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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 325, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should be determined early. Rapid radiological progression (RRP) is > or = 5 units increase according to the van der Heijde-Sharp score within a year. The risk of RRP can be estimated by a matrix model using non-radiographic indicators, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and swollen joint count (SJC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A non-interventional, cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted in eleven Hungarian arthritis centres. We assessed RRP risk in biologic-naïve RA patients with the prevalence of high RRP risk as primary endpoint. RRP was calculated according to this matrix model. As a secondary endpoint, we compared RRP in methotrexate (MTX) responders vs non-responders. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 1356 patients. Mean CRP was 17.7 mg/l, RF was 139.3 IU/ml, mean 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) was 5.00 and mean SJC was 6.56. Altogether 18.2% of patients had high risk (≥40%) of RRP. RA patients with high RRP risk of RRP (n = 247) had significantly lower age compared to those with RRP < 40% (n = 1109). MTX non-response (OR: 16.84), male gender (OR: 1.67), erosions at baseline (OR: 1.50) and ACPA seropositivity (OR: 2.18) were independent predictors of high-risk RRP. Male gender (OR: 5.20), ACPA seropositivity (OR: 4.67) and erosions (OR: 7.98) were independent predictors of high RRP risk in MTX responders. CONCLUSIONS: In this Hungarian study, high RRP risk occurred in 18% of RA patients. These patients differ from others in various parameters. RRP was associated with non-response to MTX.

2.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(5): 270-290, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833437

RESUMO

The risk of cardiovascular disease is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the general population owing to the influence of traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Inflammation has a pivotal contribution and can accelerate the atherosclerotic process. Although dampening inflammation with DMARDs should theoretically abrogate this process, evidence suggests that these drugs can also promote atherosclerosis directly and indirectly, hence adding to an increased cardiovascular burden. However, the extent and direction of the effects largely differ across drugs. Understanding how these drugs influence endothelial damage and vascular repair mechanisms is key to understanding these outcomes. NSAIDs and glucocorticoids can increase the cardiovascular risk. Conversely, conventional, biologic and targeted DMARDs control inflammation and reduce this risk, although some of these drugs can also aggravate traditional factors or thrombotic events. Given these data, the fundamental objective for clinicians should be disease control, in an individualized approach that considers the most appropriate drug for each patient, taking into account joint and cardiovascular outcomes. This Review provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of DMARDs and other approved drugs on cardiovascular involvement in rheumatoid arthritis, from a clinical and mechanistic perspective, with a roadmap to inform the research agenda.

4.
Orv Hetil ; 162(17): 643-651, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838023

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Az új típusú koronavírus-fertozés (COVID-19) nagy terhet ró az egészségügyi ellátórendszerre és a társadalomra. A betegségnek három nagy szakasza van, melyek alapvetoen meghatározzák a kezelést. Az I-IIA fázisban az antivirális, míg a IIB-III. fázisban a gyulladásgátló kezelés áll elotérben, melyhez intenzív terápiás, szupportív kezelés csatlakozik. A jelen ajánlás kizárólag a gyógyszeres kezelésre vonatkozik, és a rendelkezésre álló bizonyítékok alapján foglalja össze a terápiás lehetoségeket. Emellett egy javasolt kezelési algoritmust is tartalmaz. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 643-651. Summary. The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) places a heavy burden on the health care system and our society. There are three major stages in the disease that fundamentally determine treatment approaches. Phases I-IIA require primarily antiviral treatment. In phases IIB-III, anti-inflammatory treatment is needed accompanied by intensive and supportive care. This recommendation applies only to pharmacotherapy and summarizes the therapeutic options based on the available evidence. It also includes a proposed treatment algorithm. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 643-651.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antivirais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Humanos
5.
Orv Hetil ; 162(17): 652-667, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838024

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. A SARS-CoV-2-fertozés ritka gyermekkori szövodménye a sokszervi gyulladás, angol terminológiával paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). Két vagy több szerv érintettségével járó, súlyos tünetekkel induló betegségrol van szó, amelynek tünetei átfedést mutatnak a Kawasaki-betegséggel, a toxikus sokk szindrómával és a makrofágaktivációs szindrómával. A PIMS-betegek intenzív terápiás osztályon vagy intenzív terápiás háttérrel rendelkezo intézményben kezelendok, ahol biztosítottak a kardiológiai ellátás feltételei is. A szükséges immunterápia a klinikai prezentációtól függ. A jelen közleményben a szerzok a releváns nemzetközi irodalom áttekintését követoen ajánlást tesznek a PIMS diagnosztikai és terápiás algoritmusára. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 652-667. Summary. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is a rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. PIMS is a severe condition, involving two or more organ systems. The symptoms overlap with Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome and macrophage activation syndrome. PIMS patients should be treated in an intensive care unit or in an institution with an intensive care background, where cardiological care is also provided. The required specific immunotherapy depends on the clinical presentation. In this paper, after reviewing the relevant international literature, the authors make a recommendation for the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for PIMS. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 652-667.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Algoritmos , /diagnóstico , /virologia , Criança , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/virologia
6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 70, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal manifestations are predominant in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The aim of this cross-sectional, case-control study is the complex assessment of areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD), fracture risk, vitamin D status and bone turnover markers, and its association with disease-related variables. METHODS: Lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck (FN) areal, and distal radius (DR) volumetric BMD, 10-year probability of major and hip osteoporotic fracture as assessed by the fracture risk assessment (FRAX) tool, markers of bone metabolism and disease activity were assessed. RESULTS: Upon comparison of the disease and age- and sex-matched control groups, there was a statistically significant difference in FN areal (0.952 (0.607-1.292) g/cm2 vs. 1.016 (0.760-1.550) g/cm2; p = 0.001) and DR total volumetric (284.3 (138.9-470.3) mg/cm3 vs. 367.0 (287.0-412.0) mg/cm3; p < 0.001) BMD, 10 year probability for major osteoporotic (3.7% (0.7-32%) vs. 2.6% (0-17.5%); p = 0.003) and hip (0.4% (0-16%) vs. 0.05% (0-6.1%); p = 0.002) fracture and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (47.5 (10-120) nmol/L vs. 64 (10-137; p < 0.001) nmol/L). As compared to areal assessment, volumetric BMD measurements identified a significantly higher number of patients with low bone mineral density (T-Score ≤ - 1.00) (34% vs. 88%, p < 0.001). Upon multiple linear regression analysis, disease activity score, as determined by DAS28 assessment, was an independent predictor of 10-year probability for major osteoporotic fracture (B (95%CI) = 1.351 (0.379-2.323); p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: In the studied PsA cohort, disease activity was an independent predictor of 10-year probability for a major osteoporotic fracture, and complemented assessment of volumetric and areal BMD assured better efficacy at identifying those with low bone mineral density.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mortality and disability in diabetes mellitus are determined mostly by cardiovascular complications and cancer. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) monotherapy or combination on long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus was studied. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with DPP-4i or SGLT2i during a 3-year period were identified in the database of the National Institute of Health Insurance Fund in Hungary. All-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), lower limb amputation (LLA) and cancer were assessed. Outcomes of add-on SGLT2i to DPP-4i treatment in comparison with switching DPP-4i therapy to SGLT2i were also evaluated. After propensity score matching, survival analysis was performed with a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, both SGLT2i and DPP-4i groups included 18 583 patients. All-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.94; p=0.0057), HHF (HR, 0.81; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92; p=0.0018), and risk of cancer (HR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86; p<0.0001) were lower in the SGLT2i population compared with DPP-4i. Risk of LLA was higher in the SGLT2i group (HR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.77; p=0.0315). SGLT2i in combination with DPP-4i results in lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.67; p=0.0001), with a lower trend in stroke, LLA, HHF and cancer, but without any statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2i treatment leads to a lower risk of overall mortality, HHF and cancer when compared with DPP-4i treatment. Adding SGLT2i to DPP-4i instead of switching from DPP-4i to SGLT2i further lowers the risk of all-cause mortality.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. The treatment of arthritis by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors may decrease the serum concentrations of vascular biomarkers. We determined circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)/ß2 glycoprotein I (ß2-GPI) complexes, antibodies to 60 kDa heat shock protein (anti-Hsp60), soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) fragment in sera of RA and AS patients undergoing anti-TNF treatment. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with RA/AS were treated with etanercept or certolizumab pegol for 1 year. Circulating oxLDL/ß2-GPI complex (AtherOx), anti-Hsp60 IgG, and BNP8-29 fragment levels were assessed by ELISA. suPAR levels were determined by suPARnostic Quick Triage test. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were determined by ultrasound. RESULTS: One-year anti-TNF treatment significantly decreased oxLDL/ß2-GPI levels, as well as suPAR levels in patients with critically high suPAR levels at baseline. In RA, BNP levels were higher in seropositive vs seronegative patients. Serum levels of these vascular biomarkers variably correlated with lipids, anticitrullinated protein antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and C-reactive protein. CIMT positively correlated with BNP, and PWV with suPAR and anti-Hsp60, whereas FMD inversely associated with anti-Hsp60. In repeated measures ANOVA analysis, disease activity supported the effects of anti-TNF treatment on 12-month changes in oxLDL/ß2-GPI. CIMT supported the effects of therapy on changes in anti-Hsp60 and suPAR. CONCLUSION: These biomarkers may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis underlying RA/AS. TNF inhibition variably affects the serum levels of oxLDL/ß2-GPI, suPAR, and BNP.

9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(6): 1056-1067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite availability of efficacious treatments, unmet needs still exist, preventing optimal and comprehensive management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Evolving the management of RA (eRA) is a European-wide educational initiative aiming to support improved patient care through practical and educational tools addressing specific unmet needs. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Steering Committee (17 members, 12 countries) identified unmet needs within the management of RA and prioritised those with the greatest impact on patient outcomes. Practical educational tools addressing priority needs were then developed for dissemination and implementation by the rheumatology community across Europe. RESULTS: Five areas of priority need were identified: increasing early recognition of RA and treatment initiation; treating RA to target; optimal, holistic approach to selection of treatment strategy, including shared decision-making; improving identification and management of comorbidities; and non-pharmacological patient management. A suite of 14 eRA tools included educational slides, best-practice guidance, self­assessment questionnaires, clinical checklists, a multidisciplinary team training exercise, an interactive patient infographic, and case scenarios. By April 2020, rheumatology professionals in 17 countries had been actively engaged in the eRA programme; in 11 countries, eRA tools were selected by national leaders in rheumatology and translated for local dissemination. A web platform, with country-specific pages, was developed to support access to the translated tools (https://www.evolvingthemanagementofra.com/). CONCLUSIONS: The eRA programme supports comprehensive management of RA across Europe through development and dissemination of practical educational tools. The eRA tools address priority needs and are available free of charge to the rheumatology community.

11.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 117-124, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) is of diagnostic importance in vasculitides and some other inflammatory diseases. Automation of IFA may be beneficial in high-throughput clinical laboratories. An analytical appraisal of the EUROPattern (EPa) automated microscope and image analysis system has not been reported in a routine clinical laboratory setting testing samples from both vasculitis and non-vasculitis patients. METHODS: Results of EPa and on-screen ANCA pattern recognition of 568 consecutive routine serum samples were compared to those of conventional visual evaluation. RESULTS: Agreement of discrimination between negative and non-negative samples was 86.1% comparing EPa and conventional reading, and it increased to 96.7% after on-screen user validation. Importantly, from the 334 samples classified as negative by EPa 328 (98.2%) were also negative by conventional evaluation. Pattern recognition showed 'moderate' agreement between classical microscopic and EPa analysis (κ = 0.446) and 'very good' agreement after user validation (κ = 0.900). Misclassification by EPa was dominantly due to the presence of anti-nuclear/cytoplasmic antibodies (incorrect pattern, 80/568) and the lower fluorescence cut-off of the automated microscope (false positives, 73/568). CONCLUSIONS: Automated ANCA testing by EPa is a reliable alternative of classical microscopic evaluation, though classification of sera needs correction by trained personnel during on-screen validation.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite treatment according to the current management recommendations, a significant proportion of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain symptomatic. These patients can be considered to have 'difficult-to-treat RA'. However, uniform terminology and an appropriate definition are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The Task Force in charge of the "Development of EULAR recommendations for the comprehensive management of difficult-to-treat rheumatoid arthritis" aims to create recommendations for this underserved patient group. Herein, we present the definition of difficult-to-treat RA, as the first step. METHODS: The Steering Committee drafted a definition with suggested terminology based on an international survey among rheumatologists. This was discussed and amended by the Task Force, including rheumatologists, nurses, health professionals and patients, at a face-to-face meeting until sufficient agreement was reached (assessed through voting). RESULTS: The following three criteria were agreed by all Task Force members as mandatory elements of the definition of difficult-to-treat RA: (1) Treatment according to European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendation and failure of ≥2 biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)/targeted synthetic DMARDs (with different mechanisms of action) after failing conventional synthetic DMARD therapy (unless contraindicated); (2) presence of at least one of the following: at least moderate disease activity; signs and/or symptoms suggestive of active disease; inability to taper glucocorticoid treatment; rapid radiographic progression; RA symptoms that are causing a reduction in quality of life; and (3) the management of signs and/or symptoms is perceived as problematic by the rheumatologist and/or the patient. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed EULAR definition for difficult-to-treat RA can be used in clinical practice, clinical trials and can form a basis for future research.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123205

RESUMO

Background: In the randomized, phase III, global SELECT-COMPARE study, upadacitinib 15 mg demonstrated efficacy at week 12 versus placebo and adalimumab with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response to MTX, which was maintained over 48 weeks. This post hoc analysis of SELECT-COMPARE reports the efficacy and safety of upadacitinib in Central and Eastern European (CEE) patients. Methods: Patients were randomized 2:2:1 to upadacitinib 15 mg once daily, placebo, or adalimumab 40 mg every other week, and continued MTX. Efficacy and safety were assessed through 48 weeks. Primary endpoints were the achievement of ≥20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology response criteria and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with C-reactive protein <2.6 responses at week 12 for upadacitinib versus placebo. No statistical comparisons were conducted. Results: A total of 596 patients from 12 CEE countries were randomized. At week 12, a numerically greater proportion of patients receiving upadacitinib versus placebo or adalimumab achieved ≥20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology response criteria (72% versus 33% and 59%), Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with C-reactive protein <2.6 (26% versus 4% and 11%), low disease activity and remission, and improved physical function, with results maintained over 48 weeks. Upadacitinib treatment numerically inhibited structural progression versus placebo at week 26. Serious infection and herpes zoster rates were numerically higher with upadacitinib versus adalimumab (2.7 versus 1.7 and 2.3 versus 1.1 events/100 patient-years, respectively) over 48 weeks. Conclusion: Consistent with the global population of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to MTX, in CEE patients, upadacitinib 15 mg demonstrated clinical and functional improvements versus placebo and adalimumab, radiographic improvements versus placebo, and reasonable safety, over 48 weeks.

14.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(11): 102658, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942035

RESUMO

ONCORHEUMATOLOGY: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MALIGNANCIES AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES: Oncorheumatology is the meeting point of tumor formation and rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). Multiple interactions exist between these two medical specialties. One major field is the topic of malignancies associated with rheumatic diseases, while the other topic covers the development of musculoskeletal disease in cancer patients. Within the first group, secondary malignancies may be associated with rheumatic diseases. Mostly sustained inflammation is responsible for transition into cancer. Tumor-associated antigens (TAA) with adhesive properties are present on tumor cells. These molecules may also be expressed by inflammatory leukocytes and soluble TAA levels may be elevated in RMDs. There has been continuous debate with respect to the possible carcinogenicity of conventional and targeted antirheumatic drugs. Very recent data from registries suggest that neither biologics, nor JAK inhibitors increase cancer risk in arthritis patients. The issue of physiotherapy in rheumatic patients with recent or current cancer has also been controversial. Some modalities, primarily exercise, may be safely applied to patients with RMD and cancer. The second large topic includes paraneoplastic syndromes. Musculoskeletal paraneoplasias are triggered by tumor-derived mediators. These syndromes are sometimes slightly different from the classical RMDs. Various chemotherapies may also be associated with autoimmune side effects. Recently, these immune-related complications have also been observed in cancer patients treated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Sex hormone-deprivation therapies, such as aromatase inhibitors and anti-androgens are widely used for the treatment of breast and prostate cancer, respectively. These compounds may induce bone loss and lead to osteoporosis. Finally, primary and secondary malignancies of the musculoskeletal system may also interest rheumatologists. In this review, the clinical, practical aspects of these eight pillars of oncorheumatology will be discussed.

15.
Orv Hetil ; 161(28): 1151-1165, 2020 07.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609623

RESUMO

Oncorheumatology is the meeting point of tumour formation and rheumatic diseases. Multiple interactions exist between these two medical specialties. One major field is the topic of malignancies associated with rheumatic diseases, while the other topic covers the development of musculoskeletal disease in cancer patients. In the first group, secondary malignancies associated with rheumatic diseases, role of tumour-associated antigens in rheumatology, the possible carcinogenicity of conventional and targeted antirheumatic drugs and physical therapy of rheumatic patients with recent or current cancer will be discussed. The second large topic includes paraneoplastic syndromes, autoimmune-rheumatic side effects of oncotherapies (chemotherapy and immunotherapy), effects of hormone-deprivation therapies on bone and primary and secondary malignancies of the musculoskeletal system. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(28): 1151-1165.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/patologia
17.
Reumatologia ; 58(1): 1-3, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322116
18.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 78, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293528

RESUMO

For people with chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRD), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or systemic sclerosis (SSc), normal cognitive functions are essential for performing daily activities. These diseases may be associated with cognitive dysfunction (CD). In RA, CD has been associated with age, lower education and disease duration and activity. Great advances have been achieved in neuropsychiatric SLE in the identification of pathogenic pathways, assessment and possible treatment strategies. SSc rarely exerts direct effects on the brain and cognitive function. However, the psychological burden that includes depression, anxiety and social impact may be high. AIRD patients with sustained disease activity, organ damage or lower education should be evaluated for CD. The control of systemic inflammation together with tailored behavioural cognitive therapies may benefit these patients.

19.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(6): 923, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248279

RESUMO

In the original article, the first author's given name and family name were interchanged as provided by the authors in the original manuscript.

20.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(6): 915-921, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180009

RESUMO

Cervical spine involvement may lead to severe complications in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the era of modern therapies, atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) may be rare; however, it may still be detected in asymptomatic patients. The onset of myelopathy can occur at any time. Altogether 49 female RA patients were included. Among them, 15 were methotrexate treated, biologic free, while 34 patients received biologics. The patients had no cervical pain or any neurological symptoms. We assessed the first (C1) and second (C2) cervical vertebrae by 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to AAS, we also determined odontoid erosion or periodontal soft tissue thickening. We associated our MRI findings with clinical, laboratory parameters, and hand radiography. We detected anterior AAS and soft tissue thickening in one-quarter, while odontoid erosions in eight (16%) of RA patients. There were no significant differences among the therapeutic subgroups. No posterior or vertical AAS was seen. Anterior AAS was associated with higher degree of inflammation, soft tissue thickening was seen at younger age, while odontoid erosions were associated with van der Heijde-Sharp scores of the hand. None of the patients had any lesions requiring surgery. The presence of cervical involvement in RA patients with 10-11 years of disease duration is still an important and frequent phenomenon. Higher disease activity and erosive disease are associated with atlantoaxial involvement. 3 T MRI is a sensitive method to assess AAS, as well as soft tissue lesions and odontoid erosions.

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