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1.
Neuroscience ; 370: 112-120, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736133

RESUMO

Under certain conditions pavlovian memories undergo reconsolidation, whereby the reactivated memory can be disrupted by manipulations such as knockdown of zif268. For instrumental memories, reconsolidation disruption is less well established. Our previous, preliminary data identified that there was an increase in Zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum (pDLS) after expression of an instrumental habit-like 'response' memory, but not an instrumental goal-directed 'place' memory on a T-maze task. Here, the requirement for Zif268 in the reconsolidation of a response memory was tested by knockdown of Zif268, using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infusion into the pDLS, at memory reactivation. Zif268 knockdown reduced response memory expression 72H, but not 7d later. Western blotting revealed a non-significant increase in Zif268 in the pDLS in rats using response memories, but there was no change in Zif268 expression in the hippocampus following retrieval of a place memory. Zif268 expression increased in the basolateral amygdala after memory reactivation whether a response or place strategy was used during reactivation. We propose that Zif268 expression in the basolateral amygdala may be linked to prediction error, generated by the absence of reward at reactivation. Taken together, these results suggest a complex role for Zif268 in the maintenance of instrumental memories.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hábitos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
2.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 11(1): 6, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27624701

RESUMO

The 2015 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes nootropic drugs should be available under prescription". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its seventh year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the current usage of nootropic drugs, their safety and whether it would be beneficial to individuals and society as a whole for them to be available under prescription. The Varsity Medical Debate was first held in 2008 with the aim of allowing students to engage in discussion about ethics and policy within healthcare. The event is held annually and it is hoped that this will allow future leaders to voice a perspective on the arguments behind topics that will feature heavily in future healthcare and science policy. This year the Oxford University Medical Society at the Oxford Union hosted the debate.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Ética Médica , Nootrópicos/provisão & distribução , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Reino Unido
3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 3(1): e000138, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27335651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that the airway resistance during tidal breathing would correlate with a particular pattern of increasing obesity, particularly when supine, and would differ between participants with and without ventilatory failure. METHODS: In our cross-sectional cohort study, 72 morbidly obese patients (40 males, 32 females, mean body mass index (BMI) 47.2) had measurements of both airways resistance (by impulse oscillometry (IOS)) and adiposity (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)). RESULTS: All measures of airways resistance increased in the supine position: total airways resistance (R5) +37% (p<0.0005); large airways resistance (R20) +29% (p<0.0005); and small airways resistance (R5-R20) +52% (p<0.0005). BMI was correlated with seated R5, seated R5-R20, supine R5 and supine R5-R20 (r=0.33 p<0.006, r=0.32 p<0.004, r=0.30 p<0.02 and r=0.36 p<0.04, respectively). Visceral adipose tissue mass was correlated with supine R5-20 (r=0.46 p<0.05). Supine measures of total airways resistance (R5) and large airways resistance (R20) differed between those with and without ventilatory failure, as did mean weight and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies a potentially detrimental effect of the supine posture on tidal breathing airways resistance in obese patients. This change is correlated most with visceral adipose tissue mass and the small airways. We were able to demonstrate that supine increases in airways resistance during tidal breathing, within obese patients, are different between those with and without ventilatory failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01380418; pre-results.

4.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 10: 8, 2015 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990024

RESUMO

The 2014 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes that genetic information should not be commoditised". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its sixth year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the circumstances under which genetic material should be considered patentable, the possible effects of this on the research and development of novel therapeutics, and the need for clear guidelines within this rapidly developing field.The Varsity Medical Debate was first held in 2008 with the aim of allowing students to engage in discussion about ethics and policy within healthcare. Two Oxford medical students, Mahiben Maruthappu and Sanjay Budheo founded the event. The event is held annually and it is hoped that this will allow future leaders to voice a perspective on the arguments behind topics that will feature heavily in future healthcare and science policy. This year the Oxford University Medical Society at the Oxford Union hosted the debate.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Ética Médica , Privacidade Genética/ética , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto
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