Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 39
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Brain ; 142(10): 3009-3027, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504254

RESUMO

N-methyl d-aspartate receptors are ligand-gated ionotropic receptors mediating a slow, calcium-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS. Variants in genes encoding NMDAR subunits have been associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report six novel GRIN2D variants and one previously-described disease-associated GRIN2D variant in two patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. GRIN2D encodes for the GluN2D subunit protein; the GluN2D amino acids affected by the variants in this report are located in the pre-M1 helix, transmembrane domain M3, and the intracellular carboxyl terminal domain. Functional analysis in vitro reveals that all six variants decreased receptor surface expression, which may underline some shared clinical symptoms. In addition the GluN2D(Leu670Phe), (Ala675Thr) and (Ala678Asp) substitutions confer significantly enhanced agonist potency, and/or increased channel open probability, while the GluN2D(Ser573Phe), (Ser1271Phe) and (Arg1313Trp) substitutions result in a mild increase of agonist potency, reduced sensitivity to endogenous protons, and decreased channel open probability. The GluN2D(Ser573Phe), (Ala675Thr), and (Ala678Asp) substitutions significantly decrease current amplitude, consistent with reduced surface expression. The GluN2D(Leu670Phe) variant slows current response deactivation time course and increased charge transfer. GluN2D(Ala678Asp) transfection significantly decreased cell viability of rat cultured cortical neurons. In addition, we evaluated a set of FDA-approved NMDAR channel blockers to rescue functional changes of mutant receptors. This work suggests the complexity of the pathological mechanisms of GRIN2D-mediated developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, as well as the potential benefit of precision medicine.

2.
Brain ; 142(9): 2617-2630, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327001

RESUMO

The underpinnings of mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay remain elusive, often leading to late diagnosis and interventions. Here, we present data on exome and genome sequencing as well as array analysis of 13 individuals that point to pathogenic, heterozygous, mostly de novo variants in WDFY3 (significant de novo enrichment P = 0.003) as a monogenic cause of mild and non-specific neurodevelopmental delay. Nine variants were protein-truncating and four missense. Overlapping symptoms included neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). One proband presented with an opposing phenotype of microcephaly and the only missense-variant located in the PH-domain of WDFY3. Findings of this case are supported by previously published data, demonstrating that pathogenic PH-domain variants can lead to microcephaly via canonical Wnt-pathway upregulation. In a separate study, we reported that the autophagy scaffolding protein WDFY3 is required for cerebral cortical size regulation in mice, by controlling proper division of neural progenitors. Here, we show that proliferating cortical neural progenitors of human embryonic brains highly express WDFY3, further supporting a role for this molecule in the regulation of prenatal neurogenesis. We present data on Wnt-pathway dysregulation in Wdfy3-haploinsufficient mice, which display macrocephaly and deficits in motor coordination and associative learning, recapitulating the human phenotype. Consequently, we propose that in humans WDFY3 loss-of-function variants lead to macrocephaly via downregulation of the Wnt pathway. In summary, we present WDFY3 as a novel gene linked to mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability and conclude that variants putatively causing haploinsufficiency lead to macrocephaly, while an opposing pathomechanism due to variants in the PH-domain of WDFY3 leads to microcephaly.

3.
Neurotherapeutics ; 16(3): 848-857, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054119

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in KCNT1 represent an important cause of treatment-resistant epilepsy, for which an effective therapy has been elusive. Reports about the effectiveness of quinidine, a candidate precision therapy, have been mixed. We sought to evaluate the treatment responsiveness of patients with KCNT1-related epilepsy. We performed an observational study of 43 patients using a collaborative KCNT1 patient registry. We assessed treatment efficacy based upon clinical seizure reduction, side effects of quinidine therapy, and variant-specific responsiveness to treatment. Quinidine treatment resulted in a > 50% seizure reduction in 20% of patients, with rare patients achieving transient seizure freedom. Multiple other therapies demonstrated some success in reducing seizure frequency, including the ketogenic diet and vigabatrin, the latter particularly in patients with epileptic spasms. Patients with the best quinidine response had variants that clustered distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain of the protein. Half of patients did not receive a quinidine trial. In those who did, nearly half did not achieve therapeutic blood levels. More favorable response to quinidine in patients with KCNT1 variants distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain may suggest a variant-specific response.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 96, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disease with prominent neurologic manifestations such as epilepsy, cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorder. mTOR inhibitors have successfully been used to treat TSC-related manifestations in older children and adults. However, data on their safety and efficacy in infants and young children are scarce. The objective of this study is to assess the utility and safety of mTOR inhibitor treatment in TSC patients under the age of 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 17 children (median age at study inclusion 2.4 years, range 0-6; 12 males, 5 females) with TSC who received early mTOR inhibitor therapy were studied. mTOR inhibitor treatment was started at a median age of 5 months (range 0-19 months). Reasons for initiation of treatment were cardiac rhabdomyomas (6 cases), subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA, 5 cases), combination of cardiac rhabdomyomas and SEGA (1 case), refractory epilepsy (4 cases) and disabling congenital focal lymphedema (1 case). In all cases everolimus was used. Everolimus therapy was overall well tolerated. Adverse events were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE, Version 5.0). Grade 1-2 adverse events occurred in 12 patients and included mild transient stomatitis (2 cases), worsening of infantile acne (1 case), increases of serum cholesterol and triglycerides (4 cases), changes in serum phosphate levels (2 cases), increase of cholinesterase (2 cases), transient neutropenia (2 cases), transient anemia (1 case), transient lymphopenia (1 case) and recurrent infections (7 cases). No grade 3-4 adverse events were reported. Treatment is currently continued in 13/17 patients. Benefits were reported in 14/17 patients and included decrease of cardiac rhabdomyoma size and improvement of arrhythmia, decrease of SEGA size, reduction of seizure frequency and regression of congenital focal lymphedema. Despite everolimus therapy, two patients treated for intractable epilepsy are still experiencing seizures and another one treated for SEGA showed no volume reduction. CONCLUSION: This retrospective multicenter study demonstrates that mTOR inhibitor treatment with everolimus is safe in TSC patients under the age of 2 years and shows beneficial effects on cardiac manifestations, SEGA size and early epilepsy.


Assuntos
Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Esclerose Tuberosa/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Colinesterases/sangue , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Fosfatos/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
Epilepsia ; 60(6): e63-e66, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077350

RESUMO

Severe early onset epilepsies are often caused by de novo pathogenic variants. Few studies have reported the frequency of somatic mosaicism in parents of children with severe epileptic encephalopathies. Here we aim to investigate the frequency of mosaicism in the parents of children with epilepsy caused by alleged de novo variants. We tested parental genomic DNA derived from different tissues for 75 cases using targeted next-generation sequencing. Five parents (6.6%) showed mosaicism at minor allele frequencies of 0.8%-29% for the pathogenic variant detected in their offspring. Parental mosaicism was observed in the following genes: SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A, and STXBP1. One of the identified parents had epilepsy himself. Our results show that de novo events can occur already in parental tissue and in some cases can be detected in peripheral blood. Consequently, parents affected by low-grade mosaicism are faced with an increased recurrence risk for transmitting the pathogenic variant, compared to the overall recurrence risk for a second affected child estimated at approximately 1%. However, testing for parental somatic mosaicism will help identifying those parents who truly are at higher risk and will significantly improve genetic counseling in the respective families.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 817-825, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401461

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification used to regulate protein function. ADP-ribosyltransferases transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ to the target protein, and ADP-ribosylhydrolases, such as ADPRHL2, reverse the reaction. We used exome sequencing to identify five different bi-allelic pathogenic ADPRHL2 variants in 12 individuals from 8 families affected by a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting in childhood or adolescence with key clinical features including developmental delay or regression, seizures, ataxia, and axonal (sensori-)motor neuropathy. ADPRHL2 was virtually absent in available affected individuals' fibroblasts, and cell viability was reduced upon hydrogen peroxide exposure, although it was rescued by expression of wild-type ADPRHL2 mRNA as well as treatment with a PARP1 inhibitor. Our findings suggest impaired protein ribosylation as another pathway that, if disturbed, causes neurodegenerative diseases.

7.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 35(6): 784-786, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Plantar hyperhidrosis can have severe social effects on children and adolescents. Therapeutic options include antiperspirants and surgical interventions (eg, sympathectomy). Botulinum type A toxin is approved for axillary hyperhidrosis in adults only. The aim of the study was the determination of effect and safety of botulinum type A toxin in plantar hyperhidrosis in juvenile patients. METHODS: Children and adolescents with idiopathic focal plantar hyperhidrosis were treated with 50-100 U of botulinum type A toxin per sole. Local anesthesia was provided using topical eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream and ice, in combination with midazolam as an anxiolytic. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (aged 12-17) were included in the study. Best results were achieved with a dose of 75-100 U of botulinum type A toxin per sole. Two patients did not benefit from the therapy, and 11 (73%) were satisfied with the results. Nine patients (60%) experienced pain at the injection site for a maximum duration of 3 days. One patient reported transient focal weakness for 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: Botulinum type A toxin seems to be a safe secondary treatment option for plantar hyperhidrosis in adolescents aged 12 and older. A dose of 75-100 U per sole resulted in a good therapeutic effect of variable duration in most patients. There were no severe side effects.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anestésicos Locais , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Pé/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Injeções Intradérmicas , Masculino , Suor/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 66: 49-84, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609042

RESUMO

A fovea is a pitted invagination in the inner retinal tissue (fovea interna) that overlies an area of photoreceptors specialized for high acuity vision (fovea externa). Although the shape of the vertebrate fovea varies considerably among the species, there are two basic types. The retina of many predatory fish, reptilians, and birds possess one (or two) convexiclivate fovea(s), while the retina of higher primates contains a concaviclivate fovea. By refraction of the incoming light, the convexiclivate fovea may function as image enlarger, focus indicator, and movement detector. By centrifugal displacement of the inner retinal layers, which increases the transparency of the central foveal tissue (the foveola), the primate fovea interna improves the quality of the image received by the central photoreceptors. In this review, we summarize ‒ with the focus on Müller cells of the human and macaque fovea ‒ data regarding the structure of the primate fovea, discuss various aspects of the optical function of the fovea, and propose a model of foveal development. The "Müller cell cone" of the foveola comprises specialized Müller cells which do not support neuronal activity but may serve optical and structural functions. In addition to the "Müller cell cone", structural stabilization of the foveal morphology may be provided by the 'z-shaped' Müller cells of the fovea walls, via exerting tractional forces onto Henle fibers. The spatial distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein may suggest that the foveola and the Henle fiber layer are subjects to mechanical stress. During development, the foveal pit is proposed to be formed by a vertical contraction of the centralmost Müller cells. After widening of the foveal pit likely mediated by retracting astrocytes, Henle fibers are formed by horizontal contraction of Müller cell processes in the outer plexiform layer and the centripetal displacement of photoreceptors. A better understanding of the molecular, cellular, and mechanical factors involved in the developmental morphogenesis and the structural stabilization of the fovea may help to explain the (patho-) genesis of foveal hypoplasia and macular holes.

9.
Exp Eye Res ; 167: 110-117, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242027

RESUMO

Previous studies on the ultrastructure of the primate foveola suggested the presence of an inverted cone-like structure which is formed by 25-35 specialized Müller cells overlying the area of high photoreceptor density. We investigated the ultrastructure of the Müller cells in the foveola of a human and macaque retina. Sections through the posterior poles of an eye of a 40 years-old human donor and an eye of an adult cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. The foveola consisted of an inner layer (thickness, 5.5-12 µm) which mainly contained somata (including nuclei) and inner processes of Müller cells; this layer overlaid the central Henle fibers and outer nuclear layer. The inner layer contained numerous watery cysts and thin lamelliform and tubular Müller cell processes which spread along the inner limiting membrane (ILM). The cytoplasm of the outer Müller cell processes became increasingly dispersed and electron-lucent in the course towards the outer limiting membrane. The ILM of the foveola was formed by a very thin basal lamina (thickness, <40 nm) while the basal lamina of the parafovea was thick (0.9-1 µm). The data show that there are various conspicuous features of foveolar Müller cells. The numerous thin Müller cell processes below the ILM may smooth the inner surface of the foveola (to minimize image distortion resulting from varying light refraction angles at an uneven retinal surface), create additional barriers to the vitreous cavity (compensating the thinness of the ILM), and provide mechanical stability to the tissue. The decreasing density of the outer process cytoplasm may support the optical function of the foveola.


Assuntos
Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Fóvea Central/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Adulto , Animais , Membrana Basal/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino
10.
Klin Padiatr ; 230(1): 44-49, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A developmental disorder of a child has a major impact on the affected families' lives. However, data about the parents' perception of the revealing of the diagnosis is scarce. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Parents of children with developmental disorder treated as outpatients in a university hospital were interviewed about the initial medical consultation concerning the diagnosis of their child. RESULTS: Parents of 210 children agreed to take part in the study. 35/210 (17%) had to be excluded from the study as they were not able to remember the initial medical consultation, or claimed there was either no initial medical consultation or they did not attend it. The diagnosis of developmental disorder was made in median 4 months (Q25/Q75: 0/12; min/max: 0/63) after the parents had noticed the first symptoms. According to the parents, options to support the development of the child were the most frequently addressed topic in the initial medical consultation (119/175, 68%). Some parents wished more empathy (19/175, 11%), and less medical terminology (12/175, 7%). 114/175 (65%) of parents rated the initial medical consultation as "very good" or "good". After their initial medical consultation, 66/175 (38%) of the parents had open questions mainly concerning the prognosis of the disease. Sources of information that were used after the consultation were most often the treating physician (150/175, 86%) and the internet (133/175, 76%). CONCLUSION: Generally, parents perceive the initial medical consultation on the developmental disorder of their child well. Nevertheless, many parents state that they had unanswered questions after the consultation. The internet is one of the main sources parents use to answer those questions.

11.
Klin Padiatr ; 230(1): 5-12, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258161

RESUMO

Expertise in a variety of fields is required for the diagnostic process of epilepsies in children and adolescents as well as for their treatment with anticonvulsants. Patients benefit in the process from the cooperation of different health care professionals. It is of critical importance for risks to be minimised and for the efficacy shown in controlled clinical trials to be maintained in routine conditions. In the first instance, drug prescription procedures, including the choice of anticonvulsants and combinations of drugs and dosing, have to be considered. The administration of drugs has, of course, also to be taken into account. Only if patients are given their anticonvulsants appropriately, the intended success of the therapy can be accomplished. Strategies aimed at improving drug administration have to be directed not only at nurses but also at parents, children and adolescents themselves, as well as caregivers in schools and children's day-care facilities. By providing theoretical teaching, practical training, and routinely including pharmacists in the therapeutic team, drug-related problems that may result in limited effectiveness and increased risks are prevented. As a result, drug (therapy) safety is not only qualitatively improved, but the degree of participation and quality of life of patients and families is improved as well.

12.
Brain ; 140(9): 2337-2354, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050392

RESUMO

Recently, de novo mutations in the gene KCNA2, causing either a dominant-negative loss-of-function or a gain-of-function of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.2, were described to cause a new molecular entity within the epileptic encephalopathies. Here, we report a cohort of 23 patients (eight previously described) with epileptic encephalopathy carrying either novel or known KCNA2 mutations, with the aim to detail the clinical phenotype associated with each of them, to characterize the functional effects of the newly identified mutations, and to assess genotype-phenotype associations. We identified five novel and confirmed six known mutations, three of which recurred in three, five and seven patients, respectively. Ten mutations were missense and one was a truncation mutation; de novo occurrence could be shown in 20 patients. Functional studies using a Xenopus oocyte two-microelectrode voltage clamp system revealed mutations with only loss-of-function effects (mostly dominant-negative current amplitude reduction) in eight patients or only gain-of-function effects (hyperpolarizing shift of voltage-dependent activation, increased amplitude) in nine patients. In six patients, the gain-of-function was diminished by an additional loss-of-function (gain-and loss-of-function) due to a hyperpolarizing shift of voltage-dependent activation combined with either decreased amplitudes or an additional hyperpolarizing shift of the inactivation curve. These electrophysiological findings correlated with distinct phenotypic features. The main differences were (i) predominant focal (loss-of-function) versus generalized (gain-of-function) seizures and corresponding epileptic discharges with prominent sleep activation in most cases with loss-of-function mutations; (ii) more severe epilepsy, developmental problems and ataxia, and atrophy of the cerebellum or even the whole brain in about half of the patients with gain-of-function mutations; and (iii) most severe early-onset phenotypes, occasionally with neonatal onset epilepsy and developmental impairment, as well as generalized and focal seizures and EEG abnormalities for patients with gain- and loss-of-function mutations. Our study thus indicates well represented genotype-phenotype associations between three subgroups of patients with KCNA2 encephalopathy according to the electrophysiological features of the mutations.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Canal de Potássio Kv1.2/genética , Animais , Encefalopatias/complicações , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Oócitos/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Xenopus
13.
Brain ; 140(9): 2322-2336, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050398

RESUMO

De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel. The recurrent three-amino acid duplication p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) occurred in five patients. Our patient cohort exhibited a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, comprising six patients with mild to moderate intellectual disability, with or without epilepsy and behavioural disorders, and 14 patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy, of which 13 had severe neurodevelopmental impairment and four died in early childhood. Imaging studies suggested that the severity of neurological impairment and epilepsy correlates with that of structural abnormalities as well as the mutation type and location. Out of seven patients harbouring mutations outside the α/ß spectrin heterodimerization domain, four had normal brain imaging and three exhibited moderately progressive brain and/or cerebellar atrophy. Twelve of 13 patients with mutations located within the spectrin heterodimer contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/ßII aggregates and αII spectrin in the insoluble protein fraction were observed in fibroblasts derived from patients with the mutations p.(Glu2207del), p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) and p.(Arg2308_Met2309dup), all falling in the nucleation site of the α/ß spectrin heterodimer region. Molecular modelling of the seven SPTAN1 amino acid changes provided preliminary evidence for structural alterations of the A-, B- and/or C-helices within each of the mutated spectrin repeats. We conclude that SPTAN1-related disorders comprise a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes ranging from mild to severe and progressive. Spectrin aggregate formation in fibroblasts with mutations in the α/ß heterodimerization domain seems to be associated with a severe neurodegenerative course and suggests that the amino acid stretch from Asp2303 to Met2309 in the α20 repeat is important for α/ß spectrin heterodimer formation and/or αII spectrin function.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Adolescente , Atrofia/complicações , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encefalopatias/complicações , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Epilepsia/complicações , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Neurol ; 74(10): 1228-1236, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806457

RESUMO

Importance: Knowing the range of symptoms seen in patients with a missense or loss-of-function variant in KCNB1 and how these symptoms correlate with the type of variant will help clinicians with diagnosis and prognosis when treating new patients. Objectives: To investigate the clinical spectrum associated with KCNB1 variants and the genotype-phenotype correlations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study summarized the clinical and genetic information of patients with a presumed pathogenic variant in KCNB1. Patients were identified in research projects or during clinical testing. Information on patients from previously published articles was collected and authors contacted if feasible. All patients were seen at a clinic at one of the participating institutes because of presumed genetic disorder. They were tested in a clinical setting or included in a research project. Main Outcomes and Measures: The genetic variant and its inheritance and information on the patient's symptoms and characteristics in a predefined format. All variants were identified with massive parallel sequencing and confirmed with Sanger sequencing in the patient. Absence of the variant in the parents could be confirmed with Sanger sequencing in all families except one. Results: Of 26 patients (10 female, 15 male, 1 unknown; mean age at inclusion, 9.8 years; age range, 2-32 years) with developmental delay, 20 (77%) carried a missense variant in the ion channel domain of KCNB1, with a concentration of variants in region S5 to S6. Three variants that led to premature stops were located in the C-terminal and 3 in the ion channel domain. Twenty-one of 25 patients (84%) had seizures, with 9 patients (36%) starting with epileptic spasms between 3 and 18 months of age. All patients had developmental delay, with 17 (65%) experiencing severe developmental delay; 14 (82%) with severe delay had behavioral problems. The developmental delay was milder in 4 of 6 patients with stop variants and in a patient with a variant in the S2 transmembrane element rather than the S4 to S6 region. Conclusions and Relevance: De novo KCNB1 missense variants in the ion channel domain and loss-of-function variants in this domain and the C-terminal likely cause neurodevelopmental disorders with or without seizures. Patients with presumed pathogenic variants in KCNB1 have a variable phenotype. However, the type and position of the variants in the protein are (imperfectly) correlated with the severity of the disorder.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio Shab/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Pediatr ; 176(8): 1121-1129, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691134

RESUMO

Seizure disorder and developmental disorder are two of the most common chronic disorders in childhood. Data on perceived parental burden and specific effects on daily life is scarce. We performed a structured interview, consecutively talking to all parents of pediatric outpatients of our university hospital diagnosed with seizure or developmental disorder. Three hundred seven parents (of 317 affected children: 53 with seizure disorder, 44 with specific developmental disorder, 35 with learning disorder, 71 with intellectual disability, 15 with seizure + specific developmental disorder, 23 with seizure + learning disorder, 76 with seizure disorder + intellectual disability) were interviewed. Parents of children with both seizure disorder and intellectual disability stated the highest constraints in daily life, regarding friends, hobbies, emotional pressure, occupation, partnership, habitation, and financial burden. Due to diagnosis of seizure or developmental disorder, 155/307 (51%) parents reduced their working hours/stopped working, 62/307 (20%) changed their habitation, and 46/307 (15%) broke up. As judged by parents, 148/317 (47%) children are being discriminated against, even own family/friends and educators are held responsible. CONCLUSION: Parents perceive changes in their daily life and discrimination of their children due to their children's seizure and developmental disorders. An intellectual disability combined with seizure disorder caused the highest constraint. What is Known: • Seizure and/or developmental disorders of children may adversely influence quality of life for affected parents. • Caring for a child with special health care needs can take complete attention and own parental needs may therefore be difficult to meet. What is New: • Two out of three parents stated changes of their daily life such as quitting work, change of habitation, or breakup of partnership due to their child's diagnosis. • As judged by the parents, one in two children with developmental disorder of any kind is being discriminated against, even teachers and own family are held responsible.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Epilepsia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurology ; 88(5): 483-492, 2017 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of mutations in GABRB3 encoding the ß3 subunit of the GABAA receptor in individual patients with epilepsy with regard to causality, the spectrum of genetic variants, their pathophysiology, and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We performed massive parallel sequencing of GABRB3 in 416 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies and childhood-onset epilepsies and recruited additional patients with epilepsy with GABRB3 mutations from other research and diagnostic programs. RESULTS: We identified 22 patients with heterozygous mutations in GABRB3, including 3 probands from multiplex families. The phenotypic spectrum of the mutation carriers ranged from simple febrile seizures, genetic epilepsies with febrile seizures plus, and epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures to West syndrome and other types of severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathies. Electrophysiologic analysis of 7 mutations in Xenopus laevis oocytes, using coexpression of wild-type or mutant ß3, together with α5 and γ2s subunits and an automated 2-microelectrode voltage-clamp system, revealed reduced GABA-induced current amplitudes or GABA sensitivity for 5 of 7 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that GABRB3 mutations are associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum of epilepsies and that reduced receptor function causing GABAergic disinhibition represents the relevant disease mechanism.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Animais , Automação Laboratorial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Oócitos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Fenótipo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
17.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 10: 1-4, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27942463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) often manifest with cherry red macular spots. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and specific biochemical and enzymatic patterns. In uncertain cases, genetic testing with next generation sequencing can establish a diagnosis, especially in milder or atypical phenotypes. We report on the diagnostic work-up in a boy with sialidosis type I, presenting initially with marked cherry red macular spots but non-specific urinary oligosaccharide patterns and unusually mild excretion of bound sialic acid. METHODS: Biochemical, enzymatic and genetic tests were performed in the patient. The clinical and electrophysiological data was reviewed and a genotype-phenotype analysis was performed. In addition a systematic literature review was carried out. CASE REPORT AND RESULTS: Cherry red macular spots were first noted at 6 years of age after routine screening myopia. Physical examination, psychometric testing, laboratory investigations as well as cerebral MRI were unremarkable at 9 years of age. So far no clinical myoclonic seizures occurred, but EEG displays generalized epileptic discharges and visual evoked potentials are prolonged bilaterally. Urine thin layer chromatography showed an oligosaccharide pattern compatible with different LSD including sialidosis, galactosialidosis, GM1 gangliosidosis or mucopolysaccharidosis type IV B. Urinary bound sialic acid excretion was mildly elevated in spontaneous and 24 h urine samples. In cultured fibroblasts, α-sialidase activity was markedly decreased to < 1%; however, bound and free sialic acid were within normal range. Diagnosis was eventually established by multigene panel next generation sequencing of genes associated to LSD, identifying two novel, compound heterozygous variants in NEU1 gene (c.699C > A, p.S233R in exon 4 and c.803A > G; p.Y268C in Exon 5 in NEU1 transcript NM_000434.3), leading to amino acid changes predicted to impair protein function. DISCUSSION: Sialidosis should be suspected in patients with cherry red macular spots, even with non-significant urinary sialic acid excretion. Multigene panel next generation sequencing can establish a definite diagnosis, allowing for counseling of the patient and family.

18.
Mol Syndromol ; 7(4): 182-188, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27781028

RESUMO

Mutations in SCN2A have been associated with benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures (BFNIS) as well as infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy, such as Ohtahara syndrome (OS). We describe a family with 3 affected individuals carrying the novel SCN2A missense variant c.1147C>G, p.Q383E affecting a residue proximal to the highly conserved selectivity filter in the P-loop of the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.2). All 3 individuals presented with seizures in early infancy. However, there were striking differences in the spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from BFNIS to OS. A change of ion selectivity of Nav1.2 is considered to be the potential pathomechanism underlying this Nav1.2 channel dysfunction. The observation of benign and severe phenotypes due to an identical mutation within one family contradicts the hypothesis of different modes of inheritance as a mandatory feature discriminating BFNIS from SCN2A encephalopathy.

19.
Mol Syndromol ; 7(4): 189-196, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27781029

RESUMO

Benign familial neonatal seizures (BFNS) present a rare familial epilepsy syndrome caused by genetic alterations in the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv7.2 and Kv7.3, encoded by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3. While most BFNS families carry alterations in KCNQ2, mutations in KCNQ3 appear to be less common. Here, we describe a family with 6 individuals presenting with neonatal focal and generalized seizures. Genetic testing revealed a novel KCNQ3 variant, c.835G>T, cosegregating with seizures in 4 tested individuals. This variant results in a substitution of the highly conserved amino acid valine localized within the pore-forming transmembrane segment S5 (p.V279F). Functional investigations in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed a loss of function, which supports p.V279F as a pathogenic mutation. When p.V279F was coexpressed with the wild-type (WT) Kv7.2 subunits, the resulting potassium currents were about 10-fold reduced compared to the WT Kv7.3 and Kv7.2 coexpression. Genotype-phenotype correlation shows an incomplete penetrance of p.V279F. Response to antiepileptic treatment was variable, but evaluation of treatment response remained challenging due to the self-limiting character of the disease. The identification of the pathogenic variant helped to avoid unnecessary investigations in affected family members and allowed guided therapy.

20.
Mol Syndromol ; 7(4): 239-246, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27781034

RESUMO

Prompted by the observations of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and recurrent copy number variants in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), we searched for further evidence supporting a possible correlation of 22q11DS with GGE and with myoclonic seizures. Through routine diagnostics, we identified 3 novel individuals with the seemingly uncommon combination of 22q11DS and JME. We subsequently screened the literature for reports focussing on the epilepsy phenotype in 22q11DS. We additionally screened a database of 173 22q11DS patients and identified a fourth individual with JME as well as 2 additional cases with GGE. We describe 6 novel and 22 published cases with co-occurrence of 22q11DS and GGE. In many patients, GGE was associated with myoclonic seizures allowing for a diagnosis of JME in at least 6 individuals. Seventeen of the 173 22q11DS cases (10%) had a diagnosis of either focal or generalized epilepsy. In these cases, focal epilepsy could often be attributed to syndrome-associated hypocalcaemia, cerebral bleeds, or structural brain anomalies. However, the cause of GGE remained unclear. In this study, we describe and review 28 individuals with 22q11DS and GGE (especially JME), showing that both disorders frequently co-occur. Compared to the reported prevalence of 15-21%, in our case series only 10% of 22q11DS individuals were found to have epilepsy, often GGE. Since 22q11.2 does not contain convincing GGE candidate genes, we discuss the possibility of an aetiological correlation through a possibly disturbed interaction with the GABAB receptor.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA