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1.
Med Pr ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that asbestos is no longer used in production in Poland, there are still new cases of asbestos-related diseases among workers previously exposed to asbestos dust. This situation is related to the specificity of the biological activity of this mineral; the health consequences of asbestos can manifest not only during the exposure but also many years after exposure cessation. The aim of the analysis was to assess the occurrence of occupational diseases among people exposed to asbestos dust, who were examined under the Amiantus program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research material consisted of the program cards filled by the doctors conducting the examinations as well as radiological images stored on the International Labour Organization form. The analysis covered 8049 people, including 37% of women surveyed in the years 2000-2017. RESULTS: In the group of former employees of asbestos processing plants, the occupational disease was diagnosed in 1993 people (25%), including 584 women (19%). The most common was asbestosis (76% of occupational diseases) and pleural disease (17%). Malignant neoplasms accounted for 7% of all cases in this group. The analysis showed an increase in the incidence of respiratory system diseases along with the age of the surveyed persons, their seniority at asbestos processing plants and an increase in cumulative exposure. The chest radiographs revealed radiological changes among 75% of the examined cases, whereas the changes entitling to diagnose asbestosis, according to the criteria applicable in Poland, occurred in 23% of the workers. The adoption of international criteria would increase the incidence of asbestosis as an occupational disease by 19% in the study group. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in the percentage of people with a diagnosed occupational disease provides evidence for the worsening health status of the former workers as well as a good detection of asbestos-related diseases among employees exposed to asbestos dust in the past. The results of the analysis indicate the need for undertaking a discussion in Poland on the implementation of international criteria for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Med Pr. 2019;70(6).

2.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101615, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, less is known about the potential impact of exposure to tobacco at an early age on HNC risk. METHODS: We analyzed individual-level data on ever tobacco smokers from 27 case-control studies (17,146 HNC cases and 17,449 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Without adjusting for tobacco packyears, we observed that younger age at starting tobacco use was associated with an increased HNC risk for ever smokers (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.97). However, the observed association between age at starting tobacco use and HNC risk became null after adjusting for tobacco packyears (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.19). In the stratified analyses on HNC subsites by tobacco packyears or years since quitting, no difference in the association between age at start and HNC risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis suggest that increased HNC risks observed with earlier age at starting tobacco smoking are largely due to longer duration and higher cumulative tobacco exposures.

3.
Oral Oncol ; 94: 47-57, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at re-evaluating the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between the combined (or joint) effect of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). We explored this issue considering bivariate spline models, where smoking intensity and duration were treated as interacting continuous exposures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled individual-level data from 33 case-control studies (18,260 HNC cases and 29,844 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. In bivariate regression spline models, exposures to cigarette smoking intensity and duration (compared with never smokers) were modeled as a linear piecewise function within a logistic regression also including potential confounders. We jointly estimated the optimal knot locations and regression parameters within the Bayesian framework. RESULTS: For oral-cavity/pharyngeal (OCP) cancers, an odds ratio (OR) >5 was reached after 30 years in current smokers of ∼20 or more cigarettes/day. Patterns of OCP cancer risk in current smokers differed across strata of alcohol intensity. For laryngeal cancer, ORs >20 were found for current smokers of ≥20 cigarettes/day for ≥30  years. In former smokers who quit ≥10  years ago, the ORs were approximately halved for OCP cancers, and ∼1/3 for laryngeal cancer, as compared to the same levels of intensity and duration in current smokers. CONCLUSION: Referring to bivariate spline models, this study better quantified the joint effect of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking on HNC risk, further stressing the need of smoking cessation policies.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.

5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

6.
Med Pr ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the work is to present the epidemiological situation in the field of occupational diseases in Poland in 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cases of occupational diseases identified in accordance with the applicable case law system in Poland and reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2016 were analyzed. The analysis includes nosologic units, their causative factors as well as gender and age of patients. Absolute numbers and incidence rates per 100 thousand employees were presented. RESULTS: In 2016, 2119 cases of occupational diseases were recorded in Poland, i.e. 14.3 cases per 100 thousand employed persons. The incidence rate was mainly caused by pneumoconioses (28.5%), infectious or parasitic diseases (27.2%), chronic voice disorders (9.7%), chronic diseases of the peripheral nervous system (8.6%) and hearing loss (6.3%). The highest incidence was recorded in the mining and quarrying (329.7 cases), agriculture and forestry (23.8 cases), manufacturing (20 cases) and education (17.9 cases) and healthcare and social work activities (17.7 cases). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with 2015, there was an increase in the number of cases of occupational diseases by 1.2%, which was influenced mainly by a larger (by 181 cases) number of pneumoconiosis. The epidemiological situation resulting from occupational diseases in our country, although it covers all identified cases, should be assessed with caution because the suspicion arises underestimation of certain diseases, especially cancer. Med Pr 2018;69(6).

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3927, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254314

RESUMO

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.

8.
Med Pr ; 69(5): 531-538, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the paper is to present statistical data on the occurrence of occupational diseases among healthcare and social workers in Poland in 2009-2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cards certifying that a case of occupational disease had been diagnosed in a patient belonging to this occupational group, received by the Central Register of Occupational Diseases, served as the basis of the study. Data is presented in absolute numbers and incidence rates. In the analysis, disease categories, voivodships and occupations were taken into account. RESULTS: In 2009-2016, as many as 1462 cases of occupational diseases were diagnosed for healthcare workers. In 2016, the number of cases was 42.6% lower than in 2009. Mean annual incidence rate in these years was 26.3 cases per 100 thousand workers. The most frequent were: infectious and parasitic diseases (64.8% of cases), peripheral nervous system diseases (9.6%), dermal diseases (8.9%), locomotor (8.3%), and chronic vocal organ disorders (3.2%). Among infectious or parasitic diseases, the most cases were viral hepatitis (56%) and tuberculosis (39%). Almost every second case of occupational disease in healthcare workers was detected in the nurses (47.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of occupational diseases in total and in the most frequent categories continued to decrease. One of the reasons for the decline is the improvement of working conditions resulting from the application of more modern instruments and apparatus as well as greater knowledge of the risks and the use of appropriate procedures. Med Pr 2018;69(5).

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(10): 1483-1495, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies are widely used to map genomic regions contributing to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility, but they typically do not identify the precise disease-causing genes/variants. To unveil the inherited genetic variants that cause LC, we performed focused exome-sequencing analyses on genes located in 121 genome-wide association study-identified loci previously implicated in the risk of LC, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function level, and smoking behavior. METHODS: Germline DNA from 260 case patients with LC and 318 controls were sequenced by utilizing VCRome 2.1 exome capture. Filtering was based on enrichment of rare and potential deleterious variants in cases (risk alleles) or controls (protective alleles). Allelic association analyses of single-variant and gene-based burden tests of multiple variants were performed. Promising candidates were tested in two independent validation studies with a total of 1773 case patients and 1123 controls. RESULTS: We identified 48 rare variants with deleterious effects in the discovery analysis and validated 12 of the 43 candidates that were covered in the validation platforms. The top validated candidates included one well-established truncating variant, namely, BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2) K3326X (OR = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.99), and three newly identified variations, namely, lymphotoxin beta gene (LTB) p.Leu87Phe (OR = 7.52, 95% CI: 1.01-16.56), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 gene (P3H2) p.Gln185His (OR = 5.39, 95% CI: 0.75-15.43), and dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 2 gene (DAAM2) p.Asp762Gly (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.79). Burden tests revealed strong associations between zinc finger protein 93 gene (ZNF93), DAAM2, bromodomain containing 9 gene (BRD9), and the gene LTB and LC susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with LC and highlight the importance of germline rare coding variants in LC susceptibility.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 32: 93-101, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859855

RESUMO

Recent technological advancements have permitted high-throughput measurement of the human genome, epigenome, metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome at the population level. We hypothesized that subsets of genes identified from omic studies might have closely related biological functions and thus might interact directly at the network level. Therefore, we conducted an integrative analysis of multi-omic datasets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to search for association patterns beyond the genome and transcriptome. A large, complex, and robust gene network containing well-known lung cancer-related genes, including EGFR and TERT, was identified from combined gene lists for lung adenocarcinoma. Members of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) gene family were at the center of this network. Subsequent sequencing of network hub genes within a subset of samples from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung-International Lung Cancer Consortium (TRICL-ILCCO) consortium revealed a SNP (rs12614710) in EPAS1 associated with NSCLC that reached genome-wide significance (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.31-1.72; p = 7.75 × 10-9). Using imputed data, we found that this SNP remained significant in the entire TRICL-ILCCO consortium (p = .03). Additional functional studies are warranted to better understand interrelationships among genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation status, and EPAS1 expression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0177875, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases) and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00]) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2]), but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08]) (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3). Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3), providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl), while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l). Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Funções Verossimilhança , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Obesidade/sangue , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
Med Pr ; 68(2): 247-258, 2017 Mar 24.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos dust may occur several years after first exposure. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between lesions in the respiratory system and the factors contributing to occupational exposure to asbestos described in the first medical examination as well as to analyze the factors responsible for the progression of these changes in further medical tests. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 591 former workers of asbestos processing plant "Gambit" in Lubawka. The results of medical examinations carried out in 2001-2012 were assessed. Statistical inference was performed based on bilateral significance tests at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: A higher risk of interstitial lung changes along with an increase in the cumulative concentration of asbestos was indicated; for the employees with the highest exposure, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-2.71), while for changes with the severity degree qualifying for asbestosis diagnosis, the risk was significantly increased, over fivefold higher, compared to subjects employed in the lowest exposure. The analysis of the relationship between the progression of interstitial changes and the exposure to asbestos dust showed a fourfold higher risk of the progression in workers employed in the highest exposure. Mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity) were significantly lower in the subjects working in a higher asbestos exposure. The effect of tobacco smoking on the occurrence of interstitial lung changes and their progression was also confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of prophylactic medical examinations of the health status of workers formerly employed in the plants using chrysotile indicate the importance andthe need for a long-term clinical follow-up and the promotion of anti-smoking prevention in this group of former employees. Med Pr 2017;68(2):247-258.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestose/diagnóstico por imagem , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Asbestose/fisiopatologia , Poeira , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Radiografia Torácica
14.
Inhal Toxicol ; 29(1): 18-22, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. METHODS: In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV1% predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. RESULTS: Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV1 <90% of the predicted value was HR = 2.19 (95%CI: 1.04-4.61) in the subjects whose time since spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Espirometria , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 94(8): 599-604, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27516637

RESUMO

In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Polônia
16.
Med Pr ; 67(2): 163-71, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study's objective is to present epidemiological situation concerning the incidence of occupational diseases among farmers in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 3438 cases of occupational diseases diagnosed among farmers and obligatorily reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases (covering all the national territory and all the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland after 1970) over the years 2000-2014 were subjected to analysis. RESULTS: The annual incidence in the analyzed period ranged 5-14 per 100 000 farmers. The analysis showed that about 90% of pathologies were induced by the biological agents. Almost every third pathology due to biological agents had allergic origin. Infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for 62% of the cases. Among them the diseases carried by ticks (93%) - borreliosis (85.8%) and tick-borne encephalitis (7.2%) were the most frequent ones. The age of farmers, in the case of whom bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed, was significantly higher than the age of remaining employees of the national economy, in which these occupational diseases were recognized. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the necessity to introduce periodic health examinations programs focusing on agricultural workers to monitor health and well-being and improve working conditions and the working environment. Med Pr 2016;67(2):163-171.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
17.
Lung Cancer ; 89(3): 243-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26126784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite extensive literature concerning the risk of lung cancer incidence among asbestos workers there is still lack of data specifying the association between the level of exposure and the frequency of cancer occurrence. The aim of the analysis was to assess the influence of smoking and selected factors related to occupational exposure on the risk of the incidence of lung cancer among the workers who were exposed to asbestos dust in the past. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment was performed based on the case-control studies carried out within a cohort including 7,374 former workers of asbestos processing plants, examined over the years 2000-2013. Analysis of the material was based on the calculation of the odds ratio (OR) using conditional logistic regression modeling, adjusted for cigarette smoking, cumulative exposure, branch and time since last exposure. RESULTS: During the survey period there were 165 cases of lung cancer. Among the individuals who smoked, the relative risk of lung cancer incidence was twice as high in the persons smoking more than 20 pack-years (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.45-3.46) than it was in the case of the non-smokers. Analysis revealed that the risk of lung cancer in the group with the highest exposure was two times higher in comparison with the low cumulative asbestos exposure (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.22-3.25). The risk continued to increase until 30 years after cessation of asbestos exposure and started to decline many years after the last exposure. Influence of the mentioned above characteristics is particularly visible for tumors located in the lower parts of the lungs. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the strong evidence that the lung cancer risk is associated with asbestos exposure and it increases along with the increasing exposure. A strategy of smoking cessation among the individuals exposed to asbestos dust would potentially have health promoting effects.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Med Pr ; 66(1): 1-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26016040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945-1998. The study is based on data obtained from asbestos company records and the Central Register of Occupational Diseases data on the cases of asbestosis and mesothelioma for the period from 1970 till 2012 as well as data from Amiantus Programme. The analysis was performed for 5 sectors comprising plants classified according to the products manufactured and applied production technology. RESULTS: In the study period, 2160 cases of asbestosis and 138 cases of mesothelioma were reported. The plants processed a total of about 2 million tons of asbestos, including about 7.5% of crocidolite. Total asbestosis consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.055). The highest risk occurrence of asbestosis was observed in the production of textiles and sealing products. Mesothelioma occurred only in plants where crocidolite had been ever processed. CONCLUSIONS: Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence. The observation confirms the relationship between exposure to crocidolite and the occurrence of mesothelioma, regardless of the manufactured products, and suggests the absence of such a link for the total volume of asbestos consumption.


Assuntos
Asbestose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Polônia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(3): 570-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25583949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposures are known risk factors for lung cancer. Role of genetically determined host factors in occupational exposure-related lung cancer is unclear. METHODS: We used genome-wide association (GWA) data from a case-control study conducted in 6 European countries from 1998 to 2002 to identify gene-occupation interactions and related pathways for lung cancer risk. GWA analysis was performed for each exposure using logistic regression and interaction term for genotypes, and exposure was included in this model. Both SNP-based and gene-based interaction P values were calculated. Pathway analysis was performed using three complementary methods, and analyses were adjusted for multiple comparisons. We analyzed 312,605 SNPs and occupational exposure to 70 agents from 1,802 lung cancer cases and 1,725 cancer-free controls. RESULTS: Mean age of study participants was 60.1 ± 9.1 years and 75% were male. Largest number of significant associations (P ≤ 1 × 10(-5)) at SNP level was demonstrated for nickel, brick dust, concrete dust, and cement dust, and for brick dust and cement dust at the gene-level (P ≤ 1 × 10(-4)). Approximately 14 occupational exposures showed significant gene-occupation interactions with pathways related to response to environmental information processing via signal transduction (P < 0.001 and FDR < 0.05). Other pathways that showed significant enrichment were related to immune processes and xenobiotic metabolism. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that pathways related to signal transduction, immune process, and xenobiotic metabolism may be involved in occupational exposure-related lung carcinogenesis. IMPACT: Our study exemplifies an integrative approach using pathway-based analysis to demonstrate the role of genetic variants in occupational exposure-related lung cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 570-9. ©2015 AACR.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
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