and vestibular symptoms are reported. Inner ear function was documented with audiometry and vestibular testing. Resolution of pneumolabyrinth was documented on imaging for a subset of patients. RESULTS: All patients presented with severe hearing loss following temporal bone fracture (three cases), penetrating trauma (one case), or stapedectomy (three cases). The radiographic finding was typically seen when imaging was obtained in the first few days after the injury. In two cases, vestibular symptoms resolved and partial recovery of hearing was seen despite a relatively long time interval between the inciting event and repair. CONCLUSION: Management of pneumolabyrinth is individualized based on the mechanism of injury, severity of symptoms, and timing of the imaging study. In most cases, the barrier between the middle ear and inner ear is expected to heal with rapid resolution of pneumolabyrinth. Late repair is demonstrated to result in favorable recovery in selected cases. The presence of air in the vestibule cannot be assumed to be indicative of irreversible inner ear damage.

2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(4): 102512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a case of cochlear implantation (CI) for a patient with an otic capsule-sparing traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to review the relevant literature. METHODS: A patient with history of TBI received a CI for bilateral profound hearing loss. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify and compare similar cases. RESULTS: A 36-year-old male with a history of hearing loss from right acute labyrinthitis was referred for bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) after a fall with associated injury to the central auditory nervous system (CANS) including the brainstem. On the right, behavioral acoustic threshold measurements were in the profound range with absent OAEs. On the left, testing revealed no measurable behavioral acoustic thresholds and variable physiologic measures. A right unilateral cochlear implant was performed with most recent follow-up demonstrating speech awareness thresholds of 25 dB HL with excellent detection of all 6 Ling sounds. However, the patient also continues to suffer from other neurologic sequelae related to his TBI, which challenge his ability to demonstrate objective and subjective benefit. A systematic review of the literature demonstrates variable outcomes for patients with TBI and SNHL. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with profound SNHL and TBI present a distinct rehabilitative challenge for clinicians. CI may provide meaningful benefit in this population, though care should be taken in patient selection and counseling.

3.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(4): 444-451, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in prelingually-deafened, late-implanted patients. DATA SOURCES: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed in February 2018 using SCOPUS for the intersection of "cochlear implant," "prelingual," "deaf," and "delay." REVIEW METHODS: Two independent reviewers screened all abstracts and titles for relevance, with conflicts resolved by either the primary or senior author. All articles passing this screen were subjected to a full-text review, during which the primary and senior author each examined manuscripts for inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool was used to assess potential sources of systematic error, and postoperative clinical outcomes were collected at the latest clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Twenty-eight articles were yielded in the final systematic review, accounting for 542 patients. For open-set sentence scores, 10 studies representing 240 patients showed an overall estimated improvement of 44.6% (95% CI: 38.0-51.2%). In terms of quality of life, studies generally showed improvement when looking at specific emotional, social, or hearing-specific domains, but not in global measures. Nonuser rates ranged from 0 to 9.5%. CONCLUSION: Despite performance that is generally poorer than what is generally seen in "traditional" candidates, prelingually-deafened, late-implanted (PL-LI) CI users can experience benefit in terms of both QOL and audiometric scores. The wide range of performance that is reported in the literature highlights the importance of careful patient counseling.

5.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(3): e342-e348, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acquired encephaloceles of the temporal bone may be traumatic, spontaneous, or from chronic ear disease or previous surgery. Iatrogenic encephaloceles arise in the setting of previous mastoidectomy and traditionally involve both bony dehiscence and dural injury. We aim to classify and analyze the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment options for patients with iatrogenic tegmen defects and encephaloceles of the temporal bone. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single tertiary academic center. PATIENTS: Subjects with iatrogenic tegmen defects and encephaloceles of the temporal bone were included. INTERVENTION: Patient demographics, history, symptoms, radiographic data, intraoperative findings, management, follow-up, and outcomes were recorded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures included patient characteristics, time from primary otologic surgery to surgical repair, location of the defect, and management strategy including surgical approach, methods, and follow-up. RESULTS: Iatrogenic tegmen injuries or encephaloceles were identified in 18 patients and divided into intentional or unintentional. The latter group presented immediately, early, or late, as determined by intraoperative identification or from delayed symptoms. Eleven patients presented late with previously unrecognized encephaloceles. Compared with patients presenting with incidentally noted tegmen dehiscence during revision mastoidectomy, a significant proportion of patients with late encephaloceles had BMI ≥30 kg/m (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The majority of iatrogenic encephaloceles are unintentional, unrecognized, and may present many years after primary surgery. Similar to spontaneous encephaloceles of the temporal bone, obesity is associated with iatrogenic encephaloceles, although the rate of progression and timing is unclear. We recommend primary repair of any unintentional tegmen defect encountered during mastoid surgery, especially in obese patients.

6.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disease characterized by fibroinflammatory infiltrates rich in IgG4+ plasma cells that can present as isolated tumor-like lesions of the head and neck. The objective of the current study was to describe the cranial base manifestations of IgG4-RD. METHODS: Review of all cases at three tertiary-referral centers since disease description in 2003. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified at a median age at presentation of 58 years (IQR, 38-65; 55% male). Ten (91%) patients had isolated skull base masses without systemic disease. Cranial neuropathies were commonly observed in the abducens (45%), trigeminal (18%), and facial nerves (18%). Lesions frequently involved the cavernous sinus (55%; 6/11) with extension to the petroclival junction in 50% (3/6). Infiltration of the internal auditory canal was present in 27% (3/11) with one case demonstrating erosion of the bony labyrinth. Preliminary clinical diagnoses commonly included nasopharyngeal cancer, pituitary macroadenoma, cholesteatoma, and meningioma / multiple meningioma syndrome. Local biopsy demonstrated >30 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-powered field or an IgG4:IgG ratio greater than 40% in all cases. Rapid and durable clinical improvement was seen in 91% following corticosteroid and rituximab therapy. CONCLUSIONS: IgG4-RD nonspecifically presents as a rare cause of the skull base mass. Often presenting without concomitant systemic disease, local diagnostic biopsies are required. Obtaining adequate tissue specimen is complicated by densely fibrotic cranial base lesions that are frequently in close proximity to critical neurovascular structures. Primary medical therapy with corticosteroids and rituximab is effective in most patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652973

RESUMO

Mutations in the neurofibromin 2 (NF2) gene were among the first genetic alterations implicated in meningioma tumorigenesis, based on analysis of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who not only develop vestibular schwannomas but later have a high incidence of meningiomas. The NF2 gene product, merlin, is a tumor suppressor that is thought to link the actin cytoskeleton with plasma membrane proteins and mediate contact-dependent inhibition of proliferation. However, the early recognition of the crucial role of NF2 mutations in the pathogenesis of the majority of meningiomas has not yet translated into useful clinical insights, due to the complexity of merlin's many interacting partners and signaling pathways. Next-generation sequencing studies and increasingly sophisticated NF2-deletion-based in vitro and in vivo models have helped elucidate the consequences of merlin loss in meningioma pathogenesis. In this review, we seek to summarize recent findings and provide future directions toward potential therapeutics for this tumor.

8.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(2): 139-148, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931221

RESUMO

Bone conduction implants transfer sound to the inner ear through direct vibration of the skull. In patients with skull base tumors and infections, these devices can bypass a dysfunctional ear canal and/or middle ear. Though not all skull base surgery patients opt for bone conduction hearing rehabilitation, a variety of these devices have been developed and marketed over time. This article reviews the evolution and existing state of bone conduction technology.

9.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(9): e849-e855, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To highlight superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) involving the superior petrosal sinus (SPS), and to propose a novel classification system for SPS associated SSCD with potential surgical implications. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective review. SETTING: Three tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS: All patients diagnosed with SPS associated SSCD (1/2000 to 8/2016). Radiographic findings and clinical symptoms were analyzed. INTERVENTION: Surgical repair or observation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Radiographic findings and clinical symptoms were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-three dehiscences (30 patients) involving the SPS were identified. The average age at the time of presentation was 52.5 years (median, 56.9; range, 4.9-75.3 yr), and 53.3% of patients were men. Three patients had bilateral SPS associated SSCD. The most common associated symptoms at presentation were episodic vertigo (63.6%), subjective hearing loss (60.6%), and aural fullness (57.6%). Four distinct types of dehiscence were identified: class Ia. SSCD involving a single dehiscence into an otherwise normal appearing SPS; class Ib. SSCD involving a single dehiscence into an apparent venous anomaly of the SPS; class IIa. SSCD involving two distinct dehiscences into the middle cranial fossa and the SPS; class IIb. SSCD involving a single confluent dehiscence into the middle cranial fossa and the SPS. CONCLUSIONS: SSCD involving the SPS represents a small but distinct subset of SSCD cases. This scenario can create a unique set of symptoms and surgical challenges when intervention is sought. Clinical findings and considerations for surgical intervention are provided to facilitate effective diagnosis and management.


Assuntos
Cavidades Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva/classificação , Doenças do Labirinto/classificação , Canais Semicirculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cavidades Cranianas/cirurgia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Doenças do Labirinto/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Labirinto/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Canais Semicirculares/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(8): e712-e721, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To date, less than 150 cases of middle ear adenomatous neuroendocrine tumors (MEANTs) have been reported in the English literature. The objective of this study was to provide a contemporary analysis of these rare lesions and develop a consensus-driven staging system. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional retrospective histopathologic, radiologic, and clinical review. SETTING: Six tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS: Thirty-two patients with pathologically confirmed MEANT. INTERVENTION: Surgical resection, adjuvant therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical manifestations, outcomes, staging system. RESULTS: Patients commonly presented with progressive conductive or mixed hearing loss (90%), aural fullness (50%), and tonal tinnitus (46%). Pulsatile tinnitus (16%), carcinoid syndrome (4%), and facial nerve paresis (4%) were less commonly observed. MEANTs frequently mimicked temporal bone paraganglioma (31%) and cholesteatoma (15%) at presentation. According to a novel T/N/M/S staging system (S = secretory tumor) proposed herein, there were 6 (19%) T1, 19 (59%) T2, and 7 (22%) T3 MEANTs. T3 tumors were significantly more likely to undergo subtotal or near total resection compared with lower staged tumors secondary to adherence to critical neurovascular structures such as the petrous internal carotid artery and facial nerve (p = 0.027). Patients with T3 MEANTs were more likely to experience multiple recurrences, require adjuvant therapy with a somatostatin analogue, or develop permanent facial nerve paresis compared with lower staged tumors. At last follow up, no patients with T1 MEANTs had developed recurrence, whereas 37% (7/19) of patients with T2 MEANT and 57% (4/7) of patients with T3 MEANT experienced either disease recurrence after gross total resection (GTR) or regrowth of known residual tumor requiring additional surgery at a median duration of 72 months (95% CI, 24-84). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MEANTs can present with nonspecific symptomatology that overlaps with more commonly encountered middle ear lesions. MEANT exhibits a proclivity for recurrence according to T-stage and long-term clinical follow up is necessary, particularly for advanced stage tumors.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias da Orelha/patologia , Orelha Média/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neurosurgery ; 82(2): E44-E46, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309641

RESUMO

Question 1: Does intraoperative facial nerve monitoring during vestibular schwannoma surgery lead to better long-term facial nerve function? Target Population: This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery regardless of tumor characteristics. Recommendation: Level 3: It is recommended that intraoperative facial nerve monitoring be routinely utilized during vestibular schwannoma surgery to improve long-term facial nerve function. Question 2: Can intraoperative facial nerve monitoring be used to accurately predict favorable long-term facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma surgery? Target Population: This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery. Recommendation: Level 3: Intraoperative facial nerve can be used to accurately predict favorable long-term facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma surgery. Specifically, the presence of favorable testing reliably portends a good long-term facial nerve outcome. However, the absence of favorable testing in the setting of an anatomically intact facial nerve does not reliably predict poor long-term function and therefore cannot be used to direct decision-making regarding the need for early reinnervation procedures. Question 3: Does an anatomically intact facial nerve with poor electromyogram (EMG) electrical responses during intraoperative testing reliably predict poor long-term facial nerve function? Target Population: This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery. Recommendation: Level 3: Poor intraoperative EMG electrical response of the facial nerve should not be used as a reliable predictor of poor long-term facial nerve function. Question 4: Should intraoperative eighth cranial nerve monitoring be used during vestibular schwannoma surgery? Target Population: This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery with measurable preoperative hearing levels and tumors smaller than 1.5 cm. Recommendation: Level 3: Intraoperative eighth cranial nerve monitoring should be used during vestibular schwannoma surgery when hearing preservation is attempted. Question 5: Is direct monitoring of the eighth cranial nerve superior to the use of far-field auditory brain stem responses? Target Population: This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery with measurable preoperative hearing levels and tumors smaller than 1.5 cm. Recommendation: Level 3: There is insufficient evidence to make a definitive recommendation. The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-manage-ment-patients-vestibular-schwannoma/chapter_4.


Assuntos
Nervo Facial/fisiologia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Nervo Vestibulococlear/fisiologia , Adulto , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/etiologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Traumatismos do Nervo Vestibulococlear/etiologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Vestibulococlear/prevenção & controle
14.
Neurosurgery ; 82(2): E35-E39, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309683

RESUMO

Question 1: What is the overall probability of maintaining serviceable hearing following stereotactic radiosurgery utilizing modern dose planning, at 2, 5, and 10 yr following treatment? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering stereotactic radiosurgery should be counseled that there is moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation at 2 yr, moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation at 5 yr, and moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation at 10 yr. Question 2: Among patients with AAO-HNS (American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery hearing classification) class A or GR (Gardner-Robertson hearing classification) grade I hearing at baseline, what is the overall probability of maintaining serviceable hearing following stereotactic radiosurgery, utilizing modern dose planning, at 2, 5, and 10 yr following treatment? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering stereotactic radiosurgery should be counseled that there is a high probability (>75%-100%) of hearing preservation at 2 yr, moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation at 5 yr, and moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation at 10 yr. Question 3: What patient- and tumor-related factors influence progression to nonserviceable hearing following stereotactic radiosurgery using ≤13 Gy to the tumor margin? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering stereotactic radiosurgery should be counseled regarding the probability of successful hearing preservation based on the following prognostic data: the most consistent prognostic features associated with maintenance of serviceable hearing are good preoperative word recognition and/or pure tone thresholds with variable cut-points reported, smaller tumor size, marginal tumor dose ≤12 Gy, and cochlear dose ≤4 Gy. Age and sex are not strong predictors of hearing preservation outcome. Question 4: What is the overall probability of maintaining serviceable hearing following microsurgical resection of small to medium-sized sporadic vestibular schwannomas early after surgery, at 2, 5, and 10 yr following treatment? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering microsurgical resection should be counseled that there is a moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation immediately following surgery, moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation at 2 yr, moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation at 5 yr, and moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation at 10 yr. Question 5: Among patients with AAO-HNS class A or GR grade I hearing at baseline, what is the overall probability of maintaining serviceable hearing following microsurgical resection of small to medium-sized sporadic vestibular schwannomas early after surgery, at 2, 5, and 10 yr following treatment? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering microsurgical resection should be counseled that there is a moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation immediately following surgery, moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation at 2 yr, moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation at 5 yr, and moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation at 10 yr. Question 6: What patient- and tumor-related factors influence progression to nonserviceable hearing following microsurgical resection of small to medium-sized sporadic vestibular schwannomas? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering microsurgical resection should be counseled regarding the probability of successful hearing preservation based on the following prognostic data: the most consistent prognostic features associated with maintenance of serviceable hearing are good preoperative word recognition and/or pure tone thresholds with variable cut-points reported, smaller tumor size commonly less than 1 cm, and presence of a distal internal auditory canal cerebrospinal fluid fundal cap. Age and sex are not strong predictors of hearing preservation outcome. Question 7: What is the overall probability of maintaining serviceable hearing with conservative observation of vestibular schwannomas at 2, 5, and 10 yr following diagnosis? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering observation should be counseled that there is a high probability (>75%-100%) of hearing preservation at 2 yr, moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation at 5 yr, and moderately low probability (>25%-50%) of hearing preservation at 10 yr. Question 8: Among patients with AAO-HNS class A or GR grade I hearing at baseline, what is the overall probability of maintaining serviceable hearing with conservative observation at 2 and 5 yr following diagnosis? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering stereotactic radiosurgery should be counseled that there is a high probability (>75%-100%) of hearing preservation at 2 yr, and moderately high probability (>50%-75%) of hearing preservation at 5 yr. Insufficient data were available to determine the probability of hearing preservation at 10 yr for this population subset. Question 9: What patient and tumor-related factors influence progression to nonserviceable hearing during conservative observation? Recommendation: Level 3: Individuals who meet these criteria and are considering observation should be counseled regarding probability of successful hearing preservation based on the following prognostic data: the most consistent prognostic features associated with maintenance of serviceable hearing are good preoperative word recognition and/or pure tone thresholds with variable cut-points reported, as well as nongrowth of the tumor. Tumor size at the time of diagnosis, age, and sex do not predict future development of nonserviceable hearing during observation. The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-manage-ment-patients-vestibular-schwannoma/chapter_3.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Neurosurgery ; 82(2): E29-E31, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309699

RESUMO

QUESTION 1: What is the expected diagnostic yield for vestibular schwannomas when using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate patients with previously published definitions of asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss? TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adults with an asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss on audiometric testing. RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: On the basis of an audiogram, it is recommended that MRI screening on patients with ≥10 decibels (dB) of interaural difference at 2 or more contiguous frequencies or ≥15 dB at 1 frequency be pursued to minimize the incidence of undiagnosed vestibular schwannomas. However, selectively screening patients with ≥15 dB of interaural difference at 3000 Hz alone may minimize the incidence of MRIs performed that do not diagnose a vestibular schwannoma. QUESTION 2: What is the expected diagnostic yield for vestibular schwannomas when using an MRI to evaluate patients with asymmetric tinnitus, as defined as either purely unilateral tinnitus or bilateral tinnitus with subjective asymmetry? TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adults with subjective complaints of asymmetric tinnitus. RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: It is recommended that MRI be used to evaluate patients with asymmetric tinnitus. However, this practice is low yielding in terms of vestibular schwannoma diagnosis (<1%). QUESTION 3: What is the expected diagnostic yield for vestibular schwannomas when using an MRI to evaluate patients with a sudden sensorineural hearing loss? TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adults with a verified sudden sensorineural hearing loss on an audiogram. RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: It is recommended that MRI be used to evaluate patients with a sudden sensorineural hearing loss. However, this practice is low yielding in terms of vestibular schwannoma diagnosis (<3%). The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-management-patients-vestibular-schwannoma/chapter_2.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroma Acústico/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Audiometria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroma Acústico/complicações , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zumbido/etiologia
16.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(1): e20-e27, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine surgical and device-related cochlear implant practice patterns across centers in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of the American Neurotology Society (ANS). RESULTS: A total of 81 surveys were returned from ANS members who report regular involvement in cochlear implant care. Overall there was a broad distribution in age and clinical experience, with most respondents reporting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accreditation in neurotology and employment at an academic center. The annual volume of cochlear implant surgeries varied considerably across centers. Eighty percent of respondents report to offer all three Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved device brands at their center.In cases where hearing preservation is not a goal, 56% of respondents prefer a perimodiolar electrode design, while 44% prefer a lateral wall electrode. With regard to insertion technique for scala tympani access, 64% prefer inserting through the round window (RW) membrane, 26% prefer an extended round window (ERW) approach, while only 10% prefer a cochleostomy. In cases where hearing preservation is a goal of surgery, 86% of respondents prefer a lateral wall electrode design, while only 14% prefer a perimodiolar electrode design. With regard to insertion technique, 86% prefer RW insertion, while only 9% prefer an ERW approach, and only 5% prefer a cochleostomy. Respondents who prefer RW electrode insertion more commonly use a lateral wall electrode, whereas those who prefer an ERW or cochleostomy approach more commonly use a periomodiolar electrode (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant greater number of surgeons that prefer lateral wall electrodes (p < 0.001) and RW insertion (p < 0.001) for hearing preservation cases compared with non-hearing preservation cases. For implantation of a hypothetical patient with significant residual hearing, within the range of hybrid device candidacy, the great majority of surgeons prefer a conventional length electrode and only 29% prefer to implant a hybrid device.In cases where hearing preservation is a goal, the overwhelming majority of respondents (96%, n = 74) reported using at least one form of steroid application. Ninety-two percent (n = 71) used intraoperative intravenous steroids, 55% (n = 42) prescribed postoperative oral steroids, 44% (n = 34) bathed the middle ear with steroids during surgery, and 30% (n = 23) prescribed preoperative oral steroids.Together, 65% of respondents use a variation of the tight subperiosteal pocket technique for internal device fixation, 19% prefer a bony well and trough with tie-downs, 10% prefer a bony well and trough without tie-downs, and 5% prefer a screw fixation system. Of the 50 who prefer utilizing a subperiosteal pocket, 31 (62%) incorporate a bony trough and 19 (38%) perform a subperiosteal pocket alone without a bony trough. CONCLUSION: The results of this survey reflect the evolution in surgical and device-related preferences for cochlear implantation in the United States. An increasing number of surgeons prefer the RW approach for electrode insertion. When hearing preservation is not a goal, there is a near even preference for lateral wall and perimodiolar electrode designs; however, the great majority of surgeons prefer a lateral wall design when attempting to preserve residual acoustic hearing. Even in cases where substantial residual hearing exists, many surgeons prefer conventional length electrodes to hybrid designs. These changes reflect the prioritization of atraumatic surgery and parallel the development of thinner and more atraumatic electrodes.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/instrumentação , Implante Coclear/métodos , Neuro-Otologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
17.
Otol Neurotol ; 38(3): 400-407, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28192381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation, radiological features, and outcome of patients with plasmacytoma of the temporal bone. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective case series of all patients diagnosed with plasmacytoma of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2015. Comprehensive literature review of all previously published cases. RESULTS: A total of seven patients (average age, 57.3 yr; 57% women) met inclusion criteria. Three (43%) had a known history of multiple myeloma (MM). The most common symptoms at presentation included otalgia, headache, and dizziness (43%, each). Five (71%) presented with a vascular appearing middle ear mass visible on otoscopy. Four of these patients did not have an established history of MM and were referred with presumptive diagnoses of paraganglioma or endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST). The average maximum tumor diameter was 3.7 cm (median, 3.5 cm; range, 0.9-6.6 cm) and the most commonly involved temporal bone subsites were the middle ear and mastoid (71% each). MM was ultimately diagnosed in six cases (86%). In addition to the new cases presented herein, 18 previously published reports were analyzed. In the 25 aggregate cases, 44% of cases were associated with MM, and the mastoid (72%) and middle ear (53%) were the most commonly involved temporal bone subsites. CONCLUSION: Plasmacytoma of the temporal bone is rare, and the clinical presentation can closely mimic that of other primary temporal bone tumors. In patients with an established history of MM, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for temporal bone plasmacytoma, even when radiological features suggest an alternate diagnosis.


Assuntos
Plasmocitoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cranianas/patologia , Osso Temporal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Otol Neurotol ; 38(3): 416-422, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the safety profile and surgical outcomes of a combined transmastoid-middle cranial fossa suture "pull-through" technique for repair of lateral skull base defects. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Patients undergoing surgery for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and/or encephalocele. INTERVENTION: Combined transmastoid and middle fossa approach using suture pull-through technique. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures of interest were recurrence of CSF fistula or encephalocele, and postoperative air-bone gap. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included; mean age at surgery was 60 ±â€Š14 years and 65% of patients were female. The majority of defects involved both the tegmen mastoideum and tympani (69%); multiple defects were present in 11 patients. Small craniotomy (2 × 3 cm) was performed and defects were repaired using composite grafts constructed with fascia, bone, and/or cartilage, and dural substitute affixed with suture. The suture tail was left long and passed from the middle fossa through the defect into the mastoid. At average follow-up of 8.3 months, no patients of recurrent CSF leak were noted. Significant improvements in both mean pure-tone average and air-bone gap were noted for the entire cohort (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: A combined transmastoid-middle cranial fossa for the repair of lateral skull base CSF fistula and encephaloceles using the suture "pull-through" technique is efficacious and the complication profile is favorable. This method facilitates reliable placement of a composite graft in the center of lateral skull base defects through a small craniotomy that minimizes temporal lobe retraction.


Assuntos
Craniotomia/métodos , Encefalocele/cirurgia , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/cirurgia , Feminino , Fístula/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suturas
19.
Laryngoscope ; 127(3): 698-701, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To highlight the phenomenon of cholesteatoma arising from the vascular strip following tympanoplasty and tympanomastoidectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional retrospective chart review. METHODS: Consecutive adult and pediatric patients evaluated between 2000 and 2015 with acquired cholesteatoma arising from the skin of a prior vascular strip were identified. Patients with evidence of residual or recurrent cholesteatoma elsewhere in the middle ear, mastoid, or ear canal were excluded. RESULTS: Seventeen cases (71% female, 53% right-sided) were identified, and the mean age at presentation was 39.2 years. Patients presented on average 12.9 years following prior otologic surgery, which was most commonly tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy (59%). However, younger patients presented with symptoms sooner following prior surgery (r = 0.61, r2 = 0.37, P = 0.0095). The most common presenting symptom was otorrhea (76%). All patients were found to have mastoid cholesteatoma with bony erosion, and three patients exhibited additional tegmen or posterior fossa bone defects. The middle ear was not involved with cholesteatoma in any case. A canal wall down procedure was performed due to extensive bony canal erosion in 29% of cases. CONCLUSION: The vascular strip is an uncommon source of iatrogenic cholesteatoma that can present years following an otherwise uncomplicated otologic surgery. The findings presented herein highlight the importance of careful vascular strip orientation at the conclusion of otologic surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 127:698-701, 2017.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/epidemiologia , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/etiologia , Doença Iatrogênica/epidemiologia , Processo Mastoide/cirurgia , Membrana Timpânica/irrigação sanguínea , Timpanoplastia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Reoperação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Membrana Timpânica/patologia , Timpanoplastia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Laryngoscope ; 127(6): 1413-1419, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27557458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that bipolar electrical impedance measurements in perimodiolar cochlear implants (CIs) may be used to differentiate between perimodiolar insertion technique favoring proximity to the modiolus or lateral wall. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Bipolar impedances are a measure of electrical resistance between pairs of electrode contacts in a CI. Stimulation is through biphasic pulses at fixed frequency. Impedance measurements were made in real time through sequential sampling of electrode pairs. Perimodiolar electrodes were inserted in temporal bones using one of two techniques: 1) In the standard insertion technique (SIT), the electrode array slides along the lateral wall during insertion. 2) In the Advance Off Stylet (Cochlear Ltd. Sydney) technique (AOS), the electrode maintains modiolar contact throughout the insertion process. A set of 22 insertions were performed in temporal bone specimens using perimodiolar electrode arrays with both AOS and SIT. Buffered saline was used as a substitute for natural perilymph based on similar electrical conductivity properties. Impedance with and without stylet removal were recorded with a 30-second sampling window at final insertion depth. RESULTS: There is a significant difference in bipolar impedance measures between AOS and SIT, with impedances rising in measurements with stylet removal. Evaluation was based on two-sided analysis of variance considering technique and electrode with P < 0.025. CONCLUSION: Bipolar electrical impedance can be used to detect relative motion toward the modiolus inside the cochlea. This detection method has the potential to optimize intraoperative placement of perimodiolar electrode arrays during implantation. We anticipate that this will result in lower excitation thresholds and improved hearing outcome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 127:1413-1419, 2017.


Assuntos
Testes de Impedância Acústica/estatística & dados numéricos , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Impedância Elétrica , Testes de Impedância Acústica/métodos , Cadáver , Cóclea/cirurgia , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Osso Temporal/cirurgia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA