Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 212
Filtrar
1.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(6): 923, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248279

RESUMO

In the original article, the first author's given name and family name were interchanged as provided by the authors in the original manuscript.

2.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 78, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293528

RESUMO

For people with chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRD), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or systemic sclerosis (SSc), normal cognitive functions are essential for performing daily activities. These diseases may be associated with cognitive dysfunction (CD). In RA, CD has been associated with age, lower education and disease duration and activity. Great advances have been achieved in neuropsychiatric SLE in the identification of pathogenic pathways, assessment and possible treatment strategies. SSc rarely exerts direct effects on the brain and cognitive function. However, the psychological burden that includes depression, anxiety and social impact may be high. AIRD patients with sustained disease activity, organ damage or lower education should be evaluated for CD. The control of systemic inflammation together with tailored behavioural cognitive therapies may benefit these patients.

3.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(6): 915-921, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180009

RESUMO

Cervical spine involvement may lead to severe complications in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the era of modern therapies, atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) may be rare; however, it may still be detected in asymptomatic patients. The onset of myelopathy can occur at any time. Altogether 49 female RA patients were included. Among them, 15 were methotrexate treated, biologic free, while 34 patients received biologics. The patients had no cervical pain or any neurological symptoms. We assessed the first (C1) and second (C2) cervical vertebrae by 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to AAS, we also determined odontoid erosion or periodontal soft tissue thickening. We associated our MRI findings with clinical, laboratory parameters, and hand radiography. We detected anterior AAS and soft tissue thickening in one-quarter, while odontoid erosions in eight (16%) of RA patients. There were no significant differences among the therapeutic subgroups. No posterior or vertical AAS was seen. Anterior AAS was associated with higher degree of inflammation, soft tissue thickening was seen at younger age, while odontoid erosions were associated with van der Heijde-Sharp scores of the hand. None of the patients had any lesions requiring surgery. The presence of cervical involvement in RA patients with 10-11 years of disease duration is still an important and frequent phenomenon. Higher disease activity and erosive disease are associated with atlantoaxial involvement. 3 T MRI is a sensitive method to assess AAS, as well as soft tissue lesions and odontoid erosions.

6.
RMD Open ; 6(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958278

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by a chronic inflammatory condition of the joints, but the comorbidities of RA predominantly contribute to the reduced lifespan associated with this disease. Clinical data indicate that cardiovascular disease is the major comorbidity associated with mortality in RA. In this review, we aimed to describe the pathogenesis of heart failure in RA. First, we emphasised the fundamental differences between ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart diseases and referred to their relevance in excessive cardiovascular-dependent mortality in RA. Second, we highlighted aspects of asymptomatic changes in cardiac tissue and in coronary blood vessels that are commonly found in patients with diagnosed RA. Third, we focused on high-grade systemic inflammation as a key trigger of ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart diseases in RA, and described the implication of conventional and biologic antirheumatic medications on the development and progression of heart disease. In particular, we discussed the roles of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and anti-TNF-α therapies on the development and progression of ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart diseases in RA.

7.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 62-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We wished to determine the effects of breathing exercises (BE) on endurance performance compared to those of different fitness training programmes. METHODS: Endurance was measured by the Cooper 12-minute Run Test and voluntary breath-holding time test before and after the training period. Altogether 69 healthy female college students were assigned into four groups. The first group (N.=15) participated in a breathing-exercise programme (BE). The 3 intensity training groups included constant-training (CT; N.=22), interval-training (IT; N.=17), and Fartlek-training groups (FT; (N.=15). All programmes were conducted for one hour twice a week for 7 weeks. RESULTS: The results of the Cooper test improved significantly in all four groups (P<0.01). The voluntary breath-holding time test showed significant increase in all groups but the CT group. In the BE group the rate of improvement was 9.23% (P=0.014). In the FT group the intensity was 75-85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), the rate of improvement was 15.2% (P=0.011). In the IT group, the percentage of increase was 9.94% (P=0.039). Finally, the CT resulted in an improvement 8.45% (P=0.063). CONCLUSIONS: Results derived from the present study suggest that BE may be an effective alternative to improve endurance performance in healthy female college students.

8.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(1): 167-175, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have been associated with generalized and localized bone loss. We conducted a comprehensive study using imaging (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA) and laboratory biomarkers in order to determine bone health and to study the effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologics in RA and AS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six RA and 17 AS patients undergoing 1-year etanercept (ETN) or certolizumab-pegol (CZP) therapy were studied. Bone density was assessed by DXA at baseline and after 12 months. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D3, osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-propeptide (P1NP), C-terminal telopeptide (ßCTX), osteoprotegerin, sclerostin (SOST), Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), soluble receptor activator nuclear kappa B ligand (sRANKL), and cathepsin K (cathK) levels were determined at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: TNF-α inhibition was clinically effective. Anti-TNF-α halted further bone loss over 1 year. In general, anti-TNF therapy significantly increased P1NP, SOST levels, and the P1NP/ßCTX ratios, while decreased DKK-1 and CathK production at different time points in most patient subsets. In the full cohort and in RA, baseline and/or 12-month bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple sites exerted inverse relationships with CRP and ßCTX, and positive correlation with SOST. In AS, L2-4 BMD after 1-year biologic therapy inversely correlated with baseline ßCTX, while femoral neck BMD rather showed inverse correlations with CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF therapy slowed down generalized bone loss, in association with clinical improvements, in both diseases. TNF blockade may enhance bone formation and suppress joint destruction. Anti-TNF therapy may act inversely on DKK-1 and SOST. Independent predictors of BMD were SOST and ßCTX in RA, whilst CRP in AS.Key Points• One-year anti-TNF therapy halted generalized bone loss in association with clinical improvement in arthritides.• Anti-TNF therapy may inversely act on DKK-1 and SOST.• Independent predictors of BMD were SOST and ßCTX in RA, while CRP in AS.

9.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(1): 102421, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733368

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that, if untreated, can lead to disability and reduce the life expectancy of affected patients. Over the last two decades the improvement of knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the development of the disease has profoundly changed the treatment strategies of RA through the development of biotechnological drugs (bDMARDs) directed towards specific pro-inflammatory targets involved in the RA network. To date, the therapeutic armamentarium for RA includes ten bDMARDs able to produce the depletion B-cells, the blockade of three different pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1), or the inhibition of T-cell co-stimulation. The introduction of these new compounds has dramatically improved outcomes in the short and long term, although still a significant proportion of patients are unable to reach or maintain the treatment target over time. The identification of the fundamental role of Janus kinases in the process of transduction of the inflammatory signal within the immune cells has recently provided the opportunity to use the new pharmacological class of small molecules for the therapy of RA, further increasing the number of treatment options. In this review the PROS and CONS of these two drug classes will be discussed, trying to provide the evidence currently available to make the right choice based on the analysis of the efficacy and safety profile of the different drugs on the market and close to marketing.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/química , Fatores Biológicos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Humanos
10.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(3): 427-436, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848735

RESUMO

Accelerated atherosclerosis, increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Vascular function, clinical and laboratory markers and the effects of anti-TNF therapy were assessed in arthritides. Fifty-three 53 patients including 36 RA patients treated with either etanercept (ETN) or certolizumab pegol and 17 AS patients treated with ETN were included in a 12-month follow-up study. Ultrasonography was performed to determine flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and arterial pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in all patients. All assessments were performed at baseline and 6 and 12 months after treatment initiation. A significant improvement of brachial artery FMD was observed after 6 months (p = 0.004). A tendency of FMD improvement was also observed after 12 months (p = 0.065). ccIMT did not change throughout the year. PWV significantly improved after 12 months (p = 0.034). Higher baseline ccIMT (p = 0.009) and PWV (p = 0.038) were associated with clinical non-response (cNR) versus response (cR) to biologics. Multiple analysis confirmed the association of baseline ccIMT with age (p = 0.003) and cNR (p = 0.009), as well as that of baseline PWV with age at diagnosis (p = 0.022) and current chest pain (p = 0.004). Treatment itself determined the 12-month changes in FMD (p = 0.020) and PWV (p = 0.007). In a mixed cohort of RA and AS patients, TNF inhibition improved or stabilized vascular pathophysiology. Inflammation may be associated with FMD, while, among others, cNR may influence vascular function.

11.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(3): 415-424, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858209

RESUMO

Increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality have been found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors may improve vascular function. In the first part of this study, we determined microcirculation during postoocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) representing endothelial function. In a nonselected population (n = 46) we measured flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and laser Doppler flow (LDF) by ultrasound. Among LDF parameters, we determined TH1 (time to half before hyperemia), TH2 (time to half after hyperemia), Tmax (time to maximum) and total hyperemic area (AH). We measured von Willebrand antigen (vWF:Ag) by ELISA. In the second part of the study, we assessed the effects of adalimumab treatment on microcirculatory parameters in 8 early RA patients at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. We found significant positive correlations between FMD and LDF Tmax (R = 0.456, p = 0.002), FMD and TH2 (R = 0.435, p = 0.004), and negative correlation between vWF:Ag and Tmax (R = - 0.4, p = 0.009) and between vWF:Ag and TH2 (R = - 0.446, p = 0.003). Upon adalimumab therapy in early RA, TH2 times improved in comparison to baseline (TH2baseline = 26.9 s vs. TH24weeks = 34.7 s, p = 0,032), and this effect prolonged until the end of treatment (TH28weeks = 40.5, p = 0.026; TH212weeks = 32.1, p = 0.013). After 8 weeks of treatment, significant improvement was found in AHa (AHbaseline = 1599 Perfusion Units [PU] vs. AH8weeks = 2724 PU, p = 0.045). The PORH test carried out with LDF is a sensitive option to measure endothelial dysfunction. TH1 and TH2 may be acceptable and reproducible markers. In our pilot study, treatment with adalimumab exerted favorable effects on disease activity, endothelial dysfunction and microcirculation in early RA patients.

12.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 274, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We wished to determine bone alterations in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients by conventional densitometry (DXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and bone biomarkers. METHODS: We included 44 SSc patients and 33 age-matched healthy controls. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by DXA. Volumetric BMD was measured by pQCT at the radius. FRAX, 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25-OH-D3), parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, C-terminal collagen telopeptide, and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide were also assessed. RESULTS: SSc patients had lower L2-4 BMD (0.880 ± 0.108 vs. 0.996 ± 0.181 g/cm2; p = 0.019) and femoral neck (FN) BMD (0.786 ± 0.134 vs. 0.910 ± 0.090 g/cm2; p = 0.007) by DXA. In SSc vs. controls, pQCT indicated lower mean cortical (328.03 ± 103.32 vs. 487.06 ± 42.45 mg/cm3; p < 0.001) and trabecular density (150.93 ± 61.91 vs. 184.76 ± 33.03 mg/cm3; p = 0.037). Vitamin D3 deficiency was more common in SSc vs. controls (60.0% vs. 39.3%; p = 0.003). L2-4 (p = 0.002) and FN BMD (p = 0.015) positively correlated with BMI. pQCT assessments confirmed an inverse correlation between pulmonary manifestation and total (p = 0.024), trabecular (p = 0.035), and cortical density (p = 0.015). Anti-Scl70 positivity inversely correlated with pQCT total density (p = 0.015) and the presence of digital ulcers with cortical density (p = 0.001). We also found that vertebral and FN BMD as determined by DXA significantly correlated with pQCT total, trabecular, and cortical density (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that bone loss in SSc patients may be associated with lower BMI, anti-Scl70 positivity, and the presence of pulmonary manifestations and digital ulcers. Both DXA and pQCT are appropriate tools to evaluate the bone alterations in SSc patients.

13.
RMD Open ; 5(2): e001014, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565245

RESUMO

Background: Mobile health applications (apps) are available to enable people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) to better self-manage their health. However, guidance on the development and evaluation of such apps is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this EULAR task force was to establish points to consider (PtC) for the development, evaluation and implementation of apps for self-management of RMDs. Methods: A systematic literature review of app content and development strategies was conducted, followed by patient focus group and an online survey. Based on this information and along with task force expert opinion, PtC were formulated in a face-to-face meeting by a multidisciplinary task force panel of experts, including two patient research partners. The level of agreement among the panel in regard to each PtC was established by anonymous online voting. Results: Three overarching principles and 10 PtC were formulated. Three PtC are related to patient safety, considered as a critical issue by the panel. Three are related to relevance of the content and functionalities. The requirement for transparency around app development and funding sources, along with involvement of relevant health professionals, were also raised. Ease of app access across ages and abilities was highlighted, in addition to considering the cost benefit of apps from the outset. The level of agreement was from 8.8 to 9.9 out of 10. Conclusion: These EULAR PtC provide guidance on important aspects that should be considered for the development, evaluation and implementation of existing and new apps.

14.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577461

RESUMO

Objectives: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, chronic connective tissue disease involving multiple organ systems, including the eye. We evaluated the detailed clinical ocular manifestations of outpatients with SSc. Methods: Demographics, disease duration and subtype, nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) patterns and laboratory parameters encompassing the autoantibody profile of 51 SSc patients were evaluated, and a general ocular examination was performed for each participant. Results: Twenty-nine patients (56.86%) had eyelid skin alterations, 26 (50.98%) had retinal abnormalities, 26 (50.98%) had cataracts, 8 (15.69%) had conjunctival changes, 7 (13.73%) had iris abnormalities, 33 (64.71%) suffered from dry eye disease (DED), and 11 (21.57%) suffered from glaucoma. Significant positive correlations were found between NFC data and both tear breakup time and Ocular Surface Disease Index test values. Conclusions: Eyelid skin abnormalities, DED and retinal abnormalities are among the most common SSc-related ocular involvements. Diverse ophthalmic findings are attributed to the heterogeneity of SSc.

15.
Orv Hetil ; 160(44): 1727-1734, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657254

RESUMO

Authors discuss the musculoskeletal aspects of obesity by applying a novel approach. Biochemical changes associated with obesity and especially metabolic syndrome, may have a great impact on the function of bones, joints and muscles. Therefore we need a new view and new strategies in rheumatic diseases. Obesity-associated metabolic changes should be considered during the progress of as well as the selection of treatment in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Individualised treatment is necessary due to associated comorbidities as well. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(44): 1727-1734.


Assuntos
Artropatias/etiologia , Artropatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Artrite , Humanos , Artropatias/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/etiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/metabolismo , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia
16.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(12): 102404, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639517

RESUMO

Biological drugs have revolutionised the treatment of rheumatic diseases, and the recent expiry of the patents for many biological agents has generated considerable interest among pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies, and led to the marketing of highly similar, low-cost versions known as biosimilars. The increasing trend of switching patients from effective but expensive drugs to their biosimilar counterparts will have a considerable economic impact in the coming years. However, although this will greatly extend patient access the latest treatments, clinicians, scientific societies and the patients themselves have expressed a number of concerns about their long-term efficacy and safety, as well as the consequences of potentially multiple switches being dictated by economic pressure rather than medical needs. Thee aim of this review is to evaluate the pros and cons of choosing biosimilars, and whether and when they can really be considered clinically equivalent to the original drugs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos
17.
Rheumatol Int ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555886

RESUMO

We assessed cognitive function of female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and analyze the determinants, with special focus on cerebrovascular morphology. Sixty methotrexate (MTX-) or biologic-treated RA patients and 39 healthy controls were included in a cross-sectional study. Smoking habits, alcohol intake and time spent in education were recorded. Standard measures were performed to assess cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MOCA; Trail Making Test, TMT; Victoria Stroop Test, VST; Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, WAIS; Benton Visual Retention test, BVRT), depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAIT/S) and general health status (Short Form 36, SF-36). Mean disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score, mDAS28; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mESR; C-reactive protein, mCRP) of the past 12 months was calculated; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were assessed. Cerebral vascular lesions and atrophy, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaques, as well as median cerebral artery (MCA) circulatory reserve capacity (CRC) were assessed by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), carotid ultrasound and transcranial Doppler, respectively. Cognitive function tests showed impairment in RA vs controls. Biologic- vs MTX-treated subgroups differed in TMT-A. Correlations were identified between cognitive function and depression/anxiety tests. WAIS, STAIS, STAIT and BDI correlated with most SF-36 domains. Numerous cognitive tests correlated with age and lower education. Some also correlated with disease duration, mESR and mDAS28. Regarding vascular pathophysiology, cerebral vascular lesions were associated with VST-A, carotid plaques with multiple cognitive parameters, while MCA and CRC with MOCA, BVRT and BDI. RA patients have significant cognitive impairment. Cognitive dysfunction may occur together with or independently of depression/anxiety. Older patients and those with lower education are at higher risk to develop cognitive impairment. Cognitive screening might be a useful tool to identify subgroups to be further investigated for cerebrovascular pathologies.

19.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(5): 537-549, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340686

RESUMO

Introduction: Early biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may reverse the autoimmune response in some patients resulting in favorable long-term outcomes. Although the cost-effectiveness of this strategy has been questioned, biosimilar entries warrant the revision of clinical and pharmaco-economic evidence. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to 24 May 2018 in Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL, comparing infliximab with non-biological therapy in patients with RA naïve to methotrexate. We performed meta-analyses for efficacy outcomes at month 6 and years 1 and 2. Six RCTs were identified, involving 1832 patients. At month 6 ACR70 response and remission, and at year 1 ACR20/ACR70 responses and remission were improved significantly with first-line infliximab versus control. The differences were not significant at year 2. We reviewed cost-utility studies, up to 31 October 2018 in PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and the CRD HTA databases. Four studies indicated that first-line use of originator infliximab calculated at 2005-2008 prices was not cost-effective. Expert opinion: We demonstrated the efficacy benefits of first-line infliximab therapy up to 1 year in methotrexate-naïve RA. We highlighted the need for standardized reporting of outcomes and conducting cost-effectiveness analyses of first-line biosimilar therapy in RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Farmacoeconomia , Humanos , Infliximab/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Orv Hetil ; 160(23): 887-895, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155880

RESUMO

Oncotherapy has been revolutionised by the introduction of immune-checkpoint inhibitors including CTLA4, PD1 and PDL1 inhibitors. Patients with malignant diseases may largely benefit from these therapies, which may result in long-term remission even in the most therapy-resistant tumour types. Differences in the mode of action of the various agents may result in varying side-effect profiles. In addition to organ-specific side-effects, overt autoimmune syndromes may also develop. Our current view of oncotherapy has changed as these mostly immune-mediated side-effects highly differ from those observed previously during the administration of traditional anti-tumour compounds. These side-effects should be carefully characterized and differentiated from infections or the progression of the underlying malignancy. Fortunately, several recent recommendations have become available on the management of immune-mediated adverse events due to checkpoint-inhibitor therapy. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(23): 887-895.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Oncologia , Neoplasias/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA