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2.
Adv Med Sci ; 65(1): 156-162, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to present the treatment modalities and associated side effects in a Polish nation-wide ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) patients' cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with AAV between 1990 and 2016, included in the POLVAS registry was performed. Standard descriptive statistic methods were used with an emphasis on the treatment modalities. RESULTS: There were 625 patients diagnosed with AAV included in this study: 417 cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; 66.7%), 106 cases of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA; 17.0%) and 102 cases of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; 16.3%). The mean age at the date of diagnosis was 50.4 (±15.7) years and the median observational period amounted to 4.0 (2.0-8.0) years. Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) were the medicaments most frequently used for remission induction (593/622; 95.3%), followed by cyclophosphamide (487/622; 78.3%), rituximab (44/622; 7.1%), and methotrexate (39/622; 6.3%). GCs were also most frequently administered for maintenance therapy (499/592; 84.3%), followed by azathioprine (224/592; 37.8%), methotrexate (136/592; 23.0%) and mycophenolate mofetil (99/592; 16.7%). The median cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide and rituximab equalled 7.99 g (4.18-14.0) and 2000 mg (1500-2800), respectively. The most commonly observed adverse events included: infections - 214/551 cases (38.8%), which were associated with the time of observation (OR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10), the use of GCs intravenous pulses (OR = 2.76; 95% CI 1.68-4.54) and need for haemodialysis (OR = 1.73; 95% CI 1.10-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Polish patients with AAV were predominantly treated according to appropriate guidelines. The most frequent adverse events were typical for usually administered immunosuppressive treatment.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784798

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Premorbid conditions affect prognosis of acutely-ill aged patients. Several lines of evidence suggest geriatric syndromes need to be assessed but little is known on their relative effect on the 30-day survival after ICU admission. The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of frailty, cognition decline and activity of daily life in addition to the presence of comorbidity and polypharmacy and to assess their influence on 30-day survival. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 242 ICUs from 22 countries. Patients 80 years or above acutely admitted over a six months period to an ICU between May 2018 and May 2019 were included. In addition to common patients' characteristics and disease severity, we collected information on specific geriatric syndromes as potential predictive factors for 30-day survival, frailty (Clinical Frailty scale) with a CFS > 4 defining frail patients, cognitive impairment (informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE) with IQCODE ≥ 3.5 defining cognitive decline, and disability (measured the activity of daily life with the Katz index) with ADL ≤ 4 defining disability. A Principal Component Analysis to identify co-linearity between geriatric syndromes was performed and from this a multivariable model was built with all geriatric information or only one: CFS, IQCODE or ADL. Akaike's information criterion across imputations was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of our models. RESULTS: We included 3920 patients with a median age of 84 years (IQR: 81-87), 53.3% males). 80% received at least one organ support. The median ICU length of stay was 3.88 days (IQR: 1.83-8). The ICU and 30-day survival were 72.5% and 61.2% respectively. The geriatric conditions were median (IQR): CFS: 4 (3-6); IQCODE: 3.19 (3-3.69); ADL: 6 (4-6); Comorbidity and Polypharmacy score (CPS): 10 (7-14). CFS, ADL and IQCODE were closely correlated. The multivariable analysis identified predictors of 1-month mortality (HR; 95% CI): Age (per 1 year increase): 1.02 (1.-1.03, p = 0.01), ICU admission diagnosis, sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA) (per point): 1.15 (1.14-1.17, p < 0.0001) and CFS (per point): 1.1 (1.05-1.15, p < 0.001). CFS remained an independent factor after inclusion of life-sustaining treatment limitation in the model. CONCLUSION: We confirm that frailty assessment using the CFS is able to predict short-term mortality in elderly patients admitted to ICU. Other geriatric syndromes do not add improvement to the prediction model. Since CFS is easy to measure, it should be routinely collected for all elderly ICU patients in particular in connection to advance care plans, and should be used in decision making.

5.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.

9.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(6): e1203-e1211, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tumor regression grades (TRGs) quantify the pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of TRGs in combination with the TNM classification in an independent cohort of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) treated with NAC followed by radical cystectomy (RC) in a retrospective setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated with a complete course of NAC followed by RC for MIBC between December 2012 and December 2017 were enrolled in the study. TRGs were determined in RC specimens. Data were collected preoperatively, and the follow-up was continued up to August 2018. Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to compare survival probabilities between major responders (no MIBC, < ypT2 and ypN0), partial responders (≥ ypT2 or ypN+ and TRG2), and non-responders (≥ ypT2 or ypN+ and TRG3). RESULTS: A group of 70 patients with a median age of 64 years (interquartile range, 58-67 years) was analyzed. There were 36 major responders, 21 partial responders, and 13 non-responders. In comparison with a major response, a partial response was associated with a hazard ratio of 9.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-80.89; P = .04) and non- responders showed a hazard ratio of 17.85 (95% confidence interval, 2.18-145.85; P = .007) for death. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the prognostic value of the pathologic response to NAC. Determination of TRGs is straightforward, provides valuable information, and could be easily included in the standard pathologic examination of RC surgical specimen. Prospective studies are needed to establish the role of TRG in routine clinical practice.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e033150, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, dehydration, hypotension and bleeding may all contribute to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Accelerated surgery after a hip fracture can decrease the exposure time to such contributors and may reduce the risk of AKI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Hip fracture Accelerated surgical TreaTment And Care tracK (HIP ATTACK) is a multicentre, international, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT). Patients who suffer a hip fracture are randomly allocated to either accelerated medical assessment and surgical repair with a goal of surgery within 6 hours of diagnosis or standard care where a repair typically occurs 24 to 48 hours after diagnosis. The primary outcome of this substudy is the development of AKI within 7 days of randomisation. We anticipate at least 1998 patients will participate in this substudy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We obtained ethics approval for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at 70 participating centres. All patients provide consent before randomisation. We anticipate reporting substudy results by 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02027896; Pre-results.

11.
Cent European J Urol ; 72(2): 100-105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482015

RESUMO

Introduction: Even though the survival benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is well established, NAC has not been widely used in Poland until recently. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utilization of NAC and its association with survival in MIBC. Material and methods: Patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) for MIBC between December 2012 and December 2017 were included in the study. Data were collected in the perioperative period and long-term observation was continued up to August 2018. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the probability of survival. Results: A sample of 155 patients with a median age of 65 (IQR: 60-69) years was analyzed. In this group, 79 patients (51%) were treated with NAC prior to RC. Patients in the NAC+RC group were younger, more often had a positive smoking history, and had lower preoperative levels of hemoglobin, white blood cells and C-reactive protein. A 90-day complication rate and mortality were similar in both groups and in the entire cohort were equal to 64.5% and 5.2%, respectively. The overall survival (OS) was on average 150 days longer in the RC+NAC group compared to the RC-only group when patients were followed-up for 3 years (95%CI:3 4 - 267; p = 0.011). Conclusions: We demonstrated a high utilization of NAC at our institution. The use of NAC was associated with a better prognosis than RC alone and was not associated with an increased morbidity or mortality. Our results support the use NAC as a safe and effective treatment modality in MIBC.

14.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 9(12): 1409-1419, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin desensitization is increasingly recommended for the treatment of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The objective of this study is to systematically review the efficacy and safety of aspirin desensitization in patients with AERD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to January 5, 2019. We included randomized trials and comparative observational studies in any language. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed in duplicate independently. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolled 233 patients with AERD. Compared to placebo, aspirin desensitization (mean daily dose 800 mg) improved quality of life (risk ratio [RR] 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 3.06; heterogeneity measure [I2 ] = 0%; risk difference [RD] +24%; 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test [SNOT-22] scale [0 to 110, higher worse]; mean difference [MD] -10.27 [95% CI, -6.39 to -14.15]; moderate-certainty); and respiratory symptoms (RR 2.20 [95% CI, 1.55 to 2.73], I2 = 34%, RD +36%; American Academy of Otolaryngology (AAO) scale [0 to 20, higher worse]; MD -2.56 [95% CI,-1.12 to -3.92]; high-certainty). Aspirin desensitization increased adverse events severe enough to cause treatment discontinuation (major bleeding, gastritis, asthma exacerbation, or rash causing drug discontinuation, RR 4.39 [95% CI, 1.43 to 13.50], I2 = 0%, RD +11%, moderate-certainty), and gastritis (RR 3.84 [95% CI, 1.12 to 13.19], I2 = 0%, RD +9%, low-certainty). Findings were robust to sensitivity analyses. Two available observational studies were not informative because they lacked adjustment for confounders and/or contemporaneous controls. CONCLUSION: In patients with AERD, moderate-certainty and high-certainty evidence shows that aspirin desensitization meaningfully reduces symptoms of rhinosinusitis and improves quality of life, but results in a significant increase in adverse events.

15.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 51(3): 205-209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host reaction to infection. There is an upward trend in sepsis prevalence and mortality worldwide. Sepsis causes hypoxia, which reduces the ability of cells to produce ATP. This process is also influenced by thyroid hormones. Some of the previous studies revealed association between the mortality rate in sepsis and thyroid hormone levels. We aimed to evaluate thyroid hormones' predictive value in septic patients. METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Allergy and Immunology Department at the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, between 2015 and 2017 were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were obtained from septic patients immediately after establishing the diagnosis, in order to measure free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The primary endpoint was 30-day survival rate. The secondary endpoint was death anytime during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. RESULTS: Patients who died within 30 days had significantly lower level of fT4 than survivors (9.8 vs. 12.7 pmol L-1; P = 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in TSH and fT3 levels. As for the secondary endpoint, both fT3 (1.6 vs. 1.8 pmol L-1; P = 0.021) and fT4 (9.8 vs. 12.7 µIU mL-1; P = 0.019) levels were significantly lower among non-survivors compared to survivors, which was not the case for TSH. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid hormone levels were significantly lower among patients who died during ICU stay. The results of the presented study suggest that fT3 and fT4 levels may be taken into consideration as potential new prognostic factors in sepsis.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029394, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation are lifesaving interventions that are commonly performed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Laryngeal oedema is a known complication of intubation that may cause airway obstruction in a patient on extubation. To date, the only test available to predict this complication is the cuff leak test (CLT); however, its diagnostic accuracy and utility remains uncertain. Herein, we report the protocol for the CuffLeak and AirwayObstruction in MechanicallyVentilated ICU Patients (COMIC) pilottrial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a multicentred, pragmatic, pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT). We will enrol 100 mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU who are deemed ready for extubation. We will exclude patients at a high risk of laryngeal oedema. All enrolled patients will have a CLT done before extubation. In the intervention arm, the results of the CLT will be communicated to the bedside physician, and decision to extubate will be left to the treating team. In the control arm, respiratory therapist will not communicate the results of the CLT to the treating physician, and the patient will be extubated regardless of the CLT result. Randomisation will be done in a 1:1 allocation ratio, stratified by size of the endotracheal tube and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation.Although we will examine all clinical outcomes relevant for the future COMIC RCT, the primary outcomes of the COMIC pilottrial will be feasibility outcomes including: consent rate, recruitment rate and protocol adherence. Clinical outcomes include postextubation stridor, reintubation, emergency surgical airway, ICU mortality, in hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay in days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Institutional Review Board and Bioethical Commission of the Jagiellonian University approved this study. The trial results will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03372707.

17.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 51(2): 96-101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with autoimmune diseases constitute a relatively low percentage of the intensive care unit (ICU) population but their prognosis is particularly poor, partially due to involvement of multiple organs as well as complications related to immunosuppressive treatment. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is one of the most life-threatening presentations of autoimmune diseases, associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study is to report about clinical factors associated with DAH in the ICU setting and to assess the survival in 5-year follow-up. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective, cohort study performed in the ICU of the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland. We enrolled 21 patients treated for the first time in the ICU due to autoimmune diseases, who developed DAH. Severity of patients' clinical condition was assessed on the first day using APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS II and SOFA scores. Mortality was assessed during the ICU stay and in 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 53 (18-78) years and 13 (61.9%) of patients were females. The most common diagnoses were granulomatosis with polyangiitis (38.1%), systemic lupus erythematosus (23.8%) and microscopic polyangiitis (14.3%). Most of the patients required mechanical ventilation (85.7%), renal replacement therapy (57.1%) and blood product transfusions (71.4%). Mortality in the ICU was 52.4%, while in both 1-year and 5-year follow-up it was 76.2%. CONCLUSION: Patients who develop DAH in the course of autoimmune diseases and are treated in the ICU have a poor prognosis and often require advanced therapeutic measures.

18.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(3): 327-334, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main goal of our study was to assess the impact of vascular procedures on the activity of hemostatic and fibrinolytic pathways. METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients with ≥ 45 years old undergoing surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm or peripheral artery disease under general or regional anesthesia and who were hospitalized at least one night after the procedure. Patients undergoing carotid artery surgery and those who had acute bypass graft thrombosis, cancer, renal failure defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min/1.73m2, venous thromboembolism three months prior to surgery, or acute infection were excluded from the study. We measured levels of markers of hemostasis (factor VIII, von Willebrand factor:ristocetin cofactor [vWF:CoR], antithrombin), fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], plasmin-antiplasmin complexes), and soluble cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (sCD40L) before and 6-12h after vascular procedure. RESULTS: Significant differences between preoperative and postoperative levels of factor VIII (158.0 vs. 103.3, P<0.001), antithrombin (92.1 vs. 74.8, P<0.001), D-dimer (938.0 vs. 2406.0, P=0.005), tPA (10.1 vs. 12.8, P=0.002), and sCD40L (9092.9 vs. 1249.6, P<0.001) were observed. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative levels of vWF:CoR (140.6 vs. 162.8, P=0.17) and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (749.6 vs. 863.7, P=0.21). CONCLUSION: Vascular surgery leads to significant alterations in hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems. However, the direction of these changes in both pathways remains unclear and seems to be different depending on the type of surgery. A study utilizing dynamic methods of coagulation and fibrinolysis assessment performed on a larger population is warranted.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Fibrinólise/fisiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(11): 1338-1346, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to determine the incidence and predictors of myocardial injury and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: We included 267 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR at two tertiary centres in Canada and Poland. The primary outcome was myocardial injury during hospital stay after EVAR defined as a troponin elevation (ultra-sensitivity troponin I Vidas ≥ 19 ng·L-1, non-high-sensitivity troponin I Vidas ≥ 0.01 µg·L-1, high-sensitivity troponin T ≥ 20 ng·L-1, non-high-sensitivity troponin T ≥ 0.03 ng·mL-1). The secondary outcome was AKI defined using the stage 1 of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. RESULTS: Myocardial injury occurred in 78/267 patients (29%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.1 to 34.9) and with AKI occurring in 25/267 (9.4%; 95% CI, 6.4 to 13.5). In a multivariable analysis, the following variables were associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury: age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.65 per ten-year increase; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.49), Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥3 (aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.26 to 6.41), The American Society of Anesthesiology physical status score 4 (aOR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.47), duration of surgery (aOR, 1.27 per each hour; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.61), and perioperative drop in hemoglobin (aOR, 3.35 per 10 g·dL-1 decrease; 95% CI, 1.00 to 11.3). Predictors of AKI were duration of surgery (aOR, 1.72 per hour; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.17), a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-59 mL·min-1 (aOR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.42 to 10.3), and an eGFR < 30 mL·min-1 (aOR, 37.0; 95% CI, 7.1 to 193.8). CONCLUSION: Myocardial injury and AKI are frequent during hospital stay after EVAR and warrant further investigation in prospective studies.

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