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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 733-744, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480553

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as the cause of a global pandemic in 2019-2020. In March 2020, New York City became the epicenter in the United States for the pandemic. On 27 March 2020, a Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) at the Bronx Zoo in New York City developed a cough and wheezing with subsequent inappetence. Over the next week, an additional Malayan tiger and two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the same building and three lions (Panthera leo krugeri) in a separate building also became ill. The index case was anesthetized for diagnostic workup. Physical examination and bloodwork results were unremarkable. Thoracic radiography and ultrasonography revealed a bronchial pattern with peribronchial cuffing and mild lung consolidation with alveolar-interstitial syndrome, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified by real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) on oropharyngeal and nasal swabs and tracheal wash fluid. Cytologic examination of tracheal wash fluid revealed necrosis, and viral RNA was detected in necrotic cells by in situ hybridization, confirming virus-associated tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from the tracheal wash fluid of the index case, as well as the feces from one Amur tiger and one lion. Fecal viral RNA shedding was confirmed in all seven clinical cases and an asymptomatic Amur tiger. Respiratory signs abated within 1-5 days for most animals, although they persisted intermittently for 16 days in the index case. Fecal RNA shedding persisted for as long as 35 days beyond cessation of respiratory signs. This case series describes the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of tigers and lions infected with SARS-CoV-2 and describes the duration of viral RNA fecal shedding in these cases. This report documents the first known natural transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to nondomestic felids.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Leões/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , /epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/isolamento & purificação , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/isolamento & purificação
2.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051368

RESUMO

Despite numerous barriers to transmission, zoonoses are the major cause of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and ebolaviruses have killed thousands; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has killed millions. Zoonoses and human-to-animal cross-species transmission are driven by human actions and have important management, conservation, and public health implications. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which presumably originated from an animal reservoir, has killed more than half a million people around the world and cases continue to rise. In March 2020, New York City was a global epicenter for SARS-CoV-2 infections. During this time, four tigers and three lions at the Bronx Zoo, NY, developed mild, abnormal respiratory signs. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory secretions and/or feces from all seven animals, live virus in three, and colocalized viral RNA with cellular damage in one. We produced nine whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the animals and keepers and identified different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes in the tigers and lions. Epidemiologic and genomic data indicated human-to-tiger transmission. These were the first confirmed cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 animal infections in the United States and the first in nondomestic species in the world. We highlight disease transmission at a nontraditional interface and provide information that contributes to understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission across species.IMPORTANCE The human-animal-environment interface of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important aspect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that requires robust One Health-based investigations. Despite this, few reports describe natural infections in animals or directly link them to human infections using genomic data. In the present study, we describe the first cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in tigers and lions in the United States and provide epidemiological and genetic evidence for human-to-animal transmission of the virus. Our data show that tigers and lions were infected with different genotypes of SARS-CoV-2, indicating two independent transmission events to the animals. Importantly, infected animals shed infectious virus in respiratory secretions and feces. A better understanding of the susceptibility of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate transmission mechanisms and identify potential reservoirs and sources of infection that are important in both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 140-149, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212557

RESUMO

Vector-borne Plasmodium spp. infect a wide range of bird species. Although infections may be asymptomatic, certain genera, especially those that evolved in regions without endemic malaria, appear particularly susceptible to symptomatic disease, leading to morbidity and mortality. High mortalities associated with malaria infections have been documented in captive species of Sphenisciformes, Somateria, and Larosterna, all genera that evolved in climates with low mosquito exposure. To better characterize trends in Plasmodium-related mortality in a zoological collection in New York, necropsy reports for birds of all three genera that died between 1998 and February 2018 were analyzed; comparisons were made between birds that died with or without evidence of malaria infection. A seasonal peak in deaths was observed in birds regardless of their malaria status. There was no significant difference in the age of birds at death between malaria-positive and malaria-negative animals. These results suggest that age and season of death were not associated with malaria status. To investigate an association between parasite lineage and clinical outcome, polymerase chain reaction was used to identify parasite lineage in necropsied birds as well as healthy birds sampled as part of surveillance studies. Twelve different Plasmodium lineages were identified. The relative prevalence of parasite lineages was compared between necropsy and surveillance samples. A single parasite lineage, SGS1 (species: Plasmodium relictum), was significantly more likely to be found in surveillance samples; it was detected in a plurality of surveillance data but found in only one necropsy case. Other parasite lineages were more likely to be found in necropsies than in surveillance samples, most notably SEIAUR01 (species: Plasmodium cathemerium). These data may be consistent with a difference in virulence between parasite lineages. This investigation has implications for the monitoring and care of vulnerable avian species.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Charadriiformes , Patos , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Spheniscidae , Animais , New York , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 778-789, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926507

RESUMO

Data on canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination were collected on 812 large felids (351 tigers, Panthera tigris; 220 lions, Panthera leo; 143 snow leopards, Panthera uncia; 50 leopards, Panthera pardus; and 48 jaguars, Panthera onca) from 48 institutions to assess vaccine use and safety. The documented individual vaccination events with multiple products numbered 2,846. Canarypox-vectored CDV vaccines were the most commonly used vaccines (96.3% of all vaccinations) and the Purevax® Ferret Distemper (PFD) vaccine was the most commonly used canarypox-vectored vaccine (91.0% of all vaccinations). Modified live virus (MLV) CDV vaccines were used for 3.7% of all vaccinations, and only in tigers, lions, and snow leopards. Adverse effects were reported after 0.5% (13 of 2,740) of the canarypox-vectored vaccinations and after 2.9% (3 of 104) of the MLV CDV vaccinations. This low complication rate suggests large felids may not be as sensitive to adverse effects of MLV CDV vaccines as other exotic carnivores. Serological data were available from 159 individuals (69 tigers, 31 lions, 31 snow leopards, 22 jaguars, and 6 Amur leopards, Panthera pardus orientalis) vaccinated with the PFD vaccine, and 66.0% of vaccinates seroconverted (defined as acquiring a titer ≥1: 24) at some point postvaccination: 24.3% after one vaccination, 55.8% after two vaccinations, 54.3% after three vaccinations, and 79.2% after four or more vaccinations. Among animals exhibiting seroconversion after the initial PFD vaccinations, 88.9% still had titers ≥12 mo and ≥24 mo after the last vaccination, and 87.5% had titers ≥1: 24 at ≥36 mo after the last vaccination. The study was unable to assess fully the safety of vaccination with either canarypox-vectored or MLV CDV vaccines during gestation because of the small number of animals vaccinated while pregnant (n = 6, all vaccinated with PFD).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Panthera/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Vacinas Atenuadas
5.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 501-520, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395328

RESUMO

Reducing the frequency of drug administration in the treatment of exotic pets is advantageous because it may decrease handling frequency and thus potential stress and injury risk for the animal, increase owner compliance with the prescribed treatment, and decrease need for general anesthesia in patients that cannot be handled safely. Increasing efficient drug plasma concentration using sustained-released delivery systems is an appealing solution. Potential candidates that could provide a promising solution have been investigated in exotic pets. In this article, the technologies that are the closest to being integrated in exotic pet medicine are reviewed: osmotic pumps, nanoparticles, and hydrogels.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Aves , Implantes de Medicamento , Peixes , Manobra Psicológica , Hidrogéis , Bombas de Infusão/economia , Bombas de Infusão/veterinária , Lipossomos , Mamíferos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas , Osmose/fisiologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Répteis , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
6.
Zoo Biol ; 38(4): 360-370, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106478

RESUMO

The Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo has been housing and breeding slender-tailed cloud rats (Phleomys pallidus) since 1985. Records of 82 animals from 1985 to 2013 were reviewed for this study. The animals were kept successfully in small family groups with a single adult male, multiple adult females, and their offspring. Sexual maturity was noted at approximately 2 years of age and gestation length ranged from 52 to 55 days. Animals were fed a diet including a complete commercial pelleted feed, mixed greens, carrot or yam, mixed hard nuts, and locally sourced browse. Medical conditions requiring treatment in neonates were often fatal whereas most medical conditions in adults were survivable. The most common cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates was maternal neglect or trauma (42%, 5/12 antemortem problems; cause of death in 32%, 8/25). The most significant problems in adults were cryptococcal pneumonia and trauma. Cryptococcus sp. was the cause of death in 11 cases (34%, 11/32) and significant comorbidity in an additional three cases. Treatment with antifungal medications was attempted but was unsuccessful in four cases. Many cases of trauma were treated successfully with conservative management or limited intervention. In four cases, treatment was complicated by extensive self-mutilation after surgical repair of traumatic lesions, which resulted in death or euthanasia. Lymphoplasmacytic thyroiditis was a common postmortem finding in adults (95%, 21/22 for which the thyroid gland was examined histologically). It is unclear if thyroiditis resulted in functional hypothyroidism so the significance of this finding is undetermined.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Murinae/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Mortalidade , Reprodução
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 48(3): 757-766, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920790

RESUMO

Snake fungal disease (SFD; Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola) is posing a significant threat to several free-ranging populations of pitvipers. Triazole antifungals have been proposed for the treatment of mycoses in reptiles; however, data are lacking about their safety and efficacy in snakes with SFD. Study 1 investigated in vitro susceptibility, and identified that plasma concentrations >250 ng/ml (voriconazole) and >1,000 ng/ml (itraconazole) may be effective in vivo for SFD. In Study 2, the pharmacokinetics after a single subcutaneous voriconazole injection were assessed in apparently healthy free-ranging cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Based on pilot-study results, four snakes were administered a single injection of voriconazole (5 mg/kg). One pilot snake and three full-study snakes died within 12 hr of voriconazole administration. All surviving snakes maintained plasma concentrations >250 ng/ml for 12-24 hr. In Study 3, two Eastern massasaugas (Sistrurus catenatus) and a timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus horridus) diagnosed with SFD were treated with voriconazole delivered by subcutaneous osmotic pumps. The timber rattlesnake (12.1-17.5 mg/kg/hr) reached therapeutic concentrations, whereas the massasaugas (1.02-1.6 mg/kg/hr) did not. In Study 4, the pharmacokinetics of a single 10-mg/kg per-cloaca dose of itraconazole (Sporanox®) was evaluated in seven apparently healthy free-ranging cottonmouths. Similarly, the plasma and tissue concentrations did not meet therapeutic concentrations based on in vitro data. The data presented in this report serve as an initial step toward understanding the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of triazole antifungals in pitviper species with SFD. Further study is needed to determine the appropriate dose and route of administration of triazole antifungals in pitviper species.


Assuntos
Agkistrodon/sangue , Crotalus/sangue , Itraconazol/farmacocinética , Micoses/veterinária , Voriconazol/farmacocinética , Animais , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ascomicetos , Cloaca , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Itraconazol/efeitos adversos , Itraconazol/sangue , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Projetos Piloto , Voriconazol/efeitos adversos , Voriconazol/sangue , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 47(2): 691-4, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468053

RESUMO

An adult female Taylor's cantil (Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori) presented with marked spinal and mandibular osteomyelitis that cultured positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae, serovar IV 43:z4,z32:-. Progression of osteomyelitis was arrested by treatment using amikacin (0.026 mg/kg per hour) delivered via subcutaneous osmotic pump for 10 mo, replacing the pump every 4 wk. No adverse effects on renal function were appreciated throughout the course of therapy. Amikacin therapy was discontinued after improvement with treatment, but 5 mo later, bony lesions worsened, and an additional abscess formed at the previous pump site. The animal's condition declined and euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination confirmed marked osteomyelitis with Salmonella infection of same serovar as the initial biopsy. This report highlights the pathogenicity of the S. enterica subsp. houtenae serovar and the ability to deliver effective amikacin dosage via osmotic pump to arrest osteomyelitis due to salmonellosis in a venomous snake.


Assuntos
Agkistrodon , Amicacina/uso terapêutico , Bombas de Infusão , Osteomielite/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica , Amicacina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Radiografia , Salmonelose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 248(9): 1050-9, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27074614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify important subspecies and serovars of Salmonella enterica in a captive reptile population and clinically relevant risk factors for and signs of illness in Salmonella-positive reptiles. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 11 crocodilians (4 samples), 78 snakes (91 samples), 59 lizards (57 samples), and 34 chelonians (23 samples) at the Bronx Zoo from 2000 through 2012. PROCEDURES Data pertaining to various types of biological samples obtained from reptiles with positive Salmonella culture results and the reptiles themselves were analyzed to determine period prevalence of and risk factors for various Salmonella-related outcomes. RESULTS Serovar distribution differences were identified for sample type, reptile phylogenetic family, and reptile origin and health. Salmonella enterica subsp enterica was the most common subspecies in Salmonella cultures (78/175 [45%]), identified across all reptilian taxa. Salmonella enterica subsp diarizonae was also common (42/175 [24%]) and was recovered almost exclusively from snakes (n = 33), many of which had been clinically ill (17). Clinically ill reptiles provided 37% (64) of Salmonella cultures. Factors associated with an increased risk of illness in reptiles with a positive culture result were carnivorous diet and prior confiscation. Snakes had a higher risk of illness than other reptile groups, whereas lizards had a lower risk. Bony changes, dermatitis, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided new information on Salmonella infection or carriage and associated clinical disease in reptiles. Associations identified between serovars or subspecies and reptile groups or clinical disease can guide management of Salmonella-positive captive reptiles.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Répteis , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Animais , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorotipagem/veterinária
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 46(4): 858-69, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26667543

RESUMO

A review of avian cataracts at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo between 1992 and 2011 was conducted. Ninety cataracts in 54 birds from 42 species were identified. Cataracts were found primarily during examination for ocular abnormalities (29/54, 53.7%) or opportunistically (13/54, 24.1%) and were most commonly diagnosed as mature (22/90, 24.4%). Systemic medical conditions diagnosed in these birds included West Nile virus (4/54, 7.4%), head trauma (3/54, 5.6%), plumbism and Salmonella Pullorum (1/54, 1.9%), Marek's disease (1/54, 1.9%), leukocytosis (1/54, 1.9%), and hyperglycemia (1/54, 1.9%). Cataracts were progressive in seven birds of four species. Unilateral enucleation was performed in 2/54 (3.7%) birds, and 12/54 (22.2%) underwent cataract removal (phacoemulsification in 16 eyes and standard extracapsular cataract extraction in 2 eyes). Concurrent ocular abnormalities, such as corneal scarring and lens-induced uveitis, were seen in 2/18 (11.1%) eyes preoperatively in the group undergoing cataract removal, 2/2 (100%) eyes preoperatively in the group undergoing enucleation, and 33/70 (47.1%) of eyes that did not undergo surgery. For birds undergoing cataract removal, complications included successfully treated cardiorespiratory arrest intraoperatively (1/12, 8.3%) as well as postanesthetic complications of acute respiratory distress and tracheal stricture (2/12, 16.7%). The most common postoperative ocular abnormalities included posterior capsular opacity (4/18 eyes, 22.2%) and corneal scarring (2/18 eyes, 11.1%). Lens cortical regrowth and marked posterior lens capsular opacity occurred in one eye of one bird after phacoemulsification, necessitating a second ocular surgery. A successful outcome, as determined by improved postoperative visual acuity, was seen in 10/12 (83.3%) birds undergoing cataract removal, and 5/12 (41.7%) of these birds were alive >3 yr after surgery. The results of this review will aid clinicians in identifying common stages of cataracts, determining eligibility for cataract surgery, and managing postoperative complications in avian patients.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Doenças das Aves/terapia , Extração de Catarata/veterinária , Catarata/veterinária , Animais , Aves , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/patologia , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Am J Vet Res ; 76(12): 1070-6, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26618732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered via osmotic pumps in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a method for analgesic administration to avian species. ANIMALS: 14 healthy adult male common peafowl. PROCEDURES: A preliminary experiment was conducted with 2 birds to establish time point and concentration requirements. Then, the remaining 12 birds were anesthetized, and 2 osmotic pumps containing butorphanol (volume, 2 mL; mean dosage, 247 µg/kg/h) were implanted subcutaneously in each bird for 7 days prior to removal. Blood samples were collected before pump implantation (time 0); 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours after pump implantation; and 3 and 6 hours after pump removal. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations peaked (mean, 106.4 µg/L; range, 61.8 to 133.0 µg/L) at a mean of 39.0 hours, with no evidence of sedation in any bird. After pump removal, butorphanol was rapidly eliminated (half-life, 1.45 hours; range, 1.31 to 1.64 hours; n = 5). Mean clearance per fraction of dose absorbed was 2.89 L/kg/h (range, 2.00 to 5.55 L/kg/h). Mean amount of time the plasma butorphanol concentration was ≥ 60 µg/L was 85.6 hours (range, 3.5 to 155.3 hours). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Plasma concentrations of butorphanol in common peafowl were maintained at or above reported efficacious analgesic concentrations. This study established a method for administering analgesics to avian patients without the need for frequent handling or injections. Use of these osmotic pumps may provide options for avian analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Galliformes , Analgesia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/sangue , Analgésicos Opioides/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Butorfanol/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Meia-Vida , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Osmose , Dor , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Clin Lab Med ; 35(3): 661-80, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26297412

RESUMO

The basic principles of hematology used in mammalian medicine can be applied to reptiles. The appearances of the blood cells are significantly different from those seen in most mammals, and vary with taxa and staining method used. Many causes for abnormalities of the reptilian hemogram are similar to those for mammals, although additional factors such as venipuncture site, season, hibernation status, captivity status, and environmental factors can also affect values, making interpretation of hematologic results challenging. Values in an individual should be compared with reference ranges specific to that species, gender, and environmental conditions when available.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Répteis/fisiologia , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Doenças dos Animais/fisiopatologia , Animais , Células Sanguíneas/citologia , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/tendências , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hematológicas/etiologia , Testes Hematológicos/tendências , Restrição Física/veterinária
13.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 18(1): 63-82, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25421027

RESUMO

The basic principles of hematology used in mammalian medicine can be applied to reptiles. The appearances of the blood cells are significantly different from those seen in most mammals, and vary with taxa and staining method used. Many causes for abnormalities of the reptilian hemogram are similar to those for mammals, although additional factors such as venipuncture site, season, hibernation status, captivity status, and environmental factors can also affect values, making interpretation of hematologic results challenging. Values in an individual should be compared with reference ranges specific to that species, gender, and environmental conditions when available.


Assuntos
Répteis/sangue , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Hematologia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Medicina Veterinária
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 44(3): 596-604, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24063087

RESUMO

A crossover study was performed in 12 Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) undergoing preshipment examinations to compare a partially reversible to a fully reversible intramuscular chemical immobilization protocol. The partially reversible protocol (MKA) consisted of induction with medetomidine (0.06 +/- 0.009 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.03 +/- 0.315 mg/kg) and antagonism by atipamezole (0.30 +/- 0.044 mg/kg). The fully reversible protocol (CXNA) consisted of induction with carfentanil (0.009 +/- 0.003 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.08 +/- 0.019 mg/kg) and antagonism by naltrexone (0.867 +/- 0.332 mg/kg) and atipamezole (0.105 +/- 0.023 mg/ kg). Animals were monitored for quality and length of induction and recovery, depth of immobilization, heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, indirect mean blood pressure (MBP), oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration. Blood was collected for serum cortisol measurement. Significant (P < 0.05) differences included a higher MBP, higher serum cortisol, and longer recovery time with MKA compared to CXNA. In addition, the quality of induction and recovery were different. With MKA, animals ambulated less during induction, remained recumbent longer during recovery, and demonstrated more ataxia on rising. Despite differences between the protocols, both provided an acceptable level of immobilization for pre-shipment testing to be done and appeared to be safe in the study population. These differences should be taken into consideration when selecting the anesthetic protocol because either regimen may be more or less desirable for different medical or immobilization settings.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Ruminantes , Animais , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Fentanila/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/farmacologia , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/farmacologia , Xilazina/administração & dosagem , Xilazina/farmacologia
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 44(3): 700-13, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24063099

RESUMO

Although recognized as a potential complication after endotracheal intubation in birds, the complication rate of postintubation tracheal obstruction in this taxon is unknown. Twenty-three cases of postintubation obstruction in birds from two institutions are reported. Clinical signs were noted an average of 16.6 days postintubation and consisted primarily of indications of acute respiratory distress. Diagnosis was confirmed via tracheoscopy or radiology. Five birds died before treatment could be initiated. Medical treatment alone was successful in three birds that had mild changes consisting primarily of a luminal mucoid plug that could be manually removed without tracheal surgery but was unsuccessful in an additional six birds. Tracheal resection and anastamosis was successful in four birds and unsuccessful in five birds. Overall mortality was 70%. Postintubation tracheal obstruction in birds appears to be more common in zoo practice than is suggested by the literature, as a total of 1.8% (1.2-2.7%, 95% confidence interval) of intubations or 3.5% (2.3-5.3%, 95% confidence interval) of individual animals intubated in these institutions resulted in this complication. Multiple cases were found in Ciconiiformes (n = 4), Columbiformes (n = 4), Gruiformes (n = 4), Anseriformes (n = 3), Galliformes (n = 3), and Passeriformes (n = 2). No cases were found in Coraciiforms, Falconiforms, or Psittaciformes despite many (>40) recorded intubations. The specific cause of these lesions is unclear, but some type of tracheal mucosa trauma or irritation is suggested by histologic findings. Prevention may include selective intubation, use of a laryngeal mask airway in place of intubation, careful placement of an endotracheal tube, minimal movement of the head and neck after placement, humidification of anesthetic gases, and gentle positive-pressure ventilation.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/etiologia , Aves , Intubação Intratraqueal/veterinária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/mortalidade , Animais , Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 13(3): 349-73, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20682424

RESUMO

Reproductive biology and disorders are important facets of captive reptile management and are relatively common reasons for reptiles to present to the veterinarian. Although the factors and conditions for normal reproduction differ between species depending on their natural histories, the general principles and common approaches to disorders are presented in this article. Frequently seen disorders addressed in this review include infertility or lack of conception, follicular stasis, dystocia, and reproductive organ prolapse. This article is divided into sections based on the taxonomic groups, although many of the predisposing factors for and the approaches to these conditions are similar for all the groups.


Assuntos
Oviposição/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fenômenos Reprodutivos Fisiológicos , Répteis/fisiologia , Doenças dos Animais , Animais , Feminino , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/terapia , Infertilidade/veterinária , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Am J Vet Res ; 70(8): 950-5, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19645575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of an SC implanted osmotic pump (OP) for fentanyl administration in cats and to compare serum concentrations of fentanyl delivered via an OP and a transdermal patch (TP). Animals-8 spayed female cats. PROCEDURES: In a crossover design, cats received fentanyl at 25 microg/h via a TP or an OP. All cats were anesthetized for the pump or patch placement (0 hours) and again when it was removed (96 hours). Venous blood samples were collected for measurement of serum fentanyl concentrations at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours and at 24 and 48 hours after device removal. After a 3-week washout period, the experiment was repeated with each cat receiving the other treatment. RESULTS: Mean serum fentanyl concentrations at 24, 36, 72, and 96 hours were greater when the OP was used than when the TP was used. Mean residence time and half-life were greater when the TP was used. Fentanyl concentration changed significantly faster in initial and elimination phases when the OP was used. Marked interindividual variation in serum fentanyl concentrations was evident with both administration methods. No adverse effects were evident with either method. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Use of the OP to administer fentanyl to cats resulted in a shorter initial lag phase to a therapeutic serum concentration, higher bioavailability, and faster elimination after removal, compared with use of a TP. These advantages, in addition to the inability of cats to remove the OP, may make OPs useful for fentanyl administration in nondomestic felids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis/veterinária , Administração Cutânea , Análise de Variância , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Fentanila/sangue , Fentanila/farmacocinética
19.
Nanotechnology ; 20(6): 065605, 2009 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19417393

RESUMO

Steam purified, carboxylic and ester functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films with homogeneous distribution and flexible control of thickness and area were fabricated on polymeric and metallic substrates using a modified spray deposition technique. By employing a pre-sprayed polyelectrolyte, the adhesion of the carbon nanotube (CNT) films to the substrates was significantly enhanced by electrostatic interaction. Carboxylic and ester functionalization improved electrochemical performance when immersed in 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) and the specific capacitance reached 155 and 77 F g(-1) for carboxylic functionalized SWNT and MWNT films respectively. Compared with existing techniques such as hot pressing, vacuum filtration and dip coating, the ambient pressure spray deposition technique is suggested as particularly well suited for preparing CNT films at large scale for applications including providing electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors and paper batteries.

20.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 11(3): 481-500, vi, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18675730

RESUMO

The basic principles of hematology used in mammalian medicine can be applied to reptiles. Available phlebotomy sites vary with the taxa and may be chosen based on the experience of the handler or phlebotomist, health status or temperament of the patient, and species. Methods of analysis and the cytologic appearance of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes are different from those of mammals and also vary by taxa. Many causes for abnormalities of the reptilian hemogram are similar to those for mammals, although additional factors, such as venipuncture site, season, hibernation status, captivity status, and environmental factors, can affect measured values. Interpretation of hematologic results can be frustrating, although new case reports and research studies help to elucidate possible causes that are often unique to reptiles.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Répteis/sangue , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Técnicas Citológicas/veterinária , Feminino , Hibernação/fisiologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Especificidade da Espécie
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