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1.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): e219-e234, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to affect millions worldwide. Given the rapidly growing evidence base, we implemented a living guideline model to provide guidance on the management of patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. METHODS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Disease 2019 panel has expanded to include 43 experts from 14 countries; all panel members completed an electronic conflict-of-interest disclosure form. In this update, the panel addressed nine questions relevant to managing severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. We used the World Health Organization's definition of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019. The systematic reviews team searched the literature for relevant evidence, aiming to identify systematic reviews and clinical trials. When appropriate, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis to summarize treatment effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, then used the evidence-to-decision framework to generate recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued nine statements (three new and six updated) related to ICU patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019. For severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019, the panel strongly recommends using systemic corticosteroids and venous thromboprophylaxis but strongly recommends against using hydroxychloroquine. In addition, the panel suggests using dexamethasone (compared with other corticosteroids) and suggests against using convalescent plasma and therapeutic anticoagulation outside clinical trials. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel suggests using remdesivir in nonventilated patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and suggests against starting remdesivir in patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 outside clinical trials. Because of insufficient evidence, the panel did not issue a recommendation on the use of awake prone positioning. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued several recommendations to guide healthcare professionals caring for adults with critical or severe coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. Based on a living guideline model the recommendations will be updated as new evidence becomes available.

2.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 22, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534010

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Frailty is a valuable predictor for outcome in elderly ICU patients, and has been suggested to be used in various decision-making processes prior to and during an ICU admission. There are many instruments developed to assess frailty, but few of them can be used in emergency situations. In this setting the clinical frailty scale (CFS) is frequently used. The present study is a sub-study within a larger outcome study of elderly ICU patients in Europe (the VIP-2 study) in order to document the reliability of the CFS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the VIP-2 study, 129 ICUs in 20 countries participated in this sub-study. The patients were acute admissions ≥ 80 years of age and frailty was assessed at admission by two independent observers using the CFS. Information was obtained from the patient, if not feasible, from the family/caregivers or from hospital files. The profession of the rater and source of data were recorded along with the score. Interrater variability was calculated using linear weighted kappa analysis. RESULTS: 1923 pairs of assessors were included and background data of patients were similar to the whole cohort (n = 3920). We found a very high inter-rater agreement (weighted kappa 0.86), also in subgroup analyses. The agreement when comparing information from family or hospital records was better than using only direct patient information, and pairs of raters from same profession performed better than from different professions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we documented a high reliability using CFS in this setting. This frailty score could be used more frequently in elderly ICU patients in order to create a more holistic and realistic impression of the patient´s condition prior to ICU admission.

3.
CMAJ ; 192(49): E1715-E1722, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with clinically significant short- and long-term complications after noncardiac surgery. Our aim was to describe the incidence of clinically important POAF after noncardiac surgery and establish the prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in this context. METHODS: The Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) Study was a prospective cohort study involving patients aged 45 years and older who had inpatient noncardiac surgery that was performed between August 2007 and November 2013. We determined 30-day incidence of clinically important POAF (i.e., resulting in angina, congestive heart failure, symptomatic hypotension or requiring treatment) using logistic regression models to analyze the association between preoperative NT-proBNP and POAF. RESULTS: In 37 664 patients with no history of atrial fibrillation, we found that the incidence of POAF was 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9%-1.1%; 369 events); 3.2% (95% CI 2.3%-4.4%) in patients undergoing major thoracic surgery, 1.3% (95% CI 1.2%-1.5%) in patients undergoing major nonthoracic surgery and 0.2% (95% CI 0.1%-0.3%) in patients undergoing low-risk surgery. In a subgroup of 9789 patients with preoperative NT-proBNP measurements, the biomarker improved the prediction of POAF risk over conventional prognostic factors (likelihood ratio test p < 0.001; fraction of new information from NT-proBNP was 16%). Compared with a reference NT-proBNP measurement set at 100 ng/L, adjusted odds ratios for the occurrence of POAF were 1.31 (95% CI 1.15-1.49) at 200 ng/L, 2.07 (95% CI 1.27-3.36) at 1500 ng/L and 2.39 (95% CI 1.26-4.51) at 3000 ng/L. INTERPRETATION: We determined that the incidence of clinically important POAF after noncardiac surgery was 1.0%. We also found that preoperative NT-proBNP levels were associated with POAF independent of established prognostic factors. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00512109.

4.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 52(4): 281-286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165878

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) is a group of rare disorders where inflammation and damage of the small blood vessels lead to dysfunction of the supplied organs. In severe flares of the disease patients may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and treatment. The study aims to characterize Polish patients with AAV who were admitted to the ICU and compare them to the others. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study based on the POLVAS - registry of Polish adult patients with AAV was carried out. Patients admitted to the ICU (ICU group) were identified and compared with the patients who did not require ICU admission (non-ICU group). Characteristics and comparison between groups were made using standard statistic descriptive methods. RESULTS: 30 patients admitted to the ICU were identified among 573 cases included in the registry. All patients in the ICU group with available data were ANCA positive. The clinical manifestations related to the ICU admission were respiratory, renal and central nervous system involvement. The treatment regimen for remission induction was similar in both groups. Almost half of the patients in the ICU-group (48.3%) required dialysis, whereas in the non-ICU group it was 21.8% (P = 0.01). Infections were also more frequent in the ICU group (72.4% vs. 36.9% P < 0.001). The mortality rate among patients who needed ICU treatment was significantly higher when compared to the rest of the patients (53.6% vs. 7.8%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the Polish AAV cohort one in twenty patients required ICU admission. This group was characterized by multiple organ involvement and high mortality.

5.
J Crit Care ; 61: 34-38, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075607

RESUMO

Predicting the future course of critical conditions involves personal experience, heuristics and statistical models. Although these methods may perform well for some cases and population averages, they suffer from substantial shortcomings when applied to individual patients. The reasons include methodological problems of statistical modeling as well as limitations of cross-sectional data sampling. Accurate predictions for individual patients become crucial when they have to guide irreversible decision-making. This notably applies to triage situations in response to a lack of healthcare resources. We will discuss these issues and argue that analysing longitudinal data obtained from time-limited trials in intensive care can provide a more robust approach to individual prognostication.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18671, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122713

RESUMO

Female and male very elderly intensive patients (VIPs) might differ in characteristics and outcomes. We aimed to compare female versus male VIPs in a large, multinational collective of VIPs with regards to outcome and predictors of mortality. In total, 7555 patients were included in this analysis, 3973 (53%) male and 3582 (47%) female patients. The primary endpoint was 30-day-mortality. Baseline characteristics, data on management and geriatric scores including frailty assessed by Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) were documented. Two propensity scores (for being male) were obtained for consecutive matching, score 1 for baseline characteristics and score 2 for baseline characteristics and ICU management. Male VIPs were younger (83 ± 5 vs. 84 ± 5; p < 0.001), less often frail (CFS > 4; 38% versus 49%; p < 0.001) but evidenced higher SOFA (7 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 points; p < 0.001) scores. After propensity score matching, no differences in baseline characteristics could be observed. In the paired analysis, the mortality in male VIPs was higher (mean difference 3.34% 95%CI 0.92-5.76%; p = 0.007) compared to females. In both multivariable logistic regression models correcting for propensity score 1 (aOR 1.15 95%CI 1.03-1.27; p = 0.007) and propensity score 2 (aOR 1.15 95%CI 1.04-1.27; p = 0.007) male sex was independently associated with higher odds for 30-day-mortality. Of note, male gender was not associated with ICU mortality (OR 1.08 95%CI 0.98-1.19; p = 0.14). Outcomes of elderly intensive care patients evidenced independent sex differences. Male sex was associated with adverse 30-day-mortality but not ICU-mortality. Further research to identify potential sex-specific risk factors after ICU discharge is warranted.Trial registration: NCT03134807 and NCT03370692; Registered on May 1, 2017 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03370692 .

7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD008333, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) are a group of rare auto-inflammatory diseases that affects mainly small vessels. AAV includes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Anti-cytokine targeted therapy uses biological agents capable of specifically targeting and neutralising cytokine mediators of the inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of anti-cytokine targeted therapy for adults with AAV. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2019, Issue 7), MEDLINE and Embase up to 16 August 2019. We also examined reference lists of articles, clinical trial registries, websites of regulatory agencies and contacted manufacturers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials of targeted anti-cytokine therapy in adults (18 years or older) with AAV compared with placebo, standard therapy or another modality and anti-cytokine therapy of different type or dose. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs with a total of 440 participants (mean age 48 to 56 years). We analysed the studies in three groups: 1) mepolizumab (300 mg; three separate injections every four weeks for 52 weeks) versus placebo in participants with relapsing or refractory EGPA; 2) belimumab (10 mg/kg on days 0, 14, 28 and every 28 days thereafter until 12 months after the last participant was randomised) or etanercept (25 mg twice a week) with standard therapy (median 25 months) versus placebo with standard therapy (median 19 months) in participants with GPA/MPA; and 3) infliximab (3 mg/kg on days 1 and 14, before the response assessment on day 42) versus rituximab (0.375g/m2 on days 1, 8, 15 and 22) in participants with refractory GPA for up to 12 months. None of the studies were assessed as low risk of bias in all domains: one study did not report randomisation or blinding methods clearly. Three studies were at high risk and one study was at unclear risk of bias for selective outcome reporting. One trial with 136 participants with relapsing or refractory EGPA compared mepolizumab with placebo during 52 weeks of follow-up and observed one death in the mepolizumab group (1/68, 1.5%) and none in the placebo group (0/68, 0%) (Peto odds ratio (OR) 7.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 372.38; low-certainty evidence). Low-certainty evidence suggests that more participants in the mepolizumab group had ≥ 24 weeks of accrued remission over 52 weeks compared to placebo (27.9% versus 2.9%; risk ratio (RR) 9.5, 95% CI 2.30 to 39.21), and durable remission within the first 24 weeks sustained until week 52 (19.1% mepolizumab versus 1.5% placebo; RR 13.0, 95% CI 1.75 to 96.63; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6, 95% Cl 4 to 13). Mepolizumab probably decreases risk of relapse (55.8% versus 82.4%; RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86; NNTB 4, 95% CI 3 to 9; moderate-certainty evidence). There was low-certainty evidence regarding similar frequency of adverse events (AEs): total AEs (96.9% versus 94.1%; RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.11), serious AEs (17.7% versus 26.5%; RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.28) and withdrawals due to AEs (2.9% versus 1.5%; RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.19 to 21.54). Disease flares were not measured. Based on two trials with different follow-up periods (mean of 27 months for etanercept study; up to four years for belimumab study) including people with GPA (n = 263) and a small group of participants with MPA (n = 22) analysed together, we found low-certainty evidence suggesting that adding an active drug (etanercept or belimumab) to standard therapy does not increase or reduce mortality (3.4% versus 1.4%; Peto OR 2.45, 95% CI 0.55 to 10.97). Etanercept may have little or no effect on remission (92.3% versus 89.5%; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.07), durable remission (70% versus 75.3%; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.11; low-certainty evidence) and disease flares (56% versus 57.1%; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27; moderate-certainty evidence). Low-certainty evidence suggests that belimumab does not increase or reduce major relapse (1.9% versus 0%; RR 2.94, 95% CI 0.12 to 70.67) or any AE (92.5% versus 82.7%; RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.29). Low-certainty evidence suggests a similar frequency of serious or severe AEs (47.6% versus 47.6%; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), but more frequent withdrawals due to AEs in the active drug group (11.2%) compared to the placebo group (4.2%), RR 2.66, 95% CI 1.07 to 6.59). One trial involving 17 participants with refractory GPA compared infliximab versus rituximab added to steroids and cytotoxic agents for 12 months. One participant died in each group (Peto OR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.05 to 15.51; 11% versus 12.5%). We have very low-certainty evidence for remission (22% versus 50%, RR 0.44, 95% Cl 0.11 to 1.81) and durable remission (11% versus 50%, RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.60), any severe AE (22.3% versus 12.5%; RR 1.78, 95% CI 0.2 to 16.1) and withdrawals due to AEs (0% versus 0%; RR 2.70, 95% CI 0.13 to 58.24). Disease flare/relapse and the frequency of any AE were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found four studies but concerns about risk of bias and small sample sizes preclude firm conclusions. We found moderate-certainty evidence that in patients with relapsing or refractory EGPA, mepolizumab compared to placebo probably decreases disease relapse and low-certainty evidence that mepolizumab may increase the probability of accruing at least 24 weeks of disease remission. There were similar frequencies of total and serious AEs in both groups, but the study was too small to reliably assess these outcomes. Mepolizumab may result in little to no difference in mortality. However, there were very few events. In participants with GPA (and a small subgroup of participants with MPA), etanercept or belimumab may increase the probability of withdrawal due to AEs and may have little to no impact on serious AEs. Etanercept may have little or no impact on durable remission and probably does not reduce disease flare.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/mortalidade , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/tratamento farmacológico , Etanercepte/administração & dosagem , Etanercepte/efeitos adversos , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Poliangiite Microscópica/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Números Necessários para Tratar , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária , Esteroides/administração & dosagem
8.
J Crit Care ; 60: 290-293, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949896

RESUMO

In this paper the authors express the opinion that there is much to be learned about the 80+ year old age group as it relates to critical care and end-of-life matters. We need to learn how to better predict outcome, we need to learn our limitations and deal with uncertainties, we need to better communicate with our elderly patients and their caregivers and we need to engage with our colleagues in Geriatrics. There is a wave of very old people arriving in the intensive care unit and we have much to do to prepare for it and for the ethical, fair and appropriate care of these critically ill, but elderly, patients.

9.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish diagnostic criteria for bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS) defined as bleeding during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery that is independently associated with mortality within 30 days of surgery, and to estimate the proportion of 30-day postoperative mortality potentially attributable to BIMS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of participants ≥45 yr old having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the adjusted relationship between candidate diagnostic criteria for BIMS and all-cause mortality within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: Of 16 079 participants, 2.0% (315) died and 36.1% (5810) met predefined screening criteria for bleeding. Based on independent association with 30-day mortality, BIMS was identified as bleeding leading to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, transfusion of ≥1 unit of red blood cells, or that was judged to be the cause of death. Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery occurred in 17.3% of patients (2782). Death occurred in 5.8% of patients with BIMS (161/2782), 1.3% (39/3028) who met bleeding screening criteria but not BIMS criteria, and 1.1% (115/10 269) without bleeding. BIMS was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.47). We estimated the proportion of 30-day postoperative deaths potentially attributable to BIMS to be 20.1-31.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS), defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the cause of death, is common and may account for a quarter of deaths after noncardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

10.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic criteria for Bleeding Independently associated with Mortality after noncardiac Surgery (BIMS) have been defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or is judged to be the direct cause of death. Preoperative prediction guides for BIMS can facilitate informed consent and planning of perioperative care. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of 16 079 participants aged ≥45 yr having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011, 17.3% (2782) experienced BIMS. An electronic risk calculator for BIMS was developed and internally validated by logistic regression with bootstrapping, and further simplified to a risk index. Decision curve analysis assessed the potential utility of each prediction guide compared with a strategy of identifying risk of BIMS based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1. RESULTS: With information about the type of surgery, preoperative haemoglobin, age, sex, functional status, kidney function, history of high-risk coronary artery disease, and active cancer, the risk calculator accurately predicted BIMS (bias-corrected C-statistic, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.837-0.852). A simplified index based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1, open surgery, and high-risk surgery also predicted BIMS, but less accurately (C-statistic, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.779-0.796). Both prediction guides could improve decision making compared with knowledge of haemoglobin <120 g L-1 alone. CONCLUSIONS: BIMS, defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the direct cause of death, can be predicted by a simple risk index before surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

11.
Vascular ; : 1708538120937127, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare preoperative coagulation and fibrinolysis activity and incidence of perioperative complications between patients undergoing vascular procedures for peripheral artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS: This is a substudy of a prospective observational cohort study (VISION; NCT00512109) in which we recruited patients aged ≥45 years, undergoing surgery for peripheral artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Blood samples were obtained 24 h preoperatively to measure platelet count, concentrations of coagulation coagulation (fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor:Ristocetin cofactor, antithrombin III), fibrinolysis (dimer D, plasmin-antiplasmin complexes, tissue plasminogen activator) markers and level of soluble CD40 ligand. Incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death (composite endpoint) was assessed in 30-day follow-up. RESULTS: The study group included 131 patients at the mean age of 68.3 years among whom reason for surgery was peripheral artery disease in 77 patients (58.8%) and abdominal aortic aneurysm in 54 patients (41.2%). Peripheral artery disease group was characterized by higher platelet count (250.5 versus 209.5 (×10 3 /µl), p = 0.001), concentrations of fibrinogen (5.4 versus 4.1 (g/l), p < 0.001), factor VIII (176.9 versus 141.9 (%), p < 0.001), von Willebrand factor:Ristocetin cofactor (188.9 versus 152.3 (%), p = 0.009), and soluble CD40 ligand (9016.0 versus 7936.6 (pg/ml), p = 0.005). The dimer D level was higher (808.0 versus 2590.5 (ng/ml), p < 0.001) in the abdominal aortic aneurysm group. Incidence of major cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke) within 30 days from surgery did not differ between the groups (39.0% versus 29.6%, p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests higher activation of coagulation and relatively lower fibrinolytic activity in peripheral artery disease group compared to patients undergoing surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm without a significant difference in cardiovascular outcomes.

12.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 56, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of intensive care patients aged ≥ 80 years (Very old Intensive Care Patients; VIPs) is growing. VIPs have high mortality and morbidity and the benefits of ICU admission are frequently questioned. Sepsis incidence has risen in recent years and identification of outcomes is of considerable public importance. We aimed to determine whether VIPs admitted for sepsis had different outcomes than those admitted for other acute reasons and identify potential prognostic factors for 30-day survival. RESULTS: This prospective study included VIPs with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores ≥ 2 acutely admitted to 307 ICUs in 21 European countries. Of 3869 acutely admitted VIPs, 493 (12.7%) [53.8% male, median age 83 (81-86) years] were admitted for sepsis. Sepsis was defined according to clinical criteria; suspected or demonstrated focus of infection and SOFA score ≥ 2 points. Compared to VIPs admitted for other acute reasons, VIPs admitted for sepsis were younger, had a higher SOFA score (9 vs. 7, p < 0.0001), required more vasoactive drugs [82.2% vs. 55.1%, p < 0.0001] and renal replacement therapies [17.4% vs. 9.9%; p < 0.0001], and had more life-sustaining treatment limitations [37.3% vs. 32.1%; p = 0.02]. Frailty was similar in both groups. Unadjusted 30-day survival was not significantly different between the two groups. After adjustment for age, gender, frailty, and SOFA score, sepsis had no impact on 30-day survival [HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.86-1.15), p = 0.917]. Inverse-probability weight (IPW)-adjusted survival curves for the first 30 days after ICU admission were similar for acute septic and non-septic patients [HR: 1.00 (95% CI 0.87-1.17), p = 0.95]. A matched-pair analysis in which patients with sepsis were matched with two control patients of the same gender with the same age, SOFA score, and level of frailty was also performed. A Cox proportional hazard regression model stratified on the matched pairs showed that 30-day survival was similar in both groups [57.2% (95% CI 52.7-60.7) vs. 57.1% (95% CI 53.7-60.1), p = 0.85]. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for organ dysfunction, sepsis at admission was not independently associated with decreased 30-day survival in this multinational study of 3869 VIPs. Age, frailty, and SOFA score were independently associated with survival.

13.
Cent European J Urol ; 73(1): 13-18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395317

RESUMO

Introduction: The year 2015 brought a major shift in the national health care system in Poland - the diagnosis and treatment of patients with malignant diseases became a priority. Close multidisciplinary collaboration was facilitated to optimize patients' care. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) utilization in patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) due to muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in a single academic center in Poland. Material and methods: Patients who underwent planned curative RC with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection between January 2013 and December 2018 in a tertiary care center were included in the study. To assess the response to chemotherapy, tumor regression grades (TRGs) were included into the standard pathological examination of RC specimens. Results: Out of 183 patients enrolled into the study, 105 (57.4%) underwent NAC before RC. Only 1 (4%) out of 25 patients underwent NAC prior to RC in 2013. The percentage of patients who received NAC in subsequent years were: 4% (1/25) in 2013, 36% (9/25) in 2014, 55.3% (21/38) in 2015, 62.9% (21/35) in 2016, 83.9% (26/31) in 2017 and 89.7% (26/29) in 2018 (p-value for trend <0.001). Thirty patients (28.6%) had complete pathological response to NAC (TRG1), 50 patients (47.6%) showed strong response (TRG2) and 25 patients (23.7%) had weak or no response (TRG3). Conclusions: This study showed an increasing utilization of NAC amongst MIBC patients who underwent RC. Close multidisciplinary collaboration is the key to optimizing perioperative care of patients with MIBC.

14.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(6): 506-511, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among elderly patients worldwide. It poses a particular challenge for healthcare systems with limited financial and human resources. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess factors associated with the length of hospital stay and in­hospital mortality, focusing on the time from admission to surgery. The secondary goal was to assess temporal trends in the intervals of admission to surgery between 2010 and 2011 and in 2019. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross­sectional study enrolling patients aged 65 years or older who underwent surgery for hip fracture between January 2010 and October 2011 in 12 Polish hospitals. Demographic and clinical data, dates of hospital admission and surgery as well as information about in­hospital death were gathered. We additionally searched the databases of the same 12 hospitals for patients hospitalized due to hip fracture between January and June 2019 and recorded the dates of admission and surgery. RESULTS: We included 381 patients who underwent surgery in 2010 and 2011 and 761 patients hospitalized in 2019. In a multivariable analysis, including age, sex, and diagnosis of dementia, we observed association between time from admission to surgery and higher in­hospital mortality and longer hospital stay. There was a decrease in proportion of patients undergoing surgery within 2 days from admission (52.8% vs 44.3%; P = 0.007) between 2010 to 2011 and in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: In­hospital mortality and length of hospitalization were associated with time from admission to surgery in patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture. We observed an alarming trend towards an increase in the admission-surgery interval.

15.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(3): 204-216, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is used to treat respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To review multiple streams of evidence regarding the benefits and harms of ventilation techniques for coronavirus infections, including that causing COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: 21 standard, World Health Organization-specific and COVID-19-specific databases, without language restrictions, until 1 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of any design and language comparing different oxygenation approaches in patients with coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Animal, mechanistic, laboratory, and preclinical evidence was gathered regarding aerosol dispersion of coronavirus. Studies evaluating risk for virus transmission to health care workers from aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent and duplicate screening, data abstraction, and risk-of-bias assessment (GRADE for certainty of evidence and AMSTAR 2 for included systematic reviews). DATA SYNTHESIS: 123 studies were eligible (45 on COVID-19, 70 on SARS, 8 on MERS), but only 5 studies (1 on COVID-19, 3 on SARS, 1 on MERS) adjusted for important confounders. A study in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 reported slightly higher mortality with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) than with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), but 2 opposing studies, 1 in patients with MERS and 1 in patients with SARS, suggest a reduction in mortality with NIV (very-low-certainty evidence). Two studies in patients with SARS report a reduction in mortality with NIV compared with no mechanical ventilation (low-certainty evidence). Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy. Other included studies suggest increased odds of transmission from AGPs. LIMITATION: Direct studies in COVID-19 are limited and poorly reported. CONCLUSION: Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that use of NIV, similar to IMV, probably reduces mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: World Health Organization. (PROSPERO: CRD42020178187).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Aerossóis , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Pharmacol Rep ; 72(1): 147-155, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of renal replacement therapy on drug concentrations in patients with sepsis has not been fully elucidated because the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimicrobials are influenced by both pathophysiological and treatment-related factors. The aim of this study was to determine meropenem concentrations in patients with sepsis before and after the initiation of continuous venovenous hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA-CVVHD). METHODS: The study included 15 critically ill patients undergoing RCA-CVVHD due to sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. All participants received 2 g of meropenem every 8 h in a prolonged infusion lasting 3 h. Meropenem concentrations were measured in blood plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Blood samples were obtained at six-time points prior to and at six-time points after introducing RCA-CVVHD. RESULTS: The median APACHE IV and SOFA scores on admission were 118 points (interquartile range [IQR] 97-134 points) and 19.5 points (IQR 18-21 points), respectively. There were no significant differences in the plasma concentrations of meropenem measured directly before RCA-CVVHD and during the first 450 min of the procedure. The drug concentration reached its peak 2 h after initiating the infusion and then steadily declined. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of high-dose meropenem (2 g every 8 h) administered in a prolonged infusion was similar before and after the introduction of RCA-CVVHD in patients with sepsis who developed acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua/métodos , Meropeném/administração & dosagem , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Cítrico/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meropeném/farmacocinética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/complicações , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
N Engl J Med ; 382(7): 622-631, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More effective and safer treatments are needed for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to evaluate the use of plasma exchange and two regimens of oral glucocorticoids in patients with severe ANCA-associated vasculitis (defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <50 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area or diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage). Patients were randomly assigned to undergo plasma exchange (seven plasma exchanges within 14 days after randomization) or no plasma exchange (control group). Patients were also randomly assigned to follow either a standard-dose regimen or a reduced-dose regimen of oral glucocorticoids. Patients were followed for up to 7 years for the primary composite outcome of death from any cause or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). RESULTS: Death from any cause or ESKD occurred in 100 of 352 patients (28.4%) in the plasma-exchange group and in 109 of 352 patients (31.0%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 1.13; P = 0.27). The results were similar in subgroup analyses and in analyses of secondary outcomes. We also assessed the noninferiority of a reduced-dose regimen of glucocorticoids to a standard-dose regimen, using a noninferiority margin of 11 percentage points. Death from any cause or ESKD occurred in 92 of 330 patients (27.9%) in the reduced-dose group and in 83 of 325 patients (25.5%) in the standard-dose group (absolute risk difference, 2.3 percentage points; 90% CI, -3.4 to 8.0), which met the criterion for noninferiority. Serious infections at 1 year were less common in the reduced-dose group than in the standard-dose group (incidence rate ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.93), but other secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe ANCA-associated vasculitis, the use of plasma exchange did not reduce the incidence of death or ESKD. A reduced-dose regimen of glucocorticoids was noninferior to a standard-dose regimen with respect to death or ESKD. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research and others; PEXIVAS Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN07757494; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00987389.).


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Troca Plasmática , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Quimioterapia de Indução , Nefropatias/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Troca Plasmática/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
18.
Adv Med Sci ; 65(1): 156-162, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to present the treatment modalities and associated side effects in a Polish nation-wide ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) patients' cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with AAV between 1990 and 2016, included in the POLVAS registry was performed. Standard descriptive statistic methods were used with an emphasis on the treatment modalities. RESULTS: There were 625 patients diagnosed with AAV included in this study: 417 cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; 66.7%), 106 cases of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA; 17.0%) and 102 cases of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; 16.3%). The mean age at the date of diagnosis was 50.4 (±15.7) years and the median observational period amounted to 4.0 (2.0-8.0) years. Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) were the medicaments most frequently used for remission induction (593/622; 95.3%), followed by cyclophosphamide (487/622; 78.3%), rituximab (44/622; 7.1%), and methotrexate (39/622; 6.3%). GCs were also most frequently administered for maintenance therapy (499/592; 84.3%), followed by azathioprine (224/592; 37.8%), methotrexate (136/592; 23.0%) and mycophenolate mofetil (99/592; 16.7%). The median cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide and rituximab equalled 7.99 g (4.18-14.0) and 2000 mg (1500-2800), respectively. The most commonly observed adverse events included: infections - 214/551 cases (38.8%), which were associated with the time of observation (OR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10), the use of GCs intravenous pulses (OR = 2.76; 95% CI 1.68-4.54) and need for haemodialysis (OR = 1.73; 95% CI 1.10-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Polish patients with AAV were predominantly treated according to appropriate guidelines. The most frequent adverse events were typical for usually administered immunosuppressive treatment.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(32): 3083-3091, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095334

RESUMO

Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is due to myocardial ischaemia (i.e. supply-demand mismatch or thrombus) and is associated with an increased risk of mortality and major vascular complications at 30 days and up to 2 years after non-cardiac surgery. The diagnostic criteria for MINS includes an elevated post-operative troponin measurement judged as resulting from myocardial ischaemia (i.e. no evidence of a non-ischaemic aetiology), during or within 30 days after non-cardiac surgery, and without the requirement of an ischaemic feature (e.g. ischaemic symptom, ischaemic electrocardiography finding). For patients with MINS who are not at high risk of bleeding, physicians should consider initiating dabigatran 110 mg twice daily and low-dose aspirin. Physicians should also consider initiating statin therapy in patients with MINS. Most MINS patients should only be referred to cardiac catheterization if they demonstrate recurrent instability (e.g. cardiac ischaemia, heart failure). Patients ≥65 years of age or with known atherosclerotic disease should have troponin measurements on days 1, 2, and 3 after surgery while the patient is in hospital to avoid missing >90% of MINS and the opportunity to initiate secondary prophylactic measures and follow-up.

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