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1.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076827

RESUMO

A fresh start of higher medical education in Slovakia and Hungary is closely related to Trnava (Nagyszombat). The University of Trnava had originally been established in 1635 but the Faculty of Medicine was added only later, in 1769, when the name of the university was also changed to Royal Hungarian University of Sciences. A fresh graduate, Václav Trnka from Krovice (1739-1791), was appointed as head of the Department of Anatomy. He was not only an anatomist, but a real polymath of the second half of the eighteenth century practicing medicine as well as becoming the Dean, then the Rector of the University. He has lived and acted within several countries of Central Europe, or rather, the Austrio-Hungarian monarchy during the reign of Empress Maria Theresia, then her son Joseph II. Born in Bohemia (now Czech Republic), studied and graduated in Austria, then finally was appointed as the first Professor of Anatomy of a newly established medical faculty in Upper Hungary (now Slovakia). In 1777, the university was moved first to Buda, then to Pest (now parts of the capital of Hungary), and the Faculty of Medicine was not separated from the rest of the faculties before the end of the Second World War. Following several institutional and name changes, this Medical Faculty is considered as the foundation of the present Semmelweis University. Trnka was a proliferous author, publishing more than 20 monographs covering various branches of clinical medicine, however, no anatomical work may be connected to his activity. And as a typical intellectual of the era, he was a keen and talented musician composing several canons.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effect of thyroid dysfunction on adverse outcomes has been studied in many different patient populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thyroid hormone supplementation of donors and recipients on postoperative outcomes after orthotopic heart transplantation. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Single center, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred and sixty-six consecutive patients undergoing heart transplantation. INTERVENTIONS: No interventions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographic, hemodynamic, and clinical characteristics; donor and recipient United Network for Organ Sharing scores; and information on thyroid hormone support of donors and recipients were recorded. During the median follow-up of 4.59 years (interquartile range 4.26-4.92 y), 70 patients (26.3%) died. After adjustments were made for the United Network for Organ Sharing score, recipients who were treated preoperatively with l-thyroxine had a lower risk for all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.98; p = 0.047) compared with recipients who were not treated with l-thyroxine. In addition, l-thyroxine treatment of donors was associated with a better recipient survival (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.87; p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Pretransplantation thyroid hormone supplementation of donors and recipients was associated with improved long-term survival after heart transplantation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe global practices for on-table extubation (OTE) in pediatric cardiac anesthesia in European and non-European countries. DESIGN: Multiple-choice, web-based survey with 34 questions addressing organizational data, existence of OTE programs, inclusion and exclusion criteria for OTE, and intraoperative and immediate postoperative management. SETTING: Online survey endorsed by the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists. PARTICIPANTS: Anesthesiologists departments in European and non-European pediatric cardiac surgical centers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The survey was sent to 144 pediatric cardiac surgical centers in 29 countries as a web-based questionnaire. Addressees were pediatric cardiac anesthesiologists who were members of European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists or were known to the authors. The response rate was 63%. Fifty percent of the respondents were practicing in university hospitals. The survey demonstrated that 76% of the respondents practiced OTE, with 50% of the pediatric cardiac anesthesiologists regularly performing OTE in different proportions, ranging from 1 to 51% of on-pump pediatric cardiac surgeries. Seventy-seven percent of respondents made their decision to perform OTE on an individual case-by-case basis. Seventy-eight percent of the congenital cardiac lesions deemed eligible for OTE fell into Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 categories 1 and 2. In patients for whom OTE was planned, anesthesia primarily was maintained using a combined inhalational and intravenous technique. The main reasons not to perform OTE were that it was deemed to provide no major advantage (45%), to be dangerous (9%), or to decrease operating room efficiency by increasing operating room turnover time (36%). CONCLUSION: The survey demonstrated that the majority of the approached pediatric cardiac anesthesiologists practice OTE regularly in pediatric cardiac surgery. Frequency of OTE and inclusion criteria vary widely. The observations made in this survey should prompt appropriately powered, randomized controlled clinical trials to examine the effect of OTE on various effectiveness and safety outcomes.

4.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to provide a detailed macroscopic mapping of the palatal and tuberal blood supply applying anatomical methods and studying specific anastomoses to bridge the gap between basic structural and empirical clinical knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten cadavers (three dentate, seven edentulous) have been prepared for this study in the Department of Anatomy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary, and in the Department of Anatomy of the Medical University of Graz. All cadavers were fixed with Thiel's solution. For the macroscopic analysis of the blood vessels supplying the palatal mucosa, corrosion casting in four cadavers and latex milk injection in other six cadavers were performed. RESULTS: We recorded major- and secondary branches of the greater palatine artery (GPA) and its relation to the palatine spine, different anastomoses with the nasopalatine artery (NPA), and lesser palatal artery (LPA) as well as with contralateral branches of the GPA. Penetrating intraosseous branches at the premolar-canine area were also detected. In edentulous patients, the GPA developed a curvy pathway in the premolar area. The blood supply around the maxillary tuberosity was also presented. CONCLUSION: The combination of different staining methods has shed light to findings with relevance to palatal blood supply, offering a powerful tool for the design and execution of surgical interventions involving the hard palate. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The present study provides clinicians with a good basis to understand the anatomical background of palatal and tuberal blood supply. This might enable clinicians to design optimized incision- and flap designs. As a result, the risk of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative wound healing complications related to impaired blood supply can be minimized.

5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(4): 1711-1718, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preoperative liver function in heart failure patients is associated with extensive functional, structural, and hemodynamic abnormalities. The authors hypothesized that perioperative liver dysfunction is associated with worse 2-year survival after orthotopic heart transplantation. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Single-center, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 209 consecutive patients undergoing heart transplantation. INTERVENTIONS: No interventions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hepatobiliary markers, hemodynamic parameters, echocardiographic parameters, the need for mechanical cardiac support, demographic parameters, and United Network for Organ Sharing and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were investigated. Fifty-five patients (26.3%) died, and the mean survival time was 3.61 years after transplantation. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, in addition to the preoperative modified MELD score, the 4th quartiles of the maximum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase levels on the 4th through 7th postoperative days were independently associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-5.55; p = 0.031 and OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.13-5.18; p = 0.024, respectively). By expressing the transaminase values as the multiplier of the sex-specific top normal value, the maximum AST and alanine transaminase levels (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.02; p < 0.001 and OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03; p = 0.001, respectively) were linked to worse survival. Among the postdischarge parameters, the modified MELD score (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.27; p < 0.001) and the AST level were associated with postdischarge mortality (OR 1.002, 95% CI 1.001-1.003; p < 0.001 as a continuous variable; OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.10; p < 0.001, expressed as the multiplier of the sex-specific normal value, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The severity of postoperative liver dysfunction negatively influences survival after heart transplantation, and liver function should be closely assessed in these patients.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Consenso , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
7.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach.DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.SETTING:A web-based international consensus conference.PARTICIPANTS:More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference.INTERVENTIONS:The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions.CONCLUSIONS:This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.(AU)


Assuntos
Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório/métodos
8.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(11): E1021-E1024, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268563

RESUMO

Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is a routine cardiac surgical intervention that is rarely associated with severe complications. In this report, we present a complex and unique case following AVR in a middle-aged woman. We show the growing necessity for a strong cooperation between interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons, together with the emerging role of cardiac tomography based three-dimensional printing technique in planning and executing precision surgery within the chest.

9.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(8): 2466-2475, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of postoperative chylothorax in children with congenital heart disease is a rare and serious complication in cardiac intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of our study was to identify the perioperative characteristics, treatment options, resource utilization and long term complications of patients having chylothorax after a pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients were retrospectively assessed for the presence of chylothorax between January 2002 and December 2012 in a tertiary national cardiac center. Occurrence, treatment options and long term outcomes were analyzed. Chylothorax patients less than 2 years of age were analyzed using propensity-matched statistical analysis in regard to postoperative complications after discharge. RESULTS: During the 10-year period, 48 patients had chylothorax after pediatric cardiac surgery. The highest incidence was observed on the second postoperative day (7 patients, 14.6%). Seven patients (14.6% of the chylothorax population) died. During the follow up period, 5 patients had additional thromboembolic complications (2 had confirmed thrombophilia). Eleven patients had a genetic abnormality (3 had Down's syndrome, 3 had Di-Giorge's syndrome, 1 had an IgA deficiency and 4 had other disorders). During the reoperations (49 cases), no chylothorax occurred. After propensity matching, the occurrence of pulmonary failure (P=0.001) was significantly higher in the chylothorax group, and they required prolonged mechanical ventilation (P=0.002) and longer hospitalization times (P=0.01). After discharge, mortality and neurologic and thromboembolic events did not differ in the matched groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chylothorax is an uncommon complication after pediatric cardiac surgery and is associated with higher resource utilization. Chylothorax did not reoccur during reoperations and was not associated with higher mortality or long-term complications in a propensity matched analysis.

10.
Molecules ; 22(6)2017 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604639

RESUMO

In vitro studies show that diclofenac inhibits enzymatic steroid glucuronidation. This study was designed to investigate the influence of diclofenac on the excretion of stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol via analyses in hair, blood and urine in vivo in a rat study. Brown Norway rats were administered with stanozolol (weeks 1-3) and diclofenac (weeks 1-6). Weekly assessment of steroid levels in hair was complemented with spot urine and serum tests. Levels of both stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol steadily increased in hair during stanozolol treatment and decreased post-treatment, but remained readily detectable for 6 weeks. In contrast, compared to control rats, diclofenac significantly reduced urinary excretion of 3'-hydroxystanozolol which was undetectable in most samples. This is the first report of diclofenac altering steroid metabolism in vivo, detrimentally affecting detection in urine, but not in hair, which holds considerable advantages over urinalysis for anti-doping tests.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Doping nos Esportes , Esteroides/metabolismo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Anabolizantes/sangue , Animais , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Ratos , Estanozolol/análogos & derivados , Estanozolol/sangue , Estanozolol/urina
11.
Health Psychol ; 36(8): 740-748, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28368142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent effects of vital exhaustion and depression on the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. METHOD: The sample of this representative, 4-year longitudinal study comprised 2,725 participants (43.56% male, Mage = 58.39 years, SDage = 14.39 years). Individuals being treated for hypertension (n = 277) and cardio- and/or cerebrovascular incidents (n = 131) for the first time during the follow-up period were compared with participants never treated for CVD (n = 2,317). Joint principal component analysis was conducted on the items of the vital exhaustion (shortened Maastricht Questionnaire) and depression (shortened Beck Depression Inventory) measures simultaneously resulting in 3 components representing depression, vital exhaustion, and sleep difficulties. The role of these 3 components in predicting the incidence of CVD morbidity was examined using logistic regression-controlling for traditional risk factors such as sex, age, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and physical inactivity. RESULTS: In the multivariate analyses, vital exhaustion (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.03-1.39, p = .021) and sleep-related problem (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.00-1.33, p = .044) scores proved to be independent predictors of treatment initiation for hypertension, while sleep-related difficulties predicted CVD event incidence (OR = 1.27, CI = 1.06-1.52, p = .009). However, depressive symptomatology factor scores were not associated with either cardiovascular outcome in the regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Vital exhaustion and depressive symptomatology showed a different pattern in their relationship with CVD incidence, with vital exhaustion being the more robust predictor. These results suggest that the 2 constructs are not identical and that vital exhaustion deserves consideration when planning and implementing interventions to reduce CVD risk. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Fadiga/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 14(3): 409-415.e2, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28082159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The new generation's learning habits demand reforms in the methods by which we teach anatomy. Medical imaging techniques such as CT may offer a solution to help the understanding of complex anatomic structures. Our objective was to assess the noninferiority of using radiologic images in teaching anatomy as opposed to prosections or lecture slides. METHODS: Seventy-three first-year medical students were assigned to three experimental groups taught using different approaches: lecture slides (LG), prosections (PG), or radiology images (RG). All three groups received a 2-hour presentation on cardiac anatomy. Three days after the lectures, the participants were subjected to a gross anatomic "pin test" followed by a written theoretical examination to evaluate their knowledge of cardiac anatomy. RESULTS: We found a significant difference between the three groups regarding their gross anatomic examination scores (LG: 8.1 ± 4.1, PG: 10.6 ± 3.3, RG: 8.5 ± 3.4, P = .03; Tukey's honest significant difference: P(LG-PG) = .04, P(PG-RG) = .08, P(LG-RG) = .94), whereas no significant difference was apparent regarding their written theoretical examination scores (LG: 16.6 ± 4.2, PG: 18.6 ± 3.5, RG: 18.3 ± 3.0, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: Concerning gross anatomic knowledge, groups taught using prosections or radiologic images showed no significant difference. Demonstrative materials do not seem to significantly affect the theoretical knowledge of the students. The use of medical imaging techniques could represent a valuable contribution toward teaching anatomy.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Cardiologia/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Brain Struct Funct ; 222(1): 301-315, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053075

RESUMO

Retrograde tracing with choleratoxin B, injected into the nucleus accumbens (Ac) and bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral part (BSTL), yielded labeled perikarya in a ring-shaped area of arcopallium, including dorsal and hilar subdivisions, with a wedge-shaped node of dense accumulation in the amygdalopiriform area (APir). Also, the position of source neurons for this arcopallio-subpallial pathway was verified by anterograde tracing. Three subregions of arcopallium (amygdalopiriform, dorsal, hilar) were injected with dextran (10 kDa), and fibers and terminal fields were detected in Ac, BSTL and extended amygdala (EA). Most abundant projections to Ac arose from APir. The study enabled precise description of the main output fiber streams: the dorsal stream follows the dorsal border of arcopallium and, continuing in the ventral amygdalofugal tract, it traverses the EA and the BSTL before reaching the Ac. The ventral stream of fibers enters the EA along the ventral subpallial border and terminates in the basal nucleus and ventral pallidum. The course of the pathway was reconstructed in 3D. Retrogradely labeled arcopallial neurons were devoid of DARPP-32. DARPP-32 was present in the Ac but not the BSTL. No colocalization between the calcium binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin, and retrogradely labeled neurons was detected, despite a considerable territorial overlap. This finding further supports the excitatory nature of the arcopallial-accumbens pathway. Conjoint and convergent amygdalar input to EA, including BSTL, as well as to Ac subregions likely transmits fear and aggression related signals to both viscerolimbic (EA) and learned reward- and motivation-related (Ac) ventrobasal forebrain regions.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Núcleo Accumbens/citologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo Basal/citologia , Prosencéfalo Basal/metabolismo , Calbindina 2/metabolismo , Calbindinas/metabolismo , Galinhas , Fosfoproteína 32 Regulada por cAMP e Dopamina/metabolismo , Imagem Tridimensional , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/citologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/citologia , Núcleos Septais/metabolismo
14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 500 clinicians from 61 countries. INTERVENTIONS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature about nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. A consensus conference of experts discussed eligible papers. The interventions identified by the conference then were submitted to colleagues worldwide through a web-based survey. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors identified 11 interventions contributing to increased survival (perioperative hemodynamic optimization, neuraxial anesthesia, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, selective decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin for tight glycemic control, preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, levosimendan, volatile agents, and remote ischemic preconditioning) and 2 interventions showing increased mortality (beta-blocker therapy and aprotinin). Interventions then were voted on by participating clinicians. Percentages of agreement among clinicians in different countries differed significantly for 6 interventions, and a variable gap between evidence and clinical practice was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified 13 nonsurgical interventions that may decrease or increase perioperative mortality, with variable agreement by clinicians. Such interventions may be optimal candidates for investigation in high-quality trials and discussion in international guidelines to reduce perioperative mortality.


Assuntos
Consenso , Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Anestesia , Mortalidade
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34731

RESUMO

Objective: Out of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedure every year, morethan 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. We decided to update a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. Design and Setting: A web-based international consensus conference. Participants: 500 hundred clinicians from 61 countries. Interventions: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature aboutnonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. Eligible papers were discussed by a Consensus Conference of experts. The interventions identified by the conference were then submitted to colleagues worldwide through aweb-based survey...(AU)


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória , Mortalidade , Anestesia , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos
17.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 17(9): 902-3, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27585051
18.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 17(4): 307-14, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26914622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fluid overload after pediatric cardiac surgery is common and has been shown to increase both mortality and morbidity. This study explores the risk factors of early postoperative fluid overload and its relationship with adverse outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the prospectively collected data of children undergoing open-heart surgery between 2004 and 2008. SETTING: Tertiary national cardiac center. PATIENTS: One thousand five hundred twenty consecutive pediatric patients (<18 years old) were included in the analyses. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the first 72 hours of the postoperative period, the daily fluid balance was calculated as milliliter per kilogram and the daily fluid overload was calculated as fluid balance (L)/weight (kg) × 100. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality; the secondary outcomes were low cardiac output syndrome and prolonged mechanical ventilation. One thousand three hundred and sixty-seven patients (89.9%) had a cumulative fluid overload below 5%; 120 patients (7.8%), between 5% and 10%; and 33 patients (2.1%), above 10%. After multivariable analysis, higher fluid overload on the day of the surgery was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.008-1.303; p = 0.041) and low cardiac output syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.30; p = 0.001). Higher maximum serum creatinine levels (adjusted odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.003-1.021; p = 0.009), maximum vasoactive-inotropic scores (adjusted odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.005-1.029; p = 0.042), and higher blood loss on the day of the surgery (adjusted odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.004-1.025; p = 0.015) were associated with a higher risk of fluid overload that was greater than 5%. CONCLUSIONS: Fluid overload in the early postoperative period was associated with higher mortality and morbidity. Risk factors for fluid overload include underlying kidney dysfunction, hemodynamic instability, and higher blood loss on the day of the surgery.


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/complicações , Líquidos Corporais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/mortalidade
19.
J Periodontol ; 87(3): e27-34, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study, the possible localization and role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) in the regulation of gingival venules in a rat model of experimental diabetes are examined. METHODS: Six weeks after streptozotocin premedication, Wistar male rats presenting blood sugar levels >20 mmol/L were selected for investigation. The VEGFR2 antagonist ZM323881 [5-((7-benzyloxyquinazolin-4-yl)amino)-4-fluoro-2-methylphenol-hydrochloride] (20 µg/mL) was dripped onto the gingiva between the mandibular incisors. Changes in diameter of the selected gingival venule were measured by vital microscopy combined with digital photography at specified times. Immunohistochemical staining was used to localize VEGFR2. For controls, the same protocol was used on animals with normal blood sugar levels and healthy gingiva. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the baseline venule diameter of the diabetic and the control groups (47 ± 1 and 28 ± 2 µm, respectively). After 15, 30, and 60 minutes of local application of ZM323881, significant vasoconstriction was observed in the venules of diabetic rats compared with the baseline (81.4% ± 4.6%, 81.8% ± 4.4%, and 80.6% ± 5.1%, respectively). The control group showed no change in the venule diameter. The immunohistochemical analysis showed significantly increased VEGFR2 expression in the mast cells along the venules in the diabetic group, whereas mast cells were rarely found in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that VEGF expression is increased in gingiva in experimentally induced diabetes. After VEGFR2 activation, the mast cell-derived vasodilatory and inflammatory mediators may contribute markedly to the concomitant changes in the microcirculation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Animais , Gengiva , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Vênulas
20.
Crit Care Med ; 43(8): 1559-68, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25821918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify all treatments that affect mortality in adult critically ill patients in multicenter randomized controlled trials. We also evaluated the methodological aspects of these studies, and we surveyed clinicians' opinion and usual practice for the selected interventions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched. Further articles were suggested for inclusion from experts and cross-check of references. STUDY SELECTION: We selected the articles that fulfilled the following criteria: publication in a peer-reviewed journal; multicenter randomized controlled trial design; dealing with nonsurgical interventions in adult critically ill patients; and statistically significant effect in unadjusted landmark mortality. A consensus conference assessed all interventions and excluded those with lack of reproducibility, lack of generalizability, high probability of type I error, major baseline imbalances between intervention and control groups, major design flaws, contradiction by subsequent larger higher quality trials, modified intention to treat analysis, effect found only after adjustments, and lack of biological plausibility. DATA EXTRACTION: For all selected studies, we recorded the intervention and its comparator, the setting, the sample size, whether enrollment was completed or interrupted, the presence of blinding, the effect size, and the duration of follow-up. DATA SYNTHESIS: We found 15 interventions that affected mortality in 24 multicenter randomized controlled trials. Median sample size was small (199 patients) as was median centers number (10). Blinded trials enrolled significantly more patients and involved more centers. Multicenter randomized controlled trials showing harm also involved significantly more centers and more patients (p = 0.016 and p = 0.04, respectively). Five hundred fifty-five clinicians from 61 countries showed variable agreement on perceived validity of such interventions. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 15 treatments that decreased/increased mortality in critically ill patients in 24 multicenter randomized controlled trials. However, design affected trial size and larger trials were more likely to show harm. Finally, clinicians view of such trials and their translation into practice varied.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Feminino , Fibrose/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipotermia Induzida/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Decúbito Ventral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Ácido Tranexâmico/sangue
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