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Bull Earthq Eng ; 20(14): 7873-7905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210981


On October 30th, 2020, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake offshore off the northern coast of Samos, Greece, generated a tsunami that impacted the nearshore Greek islands and the Aegean coastline of Turkey. Here, we describe detailed results from several post-event field surveys, and report first wave arrival timing and polarity information as well as tsunami height/runup measurements, from five islands. In Chios, wave runup reached 1.38 m, in Samos ~ 3 m, in Fourni 1.57 m, in Thimena 1.46 m, and in Ikaria 1.18 m. This event marks two milestones. One, the General Secretariat for Civil Protection of Greece, disseminated a message through Greece's 1-1-2 Emergency Communications Service to all cell phones in the eastern Aegean geographical region, warning recipients to stay away from coastal areas. According to eyewitnesses, the message was received ~ 3-5 min prior to the second and largest flood in Vathi, as the first flood had not sufficiently alarmed the local authorities to evacuate residents. Two, we were able to infer complete tsunami hydrographs from measurements for the first two floods in Vathi, which suggests that the water level rose to about one meter overland flow depth in one minute.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(52): 19673-7, 2006 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17170141


A long section of the Sunda megathrust south of the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of 2004 and 2005 is well advanced in its seismic cycle and a plausible candidate for rupture in the next few decades. Our computations of tsunami propagation and inundation yield model flow depths and inundations consistent with sparse historical accounts for the last great earthquakes there, in 1797 and 1833. Numerical model results from plausible future ruptures produce flow depths of several meters and inundation up to several kilometers inland near the most populous coastal cities. Our models of historical and future tsunamis confirm a substantial exposure of coastal Sumatran communities to tsunami surges. Potential losses could be as great as those that occurred in Aceh in 2004.

Desastres , Modelos Teóricos , Água do Mar/análise , Movimentos da Água , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Desastres/economia , Indonésia
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 364(1845): 2231-65, 2006 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16844658


Tsunami science has evolved differently from research on other extreme natural hazards, primarily because of the unavailability until recently of instrumental recordings of tsunamis in the open ocean. Here, the progress towards developing tsunami inundation modelling tools for use in inundation forecasting is discussed historically from the perspective of hydrodynamics. The state-of-knowledge before the 26 December 2004 tsunami is described. Remaining aspects for future research are identified. One, validated inundation models need to be further developed through benchmark testing and instrumental tsunameter measurements and standards for operational codes need to be established. Two, a methodology is needed to better quantify short-duration impact forces on structures. Three, the mapping of vulnerable continental margins to identify unrecognized hazards must proceed expeditiously, along with palaeotsunami research to establish repeat intervals. Four, the development of better coupling between deforming seafloor motions and model initialization needs further refinement. Five, in an era of global citizenship, more comprehensive educational efforts on tsunami hazard mitigation are necessary worldwide.

Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ciência/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Planejamento em Desastres/tendências , Internacionalidade , Medição de Risco/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Ciência/tendências
Sci Am ; 294(1): 56-63, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16468434